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THE ^ 



Review of Reviews. 



AN INTERNATIONAL MAGAZINE. 



EDITED BY ALBERT SHAW. 



VOLUME XV. JANUARY-JUNE, 1897. 



THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS 
New York: 13 Astor Place. 




T\ :t^^xtL> 



CorVRIGHTED BY ThE REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 



^** 89"^^2 S3 005 



XL ^^f 3302 



INDEX TO THE FIFTEENTH VOLUME OF 

THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 

JANUARY-JUNE, 1897. 



Abtssix lA : Exit of Italy from Abyssinia, 5. 
Administratioii at Washington, The New, 418. 
Africa : 

BaTBges of the Rinderpest, 5. 

Engboid^B Advance in the Soudan, 6. 

The Niffer Company's Expedition, 21, 374. 

fiagland's Achievements m Rhodesia, 21. 

Sonth Africa's Millionaire Imperialist, 147. 

Hr. Rhodes as Phrasemaker, 147. 

The Uncrowned Monarch of the Niger, 148. 

The Position of Mr. Rhodes, 202. 

The Benin Incident, 278. 

Rw gii^TMl in Africa, 401. 

The Chartered Company in Sonth Africa, 456. 

Can Gennany Save the Transvaal ? 655. 

British Policy and the Transvaal, 655. 

Sdence t». Uie Rinderpest, 660. 
Air, T5ie Use of Compressed, 220. 
Alcoholic Influence, Dogs Under, 788. 
American HidoriccU Review reviewed, 286, 746. 
Americcan Journal of Sociology reviewed, 236. 
Anglo-American Citizenship, A Plea for, 598. 
Annals, Altruism of, 346. 

AkmUs of the American Academy reviewed, 236. 
Antarctic Continent, Is There An, 224. 
Amintments to Oovemment OiBces, 518. 
^^ Artitrataon : 

r The Anklo-American Arbitration Treaty, 75, 181, 259, 
851, 3^ 652. 

King Oscar of Sweden as Arbitrator, 260. 

Effect of Imperial Policies Upon the Treaty. 658. 

How Ireland H^ps to Defeat the Treaty, 658 

The Venezuela li-eaty Signed, 260. 
Arena reviewed, 105, 235, 8®, 485, 616, 744. 
Ar m fT )?*^ : 

An Eye- Witness of the Massacres, 71. 

An Armenian Jail Delivery, 147. 

'Die Armenian Question, 197. 

The Armenian Qiurch, 455. 
Astronomical Progress of the Century, 884. 
Atlantic Monthly reviewed, 103, 288, 362. 485, 616, 741. 
Australia : The Rabbit Plague, 660. 
Australasia : Ck>vemment and Banking in Australasia, 

195. 

Bactkria and Butter, 228. 
Bankers' Magazine reviewed, 286. 

PHTiVing : 

Government and Banking in Australasia, 195. 

The Working of a Bank, 597. 
Bankruptcy : 

Senator Nelson^s Bankruptcy Bill, 392. 

A Bankruptcy Law Needed, 521. 
Barnard^ Henry, the Public School Pioneer, 210. 
Baths, Municipal, for America, 267. 
Belgium : An American in Belgium, 462. 
Ben Bolt and Its Author 218. 
Bible, The Making of the, 206. 
Bicyde in a Knapsack, The, 221. 
Bimetallism in fiurope, 341. 
Bismarck, Prince : 

Mr. Stead's Estimate of Bismarck, 56. 

The Latest Bismarck Revelations, 74. 
Black, Governor Frank S. : Governor Black's Beginning, 

143. 
Bladcwood'9 Magazine reviewed, 622. 
IMbnan reviewed, 102, 614, 748. v^ 



Bossism V8, Statesmanship in New York, 16. 
Boston's Reforms, 267. 
Boston : Municipal Matters in Boston, 528. 
Books, The New : 

Nansen's " Farthest North" 494. 

Armenia's Desolation and Woe, 626. 

The Autobiography of Dr. Richardson, 627. 

The Season's Output of Fiction, 762. 

Recent American Publications, 118, 244, 872, 496, 628, 
755. 
Brahms and the Classical Tradition, 788. 
British Colonies, Politics in the, 531. 
British Empire, A French View of the, 241. 
Brookes, £)r. W. P.: A Typical Englishman ; portrait, 

Brown, John : Who Informed on the John Brown Raid ? 

887. 
Browning, Robert : 

Browning and the Larger Public, 184. 

The Si^ificance of Browning's Message, 185. 

Browmng as a Poet of the Plain People, 191. 

Some Stories About Browning, 853. 
Brunetidre's Visit to America. 694. 
Buildings, Foundations for Tall, 597. 
Butter, Bacteria and, 223. 

Cabinet Building, 146, 262. — 

California's Wheat Export, Decline of, 596. 
Calv^'s Home and Friends, 214. 
Campaign Funds, Corporations and, 189. 
Canada : 

Canada and Venezuela, 76. 

Affairs in Canada, 401. 

Canada's Jubilee Tariff, 659. 
Caricature, Current History in, 29, 155, 288, 408, 588, 668. 
Caricature, The Turkish Question int538. 
Cartoon and Portrait Bill, The New^ork, 524. 
Census of 1900, 18. 
Census Bureau, A Permanent, 217. 
Century Magazine reviewed, 100, 229, 359. 482, 612, 740. 
Chamberlain, Hon. Joseph, Popularity of, 58. 
Character Sketches : 

Hermann H. Eohlsaat, 41. 

Francis A. Walker, 159. 

Rudyard KipUng 173. 

L3rman J. G^e. 289. 

Gabriel Hanotaux, 545. 

Clark Howell, 558. 
- Herbert Myrick, 678. 
Charities, An Indictment of Org^anized, 848. 
Charities Review reviewed, 746. 
Chautauquan reviewed, 282, 744. 
Chicago's City Government, 589. 
China: 

Effect of the Russo-Chinese Treaty, 460. 

What Shall Be Done in China ? 462. ^ 

Christianity, Practical, 97. 
Christ's Birth, The Date of, 98. 
Churches : 

Progress of the Churches, 206. 

Progress of the Institutional Church, 207. 

Thf) Armenian Church. 455. 
Cities, Development of American, 478. 
Citizenship, A Plea for Anglo-American, 593. 
Civil Service Law in New York, 624, 650. 
(Tovt^land, Grover : ^^^ 

< 'nrl Schurz on Grover Cleveland, 5S9. ^^H 



IV 



INDEX TO yOLUME XK 



Cleveland as President, 827. 
Colleges : Elements in the Choice of a College, 446. 
Color, The Popular ^Esthetics of, 215. 
Congress : 
•— ^ The Extra Session and the Tariff, 889. 

The Balance of Parties in the Senate, 991. 

When Congress Should Convene, 468. 

Has the Senate De^nerated ? 587, 796. 
Congressional Reporting, 469. 
Contemporary Review reviewed, 105, 238, 868, 487, 619, 

746. 
Contents of reviews and magazines, 120, 248, 376, 504, 682, 

760. 
Contracts and Municipal Corruption, 591. 
Conventions of the year 1897, 549. 
Comhill Magazine reviewed, 110, 240, 491, 749. 
Coronations, The English, 714. 
Corporations : 

Corporations and Campaign Funds, 189. 

Why Not Pull PubUcity ? 140. 

Corporations and the Politics of New York, 140. 

Corporations and Money in Politics, 648. 
Cosmopolitan Magazine reviewed, 101, 281, 360, 484, 613, 

741. 
Cosmopolis reviewed. 111, 248, 368, 613, 622, 750. 
Cotton Culture, The Possibilities of, 475. 
Crime : 

The Criminal " in the Open," 349. 

Young French Criminals, 351. 
Cnticism : The Higher Critics Criticised* 602. 
Cuba: 

The Death of Maceo, 10. 

Mr. Cleveland on the Rebellion, 10. 

Canovas to America, 11. 

The Cameron Resolution. 11. 

The Cuban Outlook, 12, 528. 

The Cuban Question at Washington, 69, 184, 402. 

The Cuban Question in Cuba, 1»$ 

American Friends of Cuba, 137. 

The United States and Cuba, 197, 591. 

Spain's Reform Pro^n*Amme for Cuba, 259. 

The C uban Revolutionary Government, 929. 
■' ■ ITie Real Condition of C*uba To-day, 562. 

Steps Toward the Relief of Cuba, 648. 

Crete and Cuba Compared. 614. 

The Demand for Intervention, 644. 

Sugar Affecting Cuba's Fate, 645. 

Darwin and Spencer, 344. 

Debating, Intercollegiate, 211. 

Democratic Tendencies, 20i. 

DemoresVs Family Magazine reviewed, 102. 

Department Store, The Modem, 80. 

Digger Indians. The So-Called California, 96. 

Diplomatic ana Consular Appointments, 262, 894, 517, 

651. 
Disease, The Fight Against, 737. 
Dogs Under Alcoholic Influence, 738. 
Drummond, Professor, A Tribute to, 601. 

Eastern Question, Russia and the, 78. 
Ek^onomic Journal reviewed, 622. 
Edinburgh Review reviewed, 368. 
E2ducation : 

Thirty Years of the Peabody Education Fund, 209. 

Henry Barnard, the Public School Pioneer, 210. 

State Aid for Church Schools, 274. 

National Jewish Educational Work, 442. 

The New York Hebrew Institute, 347. 

Elements in the Choice of a College, 446. 

The Shade of Socrates and Modem Education, 477. 

A College Education of To-day, 598. 
■^^ Higher Education in the North Central States, 599. 

State Universities of the Middle West, 600. 

Greeks in Modem Education, 730. 
Election, The Presidential : Revised Election Figures, 18. 
Elections : Post-Election Reflections, 88. 
Electric Eye, The, 88. 
Electric Power Transmission, 476. 
Eno^land : 

England's Advance in the Soudan, 6. 

The Power Behind the Throne, 19. 

The Coming Session of Parliament, 19. 



'218. 



Sir Michael's Veto, 20. 

Virements in the London County Council, 20, 

Achievements in Rhodesia, 21. 

Germany and England. 77. 

Mr. Small on English Society, 78. 

England and the Irish Question, 146. 

Features of the House of Commons, 199. 

The English Quarrymen's Union, 148. 

What Ireland Expects at This Session of Parliazu 
200. 

England's Mistake in Reffard to Turkey, 271. 

England and the Greek Situation, 400. 

England in Africa^ 401. 

English Home Pohtics, 401. 

Russia and England, 460. 

Is England's Industrial Supremacy a Myth t 465^ 

British Home Questions, 532. 

Social Changes of Sixty Years. 604. 

The Cost of English Country Houses, 605. 

Royalty an Essential Factor, 654. 

British Policy and the Eastern Ouestion, ^54. 

British Policy and the Transvaal, 655. 

The Queen's Jubilee, 659. 

The Queen's Empire, 679. 

The Revival of British Loyalty, 712. 

C. D. Gibson in London Society, 714. 

Parliamentary Celebrities, 715. 

England's Fenian Peril in 1865, 718. 
English, Thomas Dunn, Author of " Ben Bolt," 
Europe, Domestic Questions in. 402. 
Europe, Various Views of the Federation in, 578. 
European Alliances, The New, 656. 
Events, Record of Current, 24, 150, 277, 408, 534, 662. 
Extradition and the Senate, 134. 
Eyesight in American Children, Defective, 696. 

Factorics : The Business of a Factory, 885. 
Fairbanks, Charles V., elected Senator, 148 ; portraH, 

144. 
Famine, The Indian : 

The Famine in India, 4, 268. 401. 

Food Crops and Famine in India, 332. 

Sir Edwin Arnold on the Famine, 458. 
Farming in the South, 595. 

Fenianism : Was Fenianism Ever Formidable ? 718. 
Fiction in Public I^ibraries, 604. 
Financial : 

Practical Suggestions for Currency Legislation, 45. 

The Ethics of Stock Watering, 94. 

The Proix)sed Monetarv Conference, 261. 

A Plan of Currency Reform, 328. 

Financial Condition of the Government, 991. 

As to the Silver Question, 516. 

Safety of the Legal- Tender Paper, 726. 
Floods in the Mississippi Valley, 527. 
Fogs, Can Science Dispel. 82. 
Folk-Lore and Dialect, Negro, 216. 
Fortnightly Review reviewed, 109, 237, 365, 488, 621, 748. 
Forum reviewed, 104, 233. 862, 486, 618, 745. 
Foundations for Tall Buildings, 597. 
France : 

The Russo-French " Understanding," 6. 

The Policv of France, 270. 

Powers of the French President, 339. 

The Position of Women in France, 480. 

The Disaster at Paris, 661. 
French reviews i-eviewed. Ml, 243, 869, 492, 624, 750. 
Froude, Max Mailer's Recollections of, 226. 

Gaob, Lyman J. : 

Mr. Gage for the Treasury, 262. 

Character Sketch, 289. 

Portraits, 289, 290, 294, 386, 422. 
Gas Supply of New York City, 264, 649. 
Germany : 

The Reichstag and Bismarck's Revelation, 7. 

A Monument to Emperor William I., 532. 

Who Is the ♦* Hintermann ? " 146. 

Why Germany Requires a Fleet, 585. 
German reviews reviewed, 370. 
Gibbon, Edward : A iVibute to Gibbon, 86t 
Oodey^s Magazine reviewed, 232. 
Gold Standard Adopted in Japan, 594. 



INDEX TO yOLUME XK 



Golf in America to Date, 97. 

Golf. Courtesy in, 606. 

Grant, General : The Grant Monument Dedication in 

New York, 53:i. 
Ore«ce and Turkey, The War Between : 

Greece, Turkey and Crete, 269. 

The Attitude of the Powers, 2?2, 396. 

The Greco-Cretan Situation, 396. 

Firing on the Christian Patriots, 397. 

The Reasonable Solution, 397 . 

What Constrains Europe f 396. 

Russia's Waiting Game, 396. 

The Blockade ofCrete, 399. 

England and the Greek Situation, 400. 

King George of Greece, 465. 

The Uprismg of Greece, 584. 

Failure of the European Concert, 530. 

On the Thessalian Frontier, 529. 

The Outbreak of Real War, 530. 

The Powers and the Late War 656. 

The ThesRalian Campaign, 657. 

An Armistice at Last, 658. 

Turkey's Peace Conditions, 658. 

Greece and Its Future, 658. 

The Modem Greek as a Fighting Man, 729. 

The Triumph of the Sultan, 730. 
Greek in Moaem Education, 730. 
Greenbacks and the Cost of the Civil War, 471. 
GuHton's Magazine reTiewed,«236. 

Ha5va. M. a., as a Senatorial Candidate, 143. 
Banotaui, Gabriel : 

Character Sketch, 545. 

Portraits. 6, 7, 545, 546, 548. 
Harp^;» Magazine reviewed, 99, 229, 359, 482, 618, 740. 
Hawaiian Islands : 

The Hawaiian Situation, 527. 

Do We Own Pearl Harbor ? 646. 

Hawaii^s Relation to the Su^r Question, 646. 
Holidays, Concerning Certain New, 274. 
Hotels : A Great Hotel, 222. 
Bouses, The Cost of English Country, 606 
liowell, Clark : 

Gbaracter Sketch, 558. 

Portrait, 559. 

Illustrations : 
Killing Infected Cattle, 5. 
*' Before the Strike, "23. 
A Cavalry Charge in Cuta, 24. 
Bills of the Spanish Bank of Cuba, 25. 
Elevation ana Plan of Model LodgingHouses, 60, 61. 
Crowning of the Champion Tilter at Wenlock, 64. 
Part of the Defenses of Santa Clara, 136. 
The Walker Homestead at North Brookfleld. 161. 
Presideot Walker's Office, 169. 
"TheNaulahka,"174. 
Kipling's House at Lahore, 177. 
Fae simile of Kipling's Handwriting, 178. 
A Bas-ReUef by J. L. Kipling, 179. 
Pariah Church of St. BCarylebone, 185. 
/Vusnmtle of Dean Farrar's Handwriting, 190. 
French Military Bicycle, 221. 
New Library Building at Biadison, Wis., 275. 
The SUte House at Harrisburg, Pa., 278. 
Botel Excelsior Regina, Cimies, France, 279. 
New Central Railway Station at Bombay, India, 280. 
First National Bank of Chicago, 292, 293. 
Refidence of Lyman J. Gage, 296, 297, 298. 
Tainax Indian School, 301. 
Sunday Dance of the Crow Indians, 302. 
A Crow Indian Marriage, 303. 
Klamath and Pawnee Indian Schools, 304, 305. 
Apache Boys. 305. 
AChehallisGirl,306. 
Crow Indian School, 306. 
Chehallis Indian School, 307. 
Office^eekers at the White House, 395. 
Flags of the Great Powers at Canea, 397. 
Bombardment of the Insurgents* Camp at Canea, 897 
Prince Nicholas and the Crown Prince Constantino. 

306 
A Band of Cretan Insurgents, 399. 



Fac-simile of Greek Daily Newspaper, 401. 

Ambassador Bayard's Farewell, 405. 

President McKinley Reading His Inaugural Address^ 
413. 

President McKinley Taking the Oath of Office, 414. 

Illustrations of Street Cleaning, 437-441. 

Diagram Showing Cotton I^^oduct of the United 
States, 475. 

A Summer Evening in the Arctic Regions, 494. 

Unveiling of the ^iser Wilhelm I. Monument, 514. 

Monastery of Meteora, 528. 

The Fleets at Canea, 528. 

The Greek War Minister, 528. 

The Admirals of the Combined Fleet, 529. 

Village of Kastraki, 529. 

The Monastery of St. Nicholas, 530. 

All Saints' Monastery, 530. 

The Frontier Bridge at Artaj531. 

The Grant Monument, New York, 532. 

Vale of Tempo, 536. 

View of Lanssa, 537. 

View of the Tennessee Centennial Exposition, 555. 

The Scandinavian Exposition, Stockholm, 556. 

View of Stockholm, Sweden, 557. 

A Branded Seal Skin, 561 

Tvpes of Immigrant Irish Girls, 653. 

Illustrations or Beet Sugar Industry, 673, 674. 

Diagrams Illustrating the Growth of the United King- 
dom, 681, 685. 

The Queen Welcomed by President Faure, 680. 

Windsor Castle, 684. 

Downing Street^ London, 684. 

Faosimtle of British Stamps, 690, 691. 

Westminster Abbey, 693. 
Immigration : 

Checking Immigration, 261. 

The Inmiigration Bill Again, 392. 
Index to Periodicals, 126, *&4, 382, 510, 638, 766. 
India : 

The Famine in India, 4, 268. 

Food Crops and Famine in India, 382 

The Plague In India, 333. 

Famine and Plague in India, 401. 

Sir Edwin Arnold on the Famine, 458. 
Indians, Naming the, 301. 
Industrial World, Health in the, 219. 
Intemperance and Pauperism. 348. 
International Studio reviewed, 615. 
Iowa's Semi-Centennial, 148. 
Ireland : 

England and the Irish Question, 146. . 

What Ireland Expects at This Session ofParuament* 
200. 

Root Difficulties of Irish GK)vernment, 201. 
Ital^ : Exit of Italy from Abvssinia, 5. 
Italian Reviews reviewed, 112, 370. 

Japan : 
Adoption of the Gold Standard by Japan, 594. 
Conditions of Labor in Japan, 594. 

TheNew York Hebrew Institute, 347. 
National Jewish Educational Work, 442. 
Jowett, Dr., Various Views of, 735. 

Kings, The Deceitfulness of, 657. 
Kipling, Rudyard : 

Kiphng as a Poet, 95. 

Character Sketch, 173. 

Bibliography of First Editions, 183. 

Portraits, 173, 175. 
Kohlsaat, Hermann H., as a Political History-Maker, 41 ; 

portraits, 40, 48. 

Labor Questions : 

The Hamburg Strike, 23. 

The English Quarrymen's Union, 148. 
I ndies* Home Journal reviewed, 101, 232, 484, 614, 743. 
Leading Articles of the Month. 69, 197, 327, 455, 577, 712. 
Liegislation, Political and Municipal, in 1896, 474. 
[lighten and Watts, 356. 
Leo Xlll., Pope, Character of, 56. 



VI 



INDEX TO yOLUME XK 



Libraries : 

Fiction in Public Libraries, 604. 

The Public Library Movement, 275. 
LijmincotVs Magazine revieweo, 101, 290, 861, 484, 615, 

Liquor Laws, A Study of American. 224. 

Literary Magnates, Professor MUller^s Reminiscences 

of, 479. 
Literature : The Victorian Age in Literature, 386. 
Lodging Houses, Model, for New York, 59. 

McClurb's Maoazins reviewed, 100, 230, 860, 483, 614, 

742. 
MacDowelljE. A. : A Qreat American Ck)mpo8er, 79. 
McKinley, William : 

McKinley Compared With Cleveland, 387. 

McKinley's Administration : An Era of Gk)od Feeling, 
387. 

McKinley *8 (President) Private Secretary, 263. 
Magazines and Reviews, Contents of, 120, 248, 876, 504, 

632,760. 
Mankind : Is Mankind Progressing f 86. 
Maps : 

The War Map of the World, 2. 

Map of Abyssinia, 3. 

Asia Minor and the Armenian Massacres. 9. 

Map Illustrating the Reported Russo-Chmese Treaty, 
147. 

Famine Mapof India, 268. 

February *s War-Scare Centre, 260. 

The Bemn Expedition, 273. 

Map of Territory Involved in the Eastern Question, 

The Turko-Gredan Frontier, 580 

Main Positions of the Turkish and Greek Armies, 664. 

Map Showing Possible Beet-Sugar Areas. 673 

Sixty Years' Growth of the British Empire, 686, 687. 

British South Africa in 1854 and 1897. 
Market for Bread-Stuffs, A New, 527. 
Marr, CarLAn American Artist, 356. 
Marriage, The Future of, 346. 
Mat chmaking^ The Deadly Trade of. 609. 
^ttuiim Ouii, (ienesis of the, 739. 
Medicine in England, The Progress of, 786. 
Mexico : 

The " Pastores " of Mexico, 209. 

Mexico and the Fifth Inauguration of General Diaz, 14. 
Midland Monthly reviewed, 102. 
Militarism, Mr. Godlrin on, 70. 
Millionaires, English, and Their Money, 857. 
Monarchy, The Revival of, 713. 
Monev as the Root of Political Evil, 648. 
Month reviewed, 283. 
Mailer's (Max) American Friends, 734. 
Municipal Corruption, Contracts and, 591. 
Municipal Elections, 525, 526. 
Municipal League Conference, The National, 651. 
Municipal Works, Day Labor and Contract on, 472. 
Munsey'8 Magazine reviewed, 281, 361, 615, 748. 
Myrick, Herbert : Character Sketch, 678 ; i>ortrait, 678. 

Names for the Indians, 801. 
Nansen, Fridtjof : 

A Talk with Dr. Nansen, 87. 

Professor Shaler on Nansen's Discoveries, 608. 
National Review reviewed, 108, 248, 866, 491, 620, 748. 
Naval War, Preparedness for, 331. 
Negro Folk-lore and Dialect, 216. 
New Century Review reviewed, 241, 367, 750. 
New England, The Progress of, 719. 
New England Magazine reviewed, 360. 616. 
New Rnnew reviewed, 107, 242, 490, 749. 
New York, The Greater : 

Prospects for the Greater New York, 17. 

Greater New York's Charter, 148, 623, 734. 

The Citizens* Union, 525. 

The Enlarged Metropolis, 650. 
Nicaragua Qinal : 

Our Best Policy as to the Canal, 188. 

Nicaragua Canal and the Monroe Doctrine, 138. 

Nicaragua Canal Question Postponed Again, 259. 
Nietsche, Friedrich, 84. 
Nineteenth Ce^xtury reviewed, 106, 239, 864, 489, 618, 746. 



Nobel, Alfred, Bequest of ,276 ; portrait, 276. 
Nominating System, Mr. Godkin on the, 470. 
North American Review reviewed, 103, 234, 361, 48€ 

745. 
Novel, The Problem of the, 852. 

Obituart Record, The, 23, 149, 276, 402, 538, 661. 
Office-Seeking Under John Adams, 388. 
Open Court reviewed, 287. 

Pacific Railways as An Object Lesson, 188. 

Paris : The Disaster at Pans, 661. 

Parker, Gilbert, Personal Traits of, 852. 

Pamell, Mr. O'Brien, on, 77 

Pastores of Mexico, 209. 

Pauper Problem in America, Booth-Tucker on, 728. 

Pauperism, Intemperance and, 348. 

Peabody Education Fund, Thirty Years of the, 209. 

Pensions, Teachers', 700. 

Penrose, Hon. Boies, 143 ; portrait, 148. 

Periodicals, Index to, 126, ^, 882, 610, 638, 766. 

Periodicals reviewed. The, 99, 229, 359, 482. 612, 740. 

PhiUppines, The, 329. » > -t i — » -» 

Philosophy, Synthetic, Herbert Spencer and the, 343. 

Plague m India, The : 

Famine and Plague in India, 388, 401. 

Is the Plague Coming ? 459. 
Piatt, Thomas C: 

Mr. Piatt's CJomplete Cofttrol, 141. 

Mr Piatt's Selection for the Senate, 142. 

Portraits, 141. 142. 
Poet-Lore reviewed, 103. 
Poetry in the Periodicals, 481. 611. 
Political Science, Schools of, 93. 
Political Science Quarterly reviewed, 286. 
Pope Leo XIII., M. de VogQ6 on, 204. 
Portraits : 

Adams, Charles Kendall, 258. 

Albert, Prince Consort of Queen Victoria, 682. 

Alen^on, Duchess de, 661. 

Alger, Ru8sell A.. 262, 386, 428. 

AlBson, William B.. 137. 

Alonso, Fernandez, 14. 

Angell, James B., 258, 517. 

Apezteguia. Marqms of, 404. 

Arbuckle^ohn, 264. 

Aubrey, W. H. S., 118. 

Bamanl Henry, 153. 

Bailey, Joseph W., 391. 

Beecher, Mrs. Henry Ward, 406. 

BeU, C. J., 277. 

Bernardo y Jauragui. D., 26. 

Bieberstein, Marshall von, 152. 

Bliss, Cornelius N., 145, 386, 425. 

Boyle, James, 520. 

Brahms, Johannes, 537. 

Brewer, David J., 261. 

Bristow, J. L^ 620. 

Brookes, W. P., 62. 

Browning, Robert, 184. 

Browning, Elizabeth Barrett, 186. 

Brunetidre, M. Ferdinand, 694. 

Butterworth, Benjamin, 619. 

Buck, Alfred E., 518. 

Byers, S. H. M., 502. 

Cabot, Sebastian, 557. 

Calhoun, William, 662. 

Calice, Baron, 8. 

Cambon, M. P., 8. 

Canfield, James H., 258. 

Castillo, Canovas deL 12. 

Choate, Joseph H., 16. 

Cirujeda y Cirujeaa, Francisco, 135. 

Clarkson, Thaddeus S., 551. 

Clayton, Powell, 404. 

Cleveland, Grover, and His Cabinet, 889. 

Cobb, John C, 267. 

Conaty, Thomas J^ 27. ^ 

Cridler, Thomas w., 520. 

Cromer, Lord, 152. 

Currie, Sir Philip, 8. 

Davis, Cushman K., 398. 

Davitt, Michael, 653. 



INDEX TO VOLUME XK 



TU 



Dawes, Charles Q., 4S1. 

Day, W. B., 584. 

Deboe. William J., 662. 

De JetBcb, Baron Sanrma* 8. 

Delyaimis, Theodore, 820, 

Dingley. Nelson, Jr.» 145, 390. 

Dolph. J. N., 407. 

Draper, Andrew S., 258. 

Draper, William F., 304. 

Donoar, Paul Lanrence, 501. 

Dyer, Elisha. 534. 

Earle, James H., 404. 

Edhem Pasha, 664. 

England. Royal Family of, 808-325. 

Errani, Achille, 149. 

Erans. H. Clay, 432. 

Fairbanks. Charles W., 144. 

Fellows, John R., 26. 

FieMing, W. 8., 660. 

Flags, Ernest 61. 

Fonker, Josej^ B., 644. 

Foster, John W.l651. 

Fuller, Melville W., 260. 

Gary, James A., 386, 427. 

Gage, Lyman J., 289, 290. 204, 886, 423. 

Qage, Burs. Lyman J., 201. 

Olynn, R Carr, 27. 

Oodinec D. F., 26. 

Ooldie, George Tanbman, 148. 

QordOT, Oen. Charles George, 602. 

Grady, Henry W., 558. 

Greece, Crown Prince Constantino of, 657. 

Greece, King George of, 270. 

Greece, Prince G^eorse of, 396. 

Grey, Sir George, 680. 

Gne, B. F., 337. 

Gne, David J., 388. 

HafixPadia, 644. 

Hall, Charles Cnthbert, 281. 

Hamblen, Herbert E., 502. 

BamBn, Charles S., 516. 

fianotaaz. Gabriel 6, 7, 545, 546, 548. 

Birlan, John M., 526. 

Hsrris. Joel Chandler, 560. 

Harris. William A., 263. 

Harrison. Carter H , 526. 

Hatch, William Henry, 150. 

HsTemeyer, H. O., 265. 

Hay, John, 304. 

Heath, Perry 8 , 432. 

Heitfeld. Henry, 263. 

Herschea Lord. 261. 

Hirsch, WiUiam, 117. 

Holland. Tlie Qneen of, 13. 

Hohnan, W. 8., 661. 

Howell, Clark, 550. 

Howell, Evan P., 560. 

Howea W. B., 662. 

Huntington. C. P., 180. 

Jameson Raid Investigating Committee, 585. 

Je«^ R. H., 258. 

Jones, John P., 640. 

Jones. Samuel M., 527. 

Jordan. David 8.^ 515. 

Jover, D. Antoma 26. 

CpliQg, Rodyard, 173, 175. 

Koch, Dr., 660. 

Kohlsaat. Hermann H., 40, 48. 

Kranskopf, Joseph, 445. 

Lane. Jonathan A., 267. 

Leighton. George E., 516. 

UuUay, William, 521. 

Lome, Dmmy de. 184. 

Long, John D., 386, 424. 

Maceo, Antonio, 11. 

McKenna. Joseph J., 386, 426. 

McKinley, Prudent William, 386. 

MacLean. Georae E., 258. 

Hacy, Jesse, 468. 

Madden. Martin B., 144. 

ValekoA. 309. 

MaHory, George 8^ 407. 

MaUory, Stephen B., 662. 



Manatt, J. Irving, 895. 

Mandekoe, 390. 

Biaretzek, Max, 661. 

Mason, William E., 144. 

Meade, R. W., 666. 

Milliken, 8. M., 666. 

Mills, D. O., 59. 

Money, H. D., 153. 

Morals, Sabato, 442. 

Mooravieff, Count, 270. 

Mofioz, D. A. Gone41ez, 25. 

Myrick, Herbert, 678. 

Nansen, Fridtjof, 114, 405, 407. * 

Nansen, Mrs., 407. 

NeUdoff, M., 8. 

Nelson, Ennte, 392. 

Newbnrger, Morris, 448. 

New York Legislative Committee on Trusts, 264. 

Nobel, Alfred, 276. 

Northrnp, Cyms, 258. 

Ohiey, Richard, 133. 

Osborne, William McKinley, 805. 

Osman Fasha. 800. 

Pansa, Chevalier, 8. 

Pauncefote, Jnlian, 132. 

Penrose, Boies, 143. 

Philips, George Faudel, 26. 

Pitman, Isaac, 282. 

Piatt, Thomas C, 141, 142. 

Porter, Horace, 304. 

Porter, John Addison, 263, 430. 

Quincy, Josiah, 267. 

Ralli, M., 657 

Reynolds, James B., 525. 

Richardson, Benjamin Ward, 28. 

Riis, Jacob A., 36. 

Rivera, Juan Ruis, 12. 

Robbins, A. B., 140. 

Roberts, George B., 282. 

Roosevelt Theodore, 36, 510. 

Russia, Nicholas 1. of, 271. 

Ryan, Thomas, 652. 

St. John, William P., 277. 

SaUsbury, Lord 415. 

Sargent, John 8., 280. 

Searles, John £., 281. 

SchaeSer, Charles A.. 258. 

Shaftesbury, Lord, 601. 

Shallenberger, W. 8., 510. 

Shelby, J. 0„ 282. 

Sherman, John, 187, 386. 420, 421. 

Skinner, Charles R., 540. 

8kouze& Alexander, 407. 

Smart, James H., 258. 

Smith, Joseph P., 433. 

Smolenski, General, 657. 

Snow, P. H., 258. 

Solomon, Mrs. Henry, 445. 

Spain, The King of, 536. 

Spaulding, O. L., 431. 

Spooner, John C, 144. 

Steinway, William, 28. 

Stephan. Dr. von, 533. 

Storrs, Richard 8., 10. 

Straus, Oscar 8., 444. 

Swain, Joseph, 258. 

Sweden, Oscar 11. of, 130. 

Tafel, Gustav, 526. 

Tait, Archbishop, 600. 

Thomson, Frank, 278. 

Tourgee, Albion W., 652. 

Tower, Charlemagne. 518. 

Vanderlip, Frank, 652. 

Van Devanter, Willis, 510. 

Vassos, Colonel, 806. 

Victoria. Queen, 308.^'5, 680. 683. 

Victoria's (Queen) Prime liinisters, 416. 

Voorhees, Daniel W., 533. 

Walker, Amasa, and His Sons, 150, 161. 

Walker, Mrs. Amasa, 163, 164. 

Walker, Francis ^17159, 160, 162, 163, 165, 167, 168, 170. 

Walker, Freeman, 161. 

Waring, George E., Jr., 430. 



TIU 



INDEX TO VOLUME Xy. 



Watson, ThomAS E., 87. 

Wevler, Veleriano, 13. 

White, Andrew D., 517. 

White, Henry. 518. 

Willis, A. 8., 149. 

Wilson, James, 262, 386, 427. 
Poultry Farming. Modem, 788. 
Presidential Election, English reviews on the, 203. 
Progress of the World. 8, 131, 259, 887, 515, 648. 
Progress ve Review reviewed, 110, 866, 492, 750. 
Public Work Directly Performed, 485. 

Quarterly Journal of Economics reviewed, 286. 
Quarterly Review reviewed, 867. 

Rabbit Plague in Australia, The, 660. 

Railways : Pacific Railways as an Object Lesson, 188. 

Reciprocity : A Canadian View of Reciprocity, 467. 

Record of Current Events, 24, 150, 277, fi8, 534, 662. 

Refrigeration, The Art of, 228. 

Reporting, Congressional, 469. 

Republican Platform. The Gold Plank in the, 17. 

Reputations in the Crucible of 1896, 56. 

Research, Original, in the Universities, 843. 

Revenues : Suggestions for Raising the Federal Rev- 
enues, 586. 

Reviews and magazines, contents of, 120, 248, 876, 504, 
632, 760. , , , ,.>^ 

Rhodes, Cecil, in South Africa, 57. 
Richardson, Dr. Benjamin Ward, Death of, 28 
Rinderpest in Cape Colony, The, 5, 660. 
Rdntgen*s Rays, A Year of, 476. 
Russia : 

The Russo-Prench " Understanding," 6. 

Prince Liobanoff*8 Successor, 6.- 

Russia and the Eastern Question, 78. 

The Czar*s Policy East and West, 146. 

The Russians and China, 147. 

The Czar's Coronation, 198. 

Lobanoff's Successor, 270. 

A Tribute to Nicholas 1., 271. 

Russia and England, 460. 

Russia As It Is, 731. — ^ 

The Spirit- Wrestlers of Russia, 788. 

Salvation Army and the Volunteers, 276. 

Salvini, Alexander, Death of. 23. 

Savings Banks : Postal Savings Banks, 82. 

Scalpers : The Anti-** Scalping " Crusade, 522. 

Scandinavian Mamzines reviewed, 371. 

Scientific Spirit, The Modem, 83. 

Scholarship and Government, 19. 

Seribner's Magazine reviewed, 99, 230, 359, 483, 612, 741. 

Seals I 

How to Save the Seals, 515, 517. 

The CJnited States and the Fur Seals, 561. 

Science and Diplomacy vs. Seal Poaching, 660. 
Senatorial Elections : 

In New York, 142 ; in Pennsylvania, 143 ; in Ohio, 143. 

In Indiana, 143 ; in Illinois, 144 ; in Other States, 144, 
263. 
Shakespeare's Characteristics. 227. 
Sherman, John : 

Mr. Sherman as Next Secretary of State, 187. 

Portraits, 137, 386, 420, 421. 
Silver Situation. The International, 93. 
Society in London, C. D. Gibson on. 714. 
South America, The British in, 717. 
South American Affairs, 14, 402. 
South Pole, Why Not Try for the, 608. 
South, Progressive Tendencies in the, 721. 
Social Conditions, How Not to Better, 86. 
Social Wrongs and Remedies, 18. 



Son^ Our Popular, 212. 

Spam : The Emancipation of Women in Spain, 607. 

Spencer, Darwin and, 814. 

Spirit-Wrestlers at Russia, The, 783. 

Spoils and Party Spirit, 888. 

Statesmanship, The Outlook for, 15. 

Statesmanship vs. Bossism in New York, 16. 

Stein way, William, Death of, 23 ; portrait, 23, 

Street Cleaning by Contract, 437. 

Sugar Question : 

The Sugar Question Abroad, 266. 

SugarBeet Growing, The Question of, 646. 

Sugar -The American Question of the Day, 678. 
Strikes : The Hamburg Strike, 28. 
Sultan Abdul Hamid at Home, 781. 

Tariff, The : 

The Revenues and the Tariff, 15. 

Tariff and Currency Questions, 145. 

The Tariff in Congress, 391, 466, 520, 648. 

A Revived Tariff Scandal, W7. 

Canada*s Jubilee Tariff, 659. 
Taxation : 

Our Taxation Policy in General, 521. 

The Progressive Inheritance Tax, 728. 
Teachers' Pensions, 700. 

Telegraphic Cables : The Proposed Pacific Cable, 189. 
Telegraphing Without Wires, 333. 
Tennessee's Place in History, ?22. 
Theological Reviews reviewed, 863. 
Trade, Foreign, of the United States, 218. 
Traffic : The Anti-Pooling Decision, 522. 
Trusts : 

Trusts and Corporate Abuses, Discussion of, 17. 

Investigating the Trusts. 264. 

A French View of American Trusts, 467. 
Turkey : 

Salisbury on Salvation Through the Sultanate, 8. 

America and Europe in Turkey, 9. 

Rumors of Partition, 9. 

Turkish Question in Recent Caricature, 588. 

UNiVKRsmKS, The Western, 275, 600. 

Useful Men, A Plea for the Protection of, 192. 

Vaccination, Compulsory, 8^. 
Venezuela : 

Venezuela Acquiesces in the Arbitration Treaty, 18. 

Canada and Venezuela, 76. 

The Venezuela Treaty Signed, 260. 
Victoria, Queen : 

The Record Year of the Queen, 274. 

Her Majesty Queen Victoria, 809, 712. 

The Queen's Jubilee, 659. 

The Queen*s Empire— A Retrospect of Sixty Yearf, 
679. 

Portraits, 808-325, 680, 683. 
Voice-Photographv and Rational Voice-Production, 66. 
Volunteers, American, and the Salvation Army, 276. 

Walker, Francis A. : 

Character Sketch, 159. 

Francis A. Walker as a Public Man, 166. 

Portraits, 159-170. 

A Plea for the Protection ot Useful Men, 192. 
Wars of 1896, 3. 

Watson, William, A Study of, 857. 
Watts, Leighton and, 356. 
Westminster Review reviewed, 109, 490, 622. 
Wheat Export, Decline of California's, 596. 
Women : 

The Position of Women in France, 480. 

The Emancipation of Women in Spain, 607. 



The Review of Reviews, Edited by Albert Shaw. 

contents for january, 1897. 



The War Map of the World, 2896. .. Frontispiece. 
The Progress of the World— 

TheStrifesof 1896 3 

Fkmine in India 4 

The Scourge of Africa 5 

The Exit of Italy from Abyssinia 5 

England's Advance in the Soudan 6 

Prince LobauoflE's Successor 6 

The Russo-Prench '^ Understanding " 6 

The Reichstag and BismarcK's Revelations 7 

Salisburj- on ?mlvation tlirough the Sultanate.. . 8 

Sick Unto Death 8 

Rumors of Partition 9 

America and Europe in Turkey 9 

Mr. Cleveland on tne Cuban Rkibellion 10 

The Death of Maceo 10 

The Cameron Resolution 11 

Canovas to America 11 

The Cuban Outlook 12 

Venezuela Acquiesces 13 

South American Affairs 14 

Mexico and the Fifth Inauguration of Gen. Diaz 14 

The Revenues and the Tariff 15 

As to '* Cabinet Material " and the Outlook for 

Statesmanship 15 

Statefauansbip versus Bossism in New York 16 

Prospects for the '* Greater New York ■ ' 17 

Anotner " Foot-note to History " 17 

The Discussion of " Trusts'^' and Corporate 

Abuses 17 

Social Wrongs and Remedies 18 

Revised Election l^^gures 18 

The (Jensus of 1900 and the (Question of a Perma- 
nent Bureau 18 

Scholarship and Government 19 

The (>>ming Session of Parliament 19 

The Power Behind the Throne 19 

Sir Michael's Veto 30 

Some Speech-Making 20 

Virements in the Loudon County Council 20 

The Mistake of the Moderates 21 

Achievements in Rhodesia 21 

The Niger Company and Its Ldttle War 21 

The Hamburg Strike 23 

The Obituary Record 23 

With portraits of H. Hanotaux, the late Gen. Antonio 
MAceo, Canovas del Castillo. General Rivera, Gen- 
eral Weyler the Qaeen of Holland, Sefior Fernandez 
Alonso. the Hon. Joseph H. Choate, Rev. Richard S. 
Storrs, D.D., the late William Stein way, and ambas- 
sadors of the powers at Constantinople, a map of 
the Armenian massacres, and other illustrations. 

Record of Current Events 24 

With portraits of Gen. D. A. Gonz&lez MuiXoz, Hon. D. P. 
§^°?*i>A^' L>- Antonio Jover. Alderman George 
Faudel Philips, Gen. D. Bernardo Y Jauregui, the 
late Col. Jc>hn R Fellows, the Rev. Hon. E. Carr 
Glymi, the Bev^ Dr. TTiomas J. Conaty and the late 
Sir Benjamin Ward Richardson. 

Corrent History in Caricature 29 

With rvprodnctions from American and foreign journals. 

How Not to Better Social Conditions 36 

By Theodore Roosevelt. 

With portrait* of Mr. Roosevelt and the Hon. Thomas 
Watson. 



Mr. Kohlsaat of Chicago, and His Part in the 
Political History-Making of 2896 41 

By Walter Wellman. 
With portrait of Mr. Kohlsaat. 

Some Practical Suggestions from Students of 
Finance 45 

By Prof. Arthur T. Hadley of Yale, Prof. J. Laurence 
Laughlin of Chicago, Prof. William W. Polwell of 
Minnesota, Prof. F. W. Taussifir of Harvard, Prof. 
Sidney Sherwood of Johns Hopkins University, 
Prof. J. W. Jenks of Cornell University, Prof. Ed- 
ward A. Ross of Leland Stanford University, Prof. 
W. M. Daniels of Princeton, President Wm. P. Slo- 
cum of Colorado College, and President Charles 
Kendall Adams of the University of Wisconsin. 

Some Reputations in the Crucible of 1896 56 

By WiUiam T. Stead. 

Model Lodging Houses for New York 59 

With portraits of D. O. Mills and Ernest Flagg, and other 
illustrations. 

A Typical Englishman : Dr. W. P. Brookes of 

Wenlock in Shropshire 02 

By the Baron Pierre de Coubertin. 
With portrait of Dr. Brookes. 

Voice-Photography and Rational Voice-Pro- 
duction QQ 

By Laura Carroll Dennis. 
Leading Articles of the Month— 

What Shall Be Done About Cuba ? 69 

Mr. Godkin on Militarism .'.*.'.*.*..'..* 70 

A Bystander at the Armenian Massacres 71 

Russia and the Eastern Question 73 

The Latest Bismarck Revelations ..,/.'.'.'. 74 

Anglo-American Arbitration .' 75 

Canada and Venezuela ra 

Wake Up, John Bull :. ',\\\ \\ 77 

Mr. Dillon, Mr. Redmond, Mr. Pameli 77 

Mr. Smalley on English Society 7^ 

Mr. MacDowell : A Great American Composer!.' 79 

The Modem Department Store . ho 

Postal Savings Banks .* . * * g2 

Can Science Dispel Fogs ? .!.!..!!.* 8*i 

The Modem Scientific Spirit 1 !!.*!!!.*!* * 83 

Priedrich Nietsche .*.".*.**.*.*.*.*.. 84 

Is Mankind Progressing ? '.*..'.'.!. hh 

A Talk with Dr. Nansen '/,[[] ^7 

The Electric Eye !!!.!* 88 

Post- Election Reflections ..'!.*!.*** 88 

Schools of Political Science .....!! 93 

The International Silver Situation 93 

The Ethics of Stock Watering '.'.',"" 94 

Mr. Kipling as a Poet ' 95 

Tlie So-called California " Diggers '* ...!.!' 96 

Golf in America to Date 97 

Practical Christianity 07 

The Date of Christ's Birth .'.*!..'.'.'.*.*.'.* 98 

The Periodicals Reviewed 99 

The New Books n^ 

^^* D^wiUi^rn'm,!^^- ^' ^' ^''^"*^' ^^"^' ^**°«*'^' *^"d 

Contents of Reviews and Magazines ioq 

Index to Periodicals jofj 



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The Review of Reviews. 



Vol. XV. 



NEW YORK, JANUARY, 1897. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



No. 1. 



No sword has been drawn by one great 
'o/^fiitf!* civilized state against another through 
the whole of 1896, but the gates of the 
Temple of Janus have by no means been shut. The 
map which serves as our frontispiece shows in how 
many places the year has brought not peace but war. 
By far the most blood-stained portion of the world's 
fiorface so far as 1896 is concerned is the Ottoman 
Empire. There has been actual fighting in Crete, 
while the tale of massacres of Armenians in all 
parts of the empire is still far from complete. ** The 
Shadow of God '' in Constantinople is haunted 
by a perpetual fear, and he imagines, like most 
men in panic, that he can best secure his own 
safety by striking terror. Abdul Hamid embodies 
in his reign, and in the massacres by which its 
closing days are being marked, a great object lesson 
as to the real nature of Turkish rule. Without some 
anch demonstration it would have been impossible 
for US to conceive the popular enthusiasm which 
lamiched medieval Europe on the series of enter- 
prises that we call Crusades. There are many 
persons to-day who would be very glad to see a 
new crusade preached for the extermination of the 
''Infidel,'* not because he is an infidel but because 
be has established assassination as an instrument of 
government, and replied by massacre to the protests 
of the conscience of Europe and America, Casting 
a rapid glance over the world, it is curious to note 
bow much of the fighting has gone on in the islands. 
On the continents there has been little war; but 
man has faced man in deadly wrath in Crete, in 
Cnba, in Madagascar, and in the Philippine Islamds. 
In fact, with the exception of the continenj; of 
Africa, and certain of these islands, 1896 has been 
a year of peace. These, however, are considerable 





JPMEKE L- 



ITALY AND ABYSSINIA : A GERMAN VIEW. 

From Kladderadaiaeh (Berlin). 



exceptions; and neither in Cuba nor the Philip- 
pines did 1896 bring any prospect of peace. The 
struggle on both sides is marked by atrocities of 
which the civilized world hears a little from Cuba, 
but nothing much from the Philippines. In Mada- 
gascar, a French expedition to Antananarivo has 
placed the French in nominal possession of the 
island. It is only nominal, for outside the capital 
the French appear to be obeyed only so far as their 
guns will carry, and until such time as their guns 
are removed. On the African continent there has 
been more serious fighting. Italy suffered a great 
defeat in Abyssinia, which, however, has been a 
blessing in disguise, in that it has led to the aban- 
donment of the ambitious scheme of establishing 
an Ethiopian empire raised unon the colony of 
Erythrwa. The defeat in Africa shook down the 
Crispi ministry, and crippled Italy in the estimation 
of Europe It was also the means of launching 
the long-expected expedition for the recovery of 
the Soudan. The Anglo-Egyptian force under the 
Sirdar, Sir Herbert Kitchener, achieved an almost 
bloodless success when it marched southward along 
the Nile valley, and cleared the soldiers of the 



THE REI/IEIV OF RE^IEIVS. 



Mahdi out of the fertile provinces of Dongola. It is 
understood that this year when the Nile is high 
Dongola will be used as a base for the reconquest 
of Kliartoum. But for the unfortunate issue of 
Jameson* s raid, Cecil Rhodes would probably have 
realized his ideal of joining the Cape to Cairo be- 
fore the end of the century. Matabeleland has risen 
in revolt and has been reconquered. The Transvaal 
has been the scene of fighting which could hardly 
be dignified by the title of a war. On the other side, 
the Ashanti power has been broken by an English 
ex]>edition, which has opened up one of the dark 
places of the world, full of frightful cruelty, to the 
milder influences of commerce and civilization. As 
the year closed, Sir George Taubman Groldie was 
departing for the Niger in order to strike a blow 
at one of the slave-trading tribes which still live 
and thrive under the nominal protectorate of the 
Niger Company. 

Famines in one part of India or another 
^"/raf/a/" w®^© ^^ almost yearly recurrence a hun- 
dred years ago. The greatest triumph of 
the English regime has been its success in bringing 
the surplus food of one district to the relief of starv- 
ing millions in another. But although the famine 
fiend lias thus been checked, its ravages are not 
altogether overcome. For the third year in succes 
sion the crops have failed, and experienced observ- 
ers declare that the dearth will be the worst India 
has suffered for fifty years. The Times correspond 
ent gives the following account of the position in 
the North West Provinces and Oudh : 




The first area, where the greatest failure of crops hai 
occurred, covers 25,000 square miles, with a populatioi 
of 13,000,000. Here the famine may be acute. The seo 
end area, where there has been severe failure, covers 
30,000 square .miles, with a population of 14,000.000. The 
third area, where there has beeu considerable failure, 
covers 25,000 square miles, with a population of 12,500,000. 




THE TWO DESTROYING DEMONS OF INDIA. 
From the Hindi Punch. 



FAMINE ON THE PROWL.. (From London Punch, Dec. 5.) 

The divisions worst oflE are Allahabad, Lucknow and 
Faizabad, with the portion of Agra which is not pro- 
tected by irrigation. 

As for the prospects, 1>^ inches of rain over the prov- 
inces within the next fortnight would reduce the diffi- 
culties by a half to three-quarters. With no rain until 
Christmas, but a favorable fall at the usual peri(Kl 
toward the end of the year, it is calculated that relief 
would have been given to 8 or 10 per cent, of the popula- 
tion in the area worst affected, and to 3 or 4 per cent, in 
the less distressed area. In the event of the failure of 
the Christmas rains the percentage would be doubled, or 
even higher than this. Prices would in the event of 
drought up to the monsoon period in June, rule enor- 
mously high, but the Lieutenant-Governor does not 
apprehend a complete failure of supplies next summer, 
as local stocks will be supplemented by importations. A 
significant sign that famine conditions are beginning to 
prevail in certain areas is that the prices of fine and 
coarse grains are closely approximating. 

At tiie present moment 250.000 persons are being 
employed on relief works. In the Pun janb, 9,200; 
North- West Provinces, 130,100; Central India. 17,300; 
Rajputana, 26 000: Bengal. 8,400; Burma. 16,600; 
Bombay. 11,600; Madras. 86.500. Fortunately last 
month brought welcome showers of rain, which 
have done something to prevent the famine which 
threatens to develop into an absolutely devastating 
scourge in this new year. The Indian government 
is exerting itself to meet the threatened disaster 
with adequate resources, but it is to be feared that 
no expenditure of time or money will be able to 
prevent the mo\ving down of many thousands, pos- 
sibly hundreds of thousands, of human beings in 
India. The population has increased so rapidly 
under thd pacific rule of the Queen that there are 
millions, possibly scores of millions, in India who 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 



are. so to speak, living below the high-water mark 
of periodic famines which constantly occur in that 
country. If there were fewer of them, they might 
live and thrive above high- water mark; as it is. the 
selvage of the population that is habitually underfed 
perishes whenever there is too little rain or too much. 
It may, of course, be argued that there would s 
always be this margin of hungry millions even if 
the population were not so dense on the soil, and 
that, no doubt, is true. Probably there is less star- 
vation in the United States to-day with its seventy 
million population than there was when the Pilgrim 
Fathers landed, when the inhabitants, all told, did 
not exceed a million. 



•f Africa. 



If Asia has been scourged by the with- 
holding of those fruitful showers without 
which the most fertile loam is as barren 
as alkali, her sister continent has this past year 
suffered from a disaster hardly less api)alling. The 
rinderpest, said to have been introduced into Abys 
finia by plague-smitten cattle sent to supply the 
Italian army with food, found Africa as virgin soil 
for its ravages. From the mountains of Rasselas 
it befcan its march southward, eating up as it went 
nine-tenths of the hoofed beasts, wild and tame, of 
the African continent The herds upon which the 
natives of the interior depend so largely for their 
sQstenanoe were mown down as the meadow-grass 
falls before the scythe, only the fringes being 
«{)ared. Nor does the rinderpest discriminate be- 
tween the domesticated and the wild cattle. The sav- 
age buffalo wallowing in the marsh found no method 
of escape from the invisible Death. Nor were 
«wift- footed antelope able to elude the swifter darts 
of the deadly archer. Three out of five species of 
antelope died like rotten sheep. The others, for 
some cause not yet discovered, seem to be immune. 
For some time it was hoped that the broad waters of 
the Zambesi would offer an insuperable barrier to 
the southerly- marching rinderpest. But the subtle 





THE TEW PLAGUES OP SOUTH ATRIOA. 
From the SoyUh African Review. 



(From a South African paper.) 

KILLING INFECTED CATTLE. 

contagion leaped the mighty river and began its 
ravages in RhodesifL It is the fashion to speak of 
war as the sum of all evils. The war in Matabele- 
land was a pleasure jaunt compared with the horror 
of the cattle plague. It is computed that out of 
200.000 cattle in Rhodesia it has not left 15,000 
alive. The milk, the beef, the leather, and the 
transport of the*country were all destroyed. Faring 
south ward.<» the rind^Ubst struck Khama's country, 
a land which is far richer in beeves than Rhodesia. 
The Bechuanas and Bamangwato were mighty 
herdsmen. Thn numbered their cattle at one 
million. Whe "the %nderpest left them, 800.000 
beasts lay dead on the veldt, and Khama rejoiced 
that the percentage of mortality was, compara- 
tively speaking, so low. From Bechuanaland the 
deadly scourge is traveling to Cape Colony, where 
it is expected it will eat up the cattle down to the 
sea. So terrible a visitation, extending over so 
wide an area, is almost unknown in the annals of 
Africa. The grievous murrain that smote the 
herds of Pharaoh was but a parochial epidemic 
compared with this continental catastrophe. 

The Exit Having inflicted the rinderpest upon the 
of Italy from whole African continent as an incident 
Abyssinia. ^^ ^^^ disastrous and disgraceful cam- 
paign, Italy has concluded a treaty with King Men- 
elik of Abyssinia which closes the door upon her 
dream of a great African empire. Everything but 
the small colony of Erythrea on the Red Sea coast 
is to be given up. So Italy gets back her soldiers 
who were prisoners of war in Abyssinia, and King 
Menelik is freed from the dread of Italian conquest 
Henceforth he is to be recognized as an independent 
monarch who can make treaties and do as he pleases 
for all the world as if he were a great power. The 
Italians, on the whole, are very glad that at last they 
have been able to let go of the ears of the wolf who 
had fastened his fangs pretty deeply into their 
wrist. It is a sad awakening from the dream which 
led the Italian kingdom to embark on its African 
adventure. Abyssinia now stands practically alone 



6 



THE RE^IEIV OF REVIEWS. 



as an independent African i)ower. though the Trans- 
vaal under President Kruger clearly aims at such a 
position, and will not easily be dissuaded. 

England's ^* ^^ Understood that Abyssinia enjoyed 
Advance In the benevolent support of France and 
the Sou an. j^^ggia in the conclusion of peace, and 
rumor has it that at least one of the two partners 
would be very glad to facilitate a similar treaty of 
evacuation which would deliver the adjacent regions 
of Africa from the presence of a British garrison. 
There seems, however, to be no disposition on the 
part of the British government to take the hint. 
Speaking at the Guildhall in November, Lord Salis- 
bury declared, with significant emphasis, that he 
did not see any reason in the condition of Europe for 
evacuating a single acre of the territory England is 
occupying. So far indeed are the British from 
evacuating Egypt, or thinking of any such step at 
present, that one of the newspaper sensations last 
month has been a circumstantial statement to the 
effect that the Sirdar, during his visit to England, 
has secured the sanction of the Government for his 
plans for advancing this year upon Khartoum with 
a mixed Anglo- Egyptian force of twenty-five thou- 
sand men. The story is declared ^ be premature; 
but if all goes well in Dongob^nd so far everything 




(iOOD BUSINESS. 

Khedive: ''Please, sir, they say you'll have to pay this 
yourself ! '' 

John Bull (calling out after France and Russia) : " All 
right, gentlemen : Only remember— who pays the piper, calls 
the tune 1 " 

From Punch (London). 




M. HANOTAUX, FRENCH FOREIGN MINISTEB. 

has gone better than was expected, it is almost cer- 
tain that when the Nile is high an attempt will be 
made to re-establish the authority of the Khedive in 
the city of Khartoum. The French, on the whole, 
have taken Lord Salisbury's declaration very quietly, 
a symptom which tends to confirm the belief in 
England that as the Franco- Russian understanding 
recognized that Germany was to keep Alsace and 
Lorraine, so it recognizes the stains quo in the Nile 
valley. M. Hanotaux's remarks on the subject have 
been mild and vague. 

Prinee ^® Czar, after^spending a little holiday 
LobanojBTt in Darmstadt, returned to Russia. Many 
Successor, reports have been flying about as to the 
selection which he has made of a successor to Prince 
Lobanoff . It was indeed telegraphed all over Europe 
that Count Vorontsoff-Daschkoff was to be appointed 
foreign secretary, with the status of Chancellor. 
The news was no sooner printed than it was contra- 
dicted. The next statement was that M. Nelidoff 
was to be brought from Constantinople in order to 
direct the foreign policy of Russia. That also seems 
to be premature, and the reasons which led to the 
passing over of M. Nelidoff when Prince Lobanoff 
was selected are still more potent to-day. Russia 
can ill afford to change ambassadors at Constanti- 
nople at such a crisis as the present. 

A cold douche has been administered 
to the somewhat gushing sentiment 
of the French by the declaration of 
M. Hanotaux in the French Chamber. Questioned 
as to whether he could not make a full statement as 
to the Franco-Russian Alliance, he stated in effect 
that he could not, because there was nothing more 
to say. The visit of the Czar and the speeches made 
by the Czar and President Faure at Chalons had 
notified to the world the existence of a friendly 
understanding, and to their words nothing could be 



The 

Russo-French 

"Understanding. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 




M. HANOTAUX. 

As seen by the artist of Vanity Fair (London), November 
12. 1806. 

added. Thereupon (so they declare in England, 
where it is always the custom to deny the existence 
of any real Franco Russian Alliance) there went by 
the board the last lingering hope that the friendly 
understanding had been converted into a binding 
&«aty. Bassia, in 1890, it is said, sought in vain 
for the renewal of the secret treaty with Germany, 
which was to all intents and purposes equivalent to 
a quasi- guarantee of the treaty of Frankfort, for it 
boand over Russia to friendly neutrality in case 
France went to war to snatch back the lost provinces. 
\ It was not until Count Capri vi had refused to renew 
that treaty fhat Russia began to coquette with 
France. After all these years, say our English 
observers, the courtship does not seem to have got 
further than an affectionate understanding, entered 
into by Russia quite as mucli for the pur])Ose of 
preventing France disturbing tlie peace of Europe 
a» for any love of the Republic. So much more im- 
portant is the way things are done than the thing 



that is done, that France is really rejoicing and 
feeling as if her old position was restored in Europe 
by virtue of an understanding which, for the time 
being at least, definitely forbids her to dream of 
revenge. Still the French made a wry face over 
the news that there was no treaty to be announced. 
Madame Novikoflf, the other day, was listening to a 
discussion about the person who was to succeed 
Prince Lobanoflf as Foreign Minister, when she sud- 
denly exclaimed " Why two ? We have a very 
good one already." *' And who may he be ? " asked 
her visitor in amazement " Why Monsieur Hano- 
taux," said she; ** he does very well. I see no need 
for a colleague. " In England, however, it is more 
palatable to say that France has become a Russian 
dependency than that the French Foreign Minister 
is the successor of Prince Lobanoff. 



The Relchatag 

and Bismarck a 

Revelations. 



The Qerman Reichstag has had an op 
portunity of debating the revelations 
made by Prince Bismarck: first as to 
the existence of the treaty with Russia, and secondly 
its annulment by Count Caprivi. The Foreign 
Minister made the best defense he could, and avoided 
saying anything with even more than the usual offi- 
cial capacity for using non- committal terms. But 
like most disanssions in Parliaments on foreign 
affairs, it^came toA^te to do any good. What a 




fONSUMED IN THE SERVICE OF THK COUNTRV 

From Ulk (Berlin), November 13, 1896. 



THE REyiElV OF REP^IEIVS. 




M. P. Cambon. FYance. 

Chevalier Pansa, Italy. 

Baron Callce, Ausarla-Hungary. 



M. NeltdofT. Russia. 

Baron Saurma De Jetsch, Germany. 

Sir Philip Currie. Qreat Britain. 



THE AMBASSADORS OF THE EUROPEAN POWERS AT CONSTANTINOPLE. 



farce representative government is when foreign 
affairs are *' on the carpet." Here one finds the 
German Reichstag, the representative assembly of 
the G^erman Empire, discussing for the first time in 
1896 a treaty w^hich was made in 1884, the very 
existence of which was never whispered, much less 
debated, during all the years in which it governed 
the policy of Germany, and which was annulled in 
1890, equally without the knowledge or consent of 
the Reichstag. Could anything illustrate more forci- 
bly the emptiness of the theory that the Reichstag 
has any control over the foreign policy of the Ger- 
man Empire ? There are some who believe that the 
English Parliament has almost as little say in such 
matters, and that no doubt is true with one impor- 
tant proviso. In England the Parliament cannot 
control foreiem policy, but it makes and unmakes 
foreign ministers. In G^ermany the Imperial Chan- 
cellor does not depend, either for his appointment or 
his maintenance in office, upon the vote of the ma- 
jority of the Reichstaer. But. notwithstanding this 
difference. Lord Salisbury is probably as little ham 
pered by Parliament as Prince Bivsmarck was by the 
Reichstag. In America it is somewhat different. 



Salisbury on Lord Salisbury's speech at the Guild- 
Saivah'on through hall has been accepted throughout 
the Sultanate. Europe as an utterance making for 
harmony. Lord Salisbury sx)oke smooth words and 
prophesied peace. He praised the European con- 
cert, abjured all notion of isolated action, and 
beyond a significant hint that the salvation of Tur- 
key was to be sought for through the Sultanate— he 
did not say through the present Sultan —nothing was 
said that could make even the most sensitive of the 
great powers feel that England "was going to pre- 
cipitate the much dreaded war. So the order of the 
day is to do nothing, but to let the ambassadors ex- 
ercise such pressure as they can. by hinting at the 
possible deposition of the Sultan, and assuring each 
other all the time that they are so horribly afraid of 
the responsibility of bringing about a war that they 
would rather allow the Sultan to bring it about him- 
self, — a contingency by no means improbable. 



It is learned from Constantinople that 
M. Nelidoff takes the very gloomiest view 
as to the prospect in Turkey. No one 
knows better the utter rottenness of the whole 



sick 

Unto Death. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



9 



fabric than the ambassador who has done his best 
to patch it up. Massacres continue to occur occa- 
sionally, and the ambassadors are so powerless that 
they cannot even secure safe conduct for the philan- 
thropic agents who are charged with the distribution 
of charity to the Armenian remnant. Under these 
circumstauces it v^ not inconceivable that the plan 
which Mr. Stride puts forward in one of the Ameri- 
can reviews might be realized, and the long contin- 
ued agony of the Christian East might once more 
compel Western Christendom to organize knight- 
hospitallers who would undertake to succor the 
wretched, even although the distribution of relief 
entailed at the same time the maintenance of a 
sufficient armed force to keep the marauders at bay. 

Although all the great powers are 
ff^aruuon. Pledging themselves to do nothing to 

bring about the partition of Turkey, 
and are pledging themselves more emphatically 
than ever to the maintenance of the territorial 
sfaftui qiio, rumors are gaining ground that the 
Enropean Cabinets are discussing the possible event- 
uality of the break-up of the Ottoman Empire. The 
visit of the Grand Duke Nicholas to Vienna has 
been made the occasion of a rumor to the effect that 
he was to sound the Emperor of Austria upon a pro- 
visional scheme of partition. Austria, according to 
this story, -was to be allowed to go to Salamanca ; 
Italy was to have Albania; Russia, Asia Minor; and 
JTrance, Syria; and England was to be allowed to 



retain Egypt. Some such scheme as this may possi- 
bly be floating about in the minds of Continental 
statesmen, but its transition into actual fact would 
raise so many difficulties that the statesmen and 
sovereigns, who, as Lord Salisbury said, are trustees 
for their people, may be pardoned if they shrink, as 
from a nightmare, from the thought of a general 
partition. 

America ^^' Cleveland is frank and outspoken in 
and Europe respect to the deplorable facts of hideous 

In Turkey, g^j^j^j disorder in Turkey, in his annual 
message to Congress. He alludes to the destruction 
of American property, and declares that the future 
safety of American citizens in the Turkish Empire 
is by no means assured. But he is not in favor of 
any steps on the part of our government that would 
antagonize the Sultan or that could be construed as 
interference by any of the European powers. The 
Turkish question, so far as it affects in any wise our 
own x)olicy or public duty, is thus made over by Mr. 
Cleveland to Mr. McKinley even more completely 
than the Cuban issue. It is true that we have 
within the past few weeks had many assurances 
from beyond the seas that at last the European con- 
cert is in harmony and that Russia, France and 
England have definitely agreed that they will make 
a joint naval demonstration and compel the Sultan 
to institute sweeping reforms throughout the whole 
empire. Italy and Austria are said to have given 
their consent to this arrangement, while Oermany 



BULGARIA 



8 



Ihmid 



IRHJSSIA 



. o 



Tiflis 



ANA 

"Smyrna 



Angora. Chorum y^j^'^^^^^iJ^Xf^^^^.s^ 

mosui 




Ii,o600 

Aieppo> 



^fJiir^f^JfrA/iE/l/f 



^& MtLES^ 



^^ fCaAN MASSACRBS. [Tbe figures are those given In the Ck>nBular reports as the number of Armenians killed.] 



10 



THE REVIEW OF REI^IEWS, 



is rei)orted as neither participating nor protesting, 
but tacitly consenting by sufferance. Certainly it 
is to be hoped that Europe may agree upon some plan 
for coercing the Sultan before the whole Armenian 
race is exterminated. But we have had so many 
reports at different times of prospective intervention 
by the joint action of the x)owers, that this time we 
shall wait for the event before indulging in ardent 
hopes. Who will be American Minister to Turkey ? 

Mr. cieue/and ^^- Cleveland's message to Congress, 
on the — his last annual state paper of this 

Cuban Rebellion, kind,— was a very long document, 
filling about twelve closely printed newspaper 
colunms. The public was especially anxious to 
know what Mr. Cleveland would have to say 
about the relation of this country to the situation 
in Cuba. His remarks upon that topic were cer- 
tainly not disappointing by reason of their brevity, 
inasmuch as they would fill five or six pages of tbis 
magazine if reprinted as an excerpt from the mes- 
sage. Reviewing the facts of the war. Mr. Cleve- 
land could not find that either side had made any 
great progress during the past few months. The 
Spaniards hold the towns, while the Cuban insur- 
gents roam at will over at least two thirds of the 
island. Spain has sent reinforcements from time 
to time, and her army in Cuba is larger than ever 
before, but on the other hand the evidence shows 
that the insurgents are more numerous and better 
provided with mimitions of war than at any pre- 
vious time. Mr. Cleveland sees no prospect what 
ever of an early termination of the struggle. The 
sort of warfare the Cubans are carrying on seems 
to the President to be capable of indefinite prolon- 
gation. Meanwhile the tendency of both parties to 
devastate the island by destroying property, and to 
violate in other respects all rules of civilized war 
fare, seems constantly increasing. Mr. Cleveland 
reminds us that this country has large financial 
interests in Cuba which are being sacrificed, while 
it is also costing us a great deal of money to main- 
tain a legally correct neutrality. He suggests 
that if Spain should offer to Cuba a full measure of 
home rule, Cuba remaining subject to Spanish sov- 
ereignty, such a solution ought to be satisfactory on 
both sides. And he is of opinion that if the Cubans 
should be doubtful of Spain's good faith in making 
such an offer, the United States might well consent 
to give guarantees for the carrying out of the ar- 
rangement. For the present, he strongly recom- 
mends the continuance by the United States of its 
policy of strict neutrality, but he does not fail to 
say in conclusion that there may come a time when 
we must recognize higher obligations than our legal 
duty towards Spain, and interfere in order to save 
the remnants of Cuba from utter destruction. All 
of which is true enough ; but it avoids altogether 
the practical question that the people of the United 
States must face and settle in some way. Mr. 
Cleveland makes it perfectly plain that the struggle 
going on in Cuba is a useless and a ruinous one, —a 



deadlocked situation. Spain has gone too far 
withdraw, yet has no reasonable prospect of bei 
able to reduce the island to order. The insurKei 
can apparently keep up the insurrection indefinite 
yet in their lack of seaports, ships, and outside cc 
nections, they are not likely for a long time to i 
pel or wear out the Spanish soldiers. The only cc 
elusion to be drawn from the President's discussi 
is that sooner or later the United States must int< 
fere. But who is to determine the precise nionie 
when what the President calls "higher considc 
ations " should lead us to act ? Perhaps Mr. Clev 
land means to have the country imderstand th 
such a time will come after the inauguration of h 
successor. Only two months now remain of h 
term, and if there is to be intervention in Cuba 
would perhaps be better that the policy should 1 
initiated by the McEinley administration. 

The country would probably have bee 
If^Maeeo. ready enough to accept Mr. Cleveland 

plan of postponement, but for the fact thi 
the message was immediately followed by a grei 
sensation in Cuba,— a sensation that intensified tli 
popular American feeling against Spain. It wa 
reported through the Spanish military authoritic 
that G^eneral Antonio Maceo, the intrepid leader c 




A SPANISH CARTOON (Showing how ** Uncle Sam's " cold 
northern breeze threatens to cost Spain her Cnban hat and 
her Philippine cloak, while also raising the dnst of Carlist and 
Republican revolutions at home against the monarchy). 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 



11 




THX ULTX OKN. ANTONIO MACBO. 

the insnrgent forces in the western half of Caha, 
had been killed in a skirmish. The rex)ort was at 
flnt denied by the insurgents, but after a few day? 
it was admitted to be true. Friends of the Cuban 
cause, however, spread abroad a detailed and cir- 
cmnstantial story to the effect that Maceo had been 
tretcherously persuaded to meet certain of the 
Spanish leaders under a flag of truce, and that with 
the members of his staff he was murdered by men 
in ambush, the whole plot having been conceived by 
high Spanish officials. This story was commonly be- 
Keved in the United States, although promptly 
denied from Madrid and Havana, and the excite- 
ment and indignation it occasioned were remarkably 
wide spread. The evidence seems altogether in- 
»Tiffici«it Nevertheless, those wlio know something 
of the methods of Spain in Cuba and in the Philip- 
pines are quite ready to believe that insurgent lead- 
en are not considered as soldiers engaged in regular 
warfare, but as traitors and malefactors ; and that 
any means of catching them or exterminating them 
ar»» considered justifiable. Therefore if the story of 
Marco's ai«assination should indeed be contrary to 
the facts, it is not in the least false to the spirit of 
Spanish methods. 

Among various resolutions introduced in 

^mmIST Congress having for their aim the assist- 

^' ance of the Cuban insurgents by the 

United States, was one for which Senator Cameron 



of Pennsylvania assumed responsibility, — a short 
resolution, expressly recognizing the independence 
of the Republic of Cuba, and offering to Spain the 
friendly offices of the United States government to 
bring the present war to an end. The Senate com- 
mittee on foreign relations, after having had the 
benefit of a long conference in secret session with 
Secretary Olney, surprised the country on Decem- 
ber l»th by agreeing with practical unanimity to 
make a favorable report upon the Cameron resolu- 
tion. On account of the adjournment of the Sen- 
ate over Saturday and Sunday, the resolution was 
not reported until Monday, the 21st, when Senator 
Cameron made an elaborate argument in favor of 
his position, defending especially the power of Con- 
gress to recognize a new state as against the com- 
monly received view that such recognition must be 
an executive act. It was well understood when the 
committee agreed to rei)ort the Cameron resolution 
that a long discussion must ensue in the Senate, and 
that this debate could not take place until after the 
adjournment of Congress for the Christmas holi- 
days. It remains therefore to be seen what will 
become of a resolution which,— although probably 
in harmony with the feelings of a large majority of 
both houses of Congress, is also, evidently enough, 
quite contrary to the views and wishes of President 
Cleveland. 



Canovaa Meanwhile, on Saturday, the 19th, the New 
to York Journal published an extremely im- 

Amertea. pQ^^nt interview with Prime Minister 
Canovas del Castillo, which Mr. James Creelmau. 
as the JoumaVa representative, had obtained on 
the previous day in Madrid The interview took 
the form of a statement, evidently prepared with 
great care by the head of the Spanish government. 
Canovas promises that Cuba shall have what he 
terms a liberal measure of home rule after the insur- 
gents have been conquered ; but he states expressly 
that: 

Spain will not under any circumstances grant to Cuba 
autonomy after the fashion of Canada. All essential pre- 
rogatives of sovereignty and powers of government in 
that colony will continue to be exercised here in Spain. 
This government will not yield an inch to force or to 
threats of force. No concession of any kind will be made 
until the insurrection in Cuba has been brought under 
control and until Spain can give what she refuses to 
allow anyone to take, either by armed insurrection or by 
treasonable intrigues with other nations. 

Prime Minister Canovas then continues this re- 
markable interview with the following clear and 
unambiguous paragraphs : 

President Cleveland has oflflcially tendered the good 
offices of his government to procure peace upon the basis 
of Cuban autonomy. Spain has made the only reply 
that could be made to snch an offer under existins? cir- 
cumstances. I repeat that a generous measure of local 
self-Kovemment will be established m Cnba when the 
military Bituation in that island is such that the Spanish 
government can freely exercise its own discretion with- 



12 



THE REyiElV OF RE^IEIVS. 




By ooortesy of the JoumdL 

CANOVAS DEL CASTILLO. 

out giving any opportunity for the accusation that it 
acts upon compulsion. We will not swerve in the 
slightest degree from that i)olicy, no matter what may 
come. 

Spain is strong enough to carry on the cami>aigns in 
Cuba and the Philippine Islands until peace is restored, 
no matter how long the struggle may last. This nation 
is united; the Queen, the government and the people 
have but one mind— they are determined to continue the 
wars until insurrections are crushed. The recent war 
loan was doubly subscribed by our own people, and our 
soldiers go to the field with the greatest enthusiasm. 

Spain will defend herself at all hazards. She seeks no 
foreign war, but she fears not war. The question of the 
comparative strength of nations does not enter into the 
matter at all. 

There certainly can be found no promise of peace- 
ful settlement in this authoritative Spanish utter- 
ance. The kind of home rule that Mr. Cleveland 
favors for Cuba is a kind that Spain will never 
Kfant. Cuba has no future except the alternative 
of complete separation from Spain or else abso- 
lute Spanish domination. This Spanish attitude 
can but stimulate ten fold the activities of the 
American friends of Cuban liberty ; and it is diffi- 
cult to believe.— in spite of the protests of business 
men who fear the effect of a quarrel with Spain 
upon financial interests, — that Confess will not 
after due discussion pass the Cameron resolution 
declaring its recognition of Cuban independence. 
Canovaa says that ** Independent Cuba would mean 
fifty years of anarchy :** but Cuba and the United 
States are ready to try the experiment. 



It need not be supposed that the demise 
^oltti^? Maceo will seriously affect the fortunes 

the insurgents. It is true that the des 
of so effective and gallant a general is a serious lo 
for 'Maceo was no ordinary guerilla, but a strateg: 
of genius and a cavalry leader of redoubtable coi 
age and great brilliancy. But he had already ma 
his immeasurable contribution to the cause of 1: 
coimtry. and there will be others to carry on h 
work. He had built up his army to the point whe 
it could survive his death. Two or three names • 
men well qualified to succeed him were at once pr 
posed, the choice falling upon General Juan Ru 
Rivera. It is rather perplexing that so little hi 
been heard during the past few months from Gei 
Gk)mez, the aged Cuban leader who is in commai] 
of operations in the eastern part of the island, 
would seem that he has been quietly recuperatin 
his forces and awaiting developments, with the ii 
tention at the proper moment of moving westwar 
to join the forces which Maceo had gathered v 
Pinar del Rio, west of the trocha. The dispositio 
of our Congress has been strongly in favor of som 
action at an early day in behalf of Cuba ; and publi 
opinion, especially in the South and West, has beei 
demanding interference by this coimtry. Th 




From a drawing for the JoumaX. 

GEN. RIVERA, BiACEO'S SUCCESSOR. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



13 




GEN. WETLER. 



Spanish authorities in Madrid have found no open 
thvM with the President's message, which 'is prob 
ably as mild as they had expected. Qren, Weyler in 
Caha has been going through the motions of cam- 
paiioiiiig ; but there is no evidence that in his various 
little excursions from his palace at Havana he has 
really participated in any engagements, or done 
anything that exhibited either military ability or 
personal courage. Of his ferocious cruelty there 
can now be no^doubt : while the impression that he 
is merely a specimen of 
the cowardly, treacherous 
and ineffective type of 
miUtary governor, is con- 
stantly growing in Spain 
as well as in the United 
States. There has been 
moch talk at Madrid of 
his recall. But it seems 
that the government of 
Prwnier Canovas has con- 
cluded to allow him to 
ihow what he can do to- 
wards suppressing the re- 
bellion within the next 
two or three months. If 
tfaentnation has not made marked changes in favor of 
Spain by the time Mr. McKinley takes the presiden- 
tial chair, there is some reason to believe that 
Spain will at heart welcome American interference. 
The continuance of the war in Cuba is ruining the 
finances of Spain, but Spanish pride will not allow 
a rarrender of the situation to the insurgents. 
Such an ignominious end of the conflict would 
oTerthrow not only the existing Spanish cabinet 
hot the monarchy itself. If, however, the United 
Statw appears on the scene and snatches Cuba from 
ihf hand of Spain, the effect upon the political 
^itoation at home in Madrid would be very differ- 
♦•nt The people of the United States may be sure 
that there is no chance of a serious or prolonged 
war between this country and Spain. The inter- 
ference of our government would be followed very 
I«romptly by negotiations, which would result in 
the evacuation of Cuba by the Spaniards and the 
establishment of a Cuban Republic. There is very 
little Hentiment anywhere in favor of the annexa 
tiijo of Caba to the United States, but there is much 
favorable talk about an independent Cuban Repub- 
lic closely related to this country,— probably with 
a fiical policy assimilated to ours under a reciprocity 
tn^ty. or some such arrangement. It has been un- 
officially asserts in the interest of Spain that our 
mx>jaiition of the Cuban Republic would l>e 
jTomptly followed by protests from France. Russia 
and Holland. France and Holland have West 
Indian islands of their own, and moreover their citi- 
wu* are large holders of Spanish Cuban securities. 
Russia's interest is alleged to be that of an ally of 
France^ But we do not attach the slightest im- 



portance to these predictions, which emanate from 
Spanish sources and have nothing to rest upon. 

About the Venezuelan question Mr. Cleve- 
Acquiesces. ^^^ ^*^ ^^* much to say in the message 
beyond declaring that the agreement be- 
tween the United States and Great Britain had 
practically taken the whole subject out of the field 
of controversy. He added, what must give reason 
able people everywhere great satisfaction, that 
•* negotiations for a treaty of general arbitration 
for all differences between Great Britain and the 
United States are far advanced, and promise to reach 
a successful consummation at an early date.'* It is 
believed that this general arbitration treaty will be 
concluded within a few w^eeks. as the crowning act 
of Mr. Cleveland's second term as chief magistrate 
of the United States. It was to be expected that 
opinion in Venezuela would not at first blush accept 
with perfect unanimity the precise arrangement 
which Mr. Olney and Lord Salisbury had agreed 
upon. President Crespo and his chief advisers, how- 
ever, were solidly in favor of complete acquiescence. 
Mr. Andrade. who represents Venezuela at Wash- 
ington, had been in communication with Mr. Olney 
throughout the negotiations, and he has since used 
his influence at Caracas in behalf of the treaty. 
We cannot help feeling that, in view of all the ante- 
cedent facts, Venezuela had a right to expect that 
the American commission would bring its labors to 
a conclusion with a full and explicit report. The 
acceptance by Venezuela of the arbitration plan, 
with its clause giving England prescriptive rights 
where it can be shown that British subjects have 
been in actual occupancy for at least fifty years, re- 
flects great credit upon the moderation and good 
sense of the little republic. The Venezuelans might 

well have asked for 
an agreement first 
upon the boundary 
line without any limi- 
tations, this decision 
to be followed by ne- 
gotiations for the 
transfer of settled 
districts. But it is 
our opinion that both 
sides will get substan- 
tial justice under the 
terms of the treaty 
that has been ar- 
ranged by Mr. Olney 
and Lord Salisbury; 
and we must repeat 
our opinion of last 
month that immense 
credit is due to the 
government at Wash- 
THE QUJCEN OP HOLLAND. iugtou aud also to the 
(From a new photograph.) government at Lon- 




14 



THE REyiEiV OF REVIEWS. 



don for finding this solution. Some of our Eng- 
lish friends are going too far in their attempt to 
show that certain principles are permanently estab- 
lished as a consequence of this treaty. It does not 
in the least follow that, as has been claimed in 
England, the United States must now always admit 
England's right of sovereignty over any district, no 
matter in whose dominions, where England may 
settle and maintain occupancy for fifty years. Nor 
does it follow, on the other hand, as many persons 
i n England 
have claimed, 
that the Uni- 
ted States, 
under what 
is termed the 
Olney exten 
si on of the 
Monroe doc- 
trine, makes 
itself neces- 
sarily respon- 
sible for the 
Latin- Ameri- 
can republics 
in the sense 
that it must 
account for 
their obliga 
tions and de- 
1 i n quencies. 
The United 
States is as- 
suredly under 

a general obligation to use its influence throughout 
the Western world in behalf of good order and good 
government at home, and of honor and faith- 
keeping in international relations. But the United 
States does not propose to guarantee Latin-Ameri- 
can republics against revolutions, nor to assure 
speculative investors in Europe that the interest 
will always be paid on South American bonds. 

South S^^th America in general seems to have 
American had a rather quiet twelve -month during 
Affairs. ^YiQ year just ended. There is Always un- 
easiness in one South American country or another, 
but the past year has been more than usually serene. 
Bolivia, which some years ago lost her seacoast, 
thanks to the aggressiveness of Chili, has been 
regaining some of her old-time assertiveness under 
an unwontedly vigorous administration, with a con- 
sequence of finding herself embroiled with two or 
three neighbors at the same time over boundary 
questions. Under her present territorial limits, 
Bolivia is bounded on the north and east by Brazil, 
on the south by Paraguay, the Argentine Republic 
and Chili, and on the west by Chili and Peru. With 
the exception of Paraguay, Bolivia is the only South 
American country which has not ample access to 



the sea. It is unreasonable that slie sboul 
sea coasif, and eventually she may well co 
regaining her Littoral department, -which 
propriated as a war indemnity by Chili soi 
teen years ago. 




SENOR FERNANDEZ ALONSO, 
President of Bolivia. 



Mexico and the 

Fifth Inauguration 

of Oen. Diaz. 



As a rule, the Latin -Axa erica 
lies provide in their cons 
either that the president sha 
eligible for a second term, or that there mr 
interval between terms. The exception w 
republic of Mexico forms is therefore the mo 
ing. President Porfirio Diaz has recent; 
inaugurated for his fifth term. His tenure 
expire until the autumn of the year 1900, 
will then have held the presidential oflflce for 
consecutive years (from 1884 to 1900), besi( 
first term, which extended from 1876 to 1880 
constitution of Mexico has had to be changred 
or two in order to permit Gen. Diaz to ren 
the helm. It must not be supposed that Diaz 
tains his supremacy without arousing criticia 
opposition in Mexico; but public opinion, , 
understand the term in the United States, c 




"VOTES AND BOOTS"— A COLLOQUY BETWEEN TRI- 
UMPHANT CANDmATES. 

Gen. Diaz : " I congratulate you, my dear neighbor, upon 
your large majority." 

Major McKinley : " And I you upon your iDcomparable 
boots, my valiant general." 

From El Hijo del Ahuizote (Mexico). 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



16 



be said to exist in onr neighbor republic. The elec- 
tions are little more than a farce. The governors 
of the states in many cases remain in office term 
after term, with scarcely a pretense of going through 
the form of having themselves re-elected. We re- 
produce this month two or three cartoons from a 
weekly paper published in the City of Mexico which 
goes so far in its criticism of Gen. Diaz and his cab- 
inet officers, — who also, like the President, are 
•ccused of holding their places in perpetuity, — that 
the very boldness of its attacks and the unrestrained 
freedom of its caricatures seem to us to go a long 
way toward refuting its constant complaint that 
Gen. Diaz has overthrown the constitutional liberty 
of the press. Upon the whole, Gkn. Diaz is a most 
excellent mler for Mexico; and the country is fortu- 
nate in his continued occupancy of the presidential 
chair. The spirit of his government is in the main 
fair and just, and it makes a very favorable showing 
by the side of Latin- American government in gen- 
eriL Moreover, when compared with the adminis- 
tration of Cuba by Spanish governor-generals, the 
rale of President Diaz in Mexico is as the light of 
noonday to the darkness of midnight. 

j^ The patience of the coxmtry has had a 

immta and great deal to endure from the manner 
tM* Tariff. jj^ which Secretary Carlisle for more 
than two years past has discussed the question of 
the public revenues. It is not surprising therefore 
that the country's patience came near the i)oint of 
exbaostion when the President's message of Decem- 
ha 7th imdertook. by means of the most preposter- 
*mg fallacies, to show that there was no need of 
iocreafiing the revenues, because forsooth the treas- 
orr was already groaning under the burden of an 
«oonnou8 surplus which should be spent for public 
€nda rather than locked up in idleness. For three 
T«are. owing to the complete failure of thje Wilson- 
Gorman act to bring a sufficient revenue into the 
treawiry. the government has been paying out for cur- 
rent expenses a vast deal more than has come to it in 
the form of current receipts. In consequence, the 
coontry has been plunged into a fresh bonded debt 
of $262,000,000, with a great many years to run, and 
with an annual interest charge approximating some- 
where near ten million dollars. Although everyone 
T» perfectly aware of what has been done with the 
mcHiey. it is the amazing truth that Mr. Carlisle and 
Mr. Cleveland have never admitted for a moment 
that they have sold bonds and borrowed cash for 
any oth^ purpose except to protect the gold reserve. 
Snch disingenuous trifling with a serious problem 
in finance has deceived nobody, and it has detracted 
▼ery much from Mr. Carlisle's otherwise excellent 
repntation. The President, of course, has merely 
•coepted the Secretary's form of statement Senator 
^Winan has repeatedly asserted that if the treasury 
had been in receipt of an ample revenue, there would 
have been no need to sell bonds for the purpose of 
protecting the gold reserve. Senator Sherman is 
probably right in this position, although it is a mat- 



ter of opinion rather than of fact. The colossal 
blimder of Mr. Cleveland's whole public career was 
his failure to veto the Wilson- Gorman bilL That in- 
consistent and unscientific measure was changed in 
the Senate beyond all recognition, and passed at 
length in a form which was satisfactory to nobody. 
Although in its first form it was launched as a 
decisive step towards the permanent abrogation of 
the American protective policy, it has apparently 
had the result of confirming the country for years 
to come in the maintenance of protection. It is now 
certain that nothing can be done in the present 
session to change the revenue laws; but Chairman 
Dingley and his colleagues of the Ways and Means 
committee are busily at work constructing a general 
tariff and revenue bill which it is believed can be 
passed at the extra session of the Fifty-fifth Con- 
gress which it is expected Mr. McKinley will call 
immediately after his inauguration. It still re- 
mains to be seen whether or not such a bill can be 
carried through the Senate. It is considered possible 
though not certain. Several free-silver senators of 
Republican antecedents and protective-tariff affilia- 
tions are believed to be ready to lay aside the money 
question for the time being, and to vote with the 
regular Republican senator^ in favor of a new pro- 
tective tariff. It is announced that the bill will be 
an extremely moderate one, its object being to in 
crease the revenue quite as much as to repair the 
gaps in the wall of protection t>iat were made In a 
random and haphazard fashion by the Wilson -Gor- 
man act of 1898. Although there is a wide demand 
on the part of thoughtful business men for some 
change in the currency and banking laws which shall 
prevent the recurrence of gold panics, the victorious 
Republican i)arty is not showing much disposition 
to take up the currency problem. At least we may 
be sure that no attention will be' paid to that ques- 
tion until the tariff is revised and the depleted 
revenues are restored. It is even reported that Mr. 
McKinley will not make any appointments to office, 
other than the cabinet members, until the tariff 
question has been settled. However that may be, 
no one can doubt Mr. McKinley's desire to see pro- 
tection re-established in a logical and symmetrical 
sense, and the public revenues made ample for the 
public needs. Some brief contributions, published 
elsewhere in this number of the Review, from ac- 
complished students of public finance, contain sug- 
gestions that are well worth attention at Washing- 
ton and throughout the country. 



As to " Cabinet 
Material " and the Out- 
look for Stateamanshlp. 



The gossip about Mr. McKinley's 
cabinet has had its daily space in 
the newspapers ever since elec- 
tion day. But no evidence has been brought for- 
ward to show that a single selection has been made, 
or that anybody has been invited by Mr. McKinley 
to take a jwrtfolio. The discussion has had one 
good effect, however, in that it has shown the 
country— at a time when it is the fashion to say that 
we have no statesmen of first-rate calibre— how 



^ I 

t m 

/ 



16 



THE REyiElV OF REVIEWS. 



really wide a range of choice Mr. McKinley has 
before him without Tenturing beyond the lists of 
well-known and able men. Take for example the 
delicate and difficult position of Secretary of State. 
Among the names of men seriously suggested for 
this position have been those of the Hon. Andrew 
D. White, Joseph H. Choate, Chauncey M. Depew 
and Benjamin F. Tracy of New York ; Thomas B. 
Reed of Maine, Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachu- 
setts, John Sherman of Ohio, Benjamin Harrison and 
John W. Foster of Indiana, Robert R. Hitt of Illi- 
nois, William B. Allison of Iowa and Cushman K 
Davis of Minnesota. If any one of these gentlemen 
should be selected for the position of Secretary of 
State, nothing would be easier than to exhibit on 
behalf of the appointee a list not only of general 
qualifications, but also of special and distinctive 
ones. And we have by no means exhausted the panel 
of well-known Republicans who might assume the 
duties of Secretary of State on grounds of fitness 
that would be generally admitted. As for the Sec- 
retaryship of the Treasury, Mr. Dingley of Maine, 
Senator Aldrich of Rhode Island, Mr. Cornelius Bliss 
of New York, Senator Sherman and Mr. Hanna of 
Ohio, Senator Allison, Ex- Governor Merriam of 
Minnnesota. and half a dozen others have been 
talked of without arousing in the public mind any 
sense of incongruity or imfituess. For other cabinet 
positions, good men by the score have been named 
by the newspapers. We are ready, certainly, to 
welcome higher manifestations of statesmanship 
than have been apparent on the average in this 
country for some years past. But we shall not get 
better men in public life by belittling the abilities 
or disparaging the character of good men whose 
services are already available. Mr. Cleveland has 
rendered an almost immeasurable aid to young pub- 
lic men who would like to pass from the grade of 
politicians up to that of statesmen, by his splendid 
enlargement of the sphere of the civil-service act. 
When once we shall have transferred the small post- 
offices from the domain of party spoils to that of the 
non-partisan merit system, the pitfalls of " patron- 
age," which have been the ruin of so many promis- 
ing congressional careers, will be mainly a thing of 
the past. Apart from a few offices of serious im- 
portance, it is not likely that Mr. McKinley will 
permit the question of appointments to absorb his- 
attention, nor will his cabinet officers be tempted to 
indulge in any carnival of spoils-dispensing. They 
will be only too glad to protect themselves from the 
office-seekers behind the ^ver strengthening barrier 
of the civil-service acts. All of which is cause for 
congratulation. 

Statesmanship ^he question how to secure tl^ ser- 
Veraus Bossism vices of statesmen in place of politi- 
m New York. q\qj^ ^j^g taken concrete form in New 
York, where the Republicans have the choice of a 
United States Senator to succeed Mr. David B. 
Hill. The Hon. Joseph H. Choate, recently presi- 
dent of the Constitutional Convention of New York, 



— a lawyer of the highest distinction, a man "vr 
enjoys to an almost unexampled degree the adc 
ration and regard of the •community, and whc 
principle it is not to seek public office nor yet 
decline any public duty. — is available for the plac 
His candidacy has been actively urged througho 
the state, and he has consented to be known as 
candidate. The only other person named for tl 
place is Mr. Thomas C. Piatt, the well known R 




HON. JOSEPH H. CHOATE. 

publican "boss." When Mr. Choate's candidacy 
was first declared, Mr. Piatt is said to have re- 
marked that there would not be more tban six 
votes in both houses of the legislature for the dis- 
tinguished lawyer. Everyone, it should be under- 
stood, is agreed in praising Mr. Choate, and in pro- 
nouncing him conspicuously qualified for brilliant 
and useful service in the Senate. Last summer, 
when Mr. Piatt's candidacy for the governorship 
of the state was broached, he is reported as sa}ing 
that he did not aspire to the office, but preferred to 
remain in private life as " a plain, simple boss." 
If he should now decide that he prefers to remain 
a ''simple boss" rather than go to the United 
States Senate, he would probably give his support to 
Mr. Choate 's candidacy. In which case, every 
member of the overwhelming Republican majority 
in both branches of the Legislature would vote for 
Mr. Choate with alacrity and with sincere pleas- 
ure. Public opinion is overwhelmingly in favor of 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD, 



17 



Mr. Choate*8 selection. Nobody, on the other hand, 
really believes that Mr. Piatt is the right man to 
send to the Senate. Nevertheless, such is Mr. 
putt's control of the situation that his bidding will 
be done without question. Public opinion will 
have no direct effect upon the legislature, and iu 
only remains to be seen whether or not public 
opinion will have influenced Mr. Piatt himself. So 
far as we are aware, no '* boss 'Mn t^l the history of 
American politics has ever attained so great a 
mastery as Mr. Piatt now possesses. The precise 
methods by which tnis mastery has been obtained 
have never been revealed to the public, although 
many charges have been made which if substan- 
tiated would not leave Mr. Piatt with a very honor- 
able reputation in our political history. The new 
Governor of New York, Mr. Black, enters upon his 
dndee under the disadvantage of being thought like 
his predecessor Mr. Morton to be the abject crea- 
ture of a real ruler behind the scenes. He is generally 
looked upon as Mr. Piatt *s dummy in the guberna- 
torial chair. It must be remembered that Gk>vemor 
Black, like his predecessor Governor Morton, is a 
j:«ntleinan of high reputation, in whose integrity 
aoid sincere desire to render the state good service, 
everyone fully believes. But we are living, it is ex 
gained, under a system of party government; and 
in New York even more than elsewhere party organ- 
iation is respected and party headship dominates. 
Inaamnch as the Republican party of New York 
chooses to keep Mr. Piatt as its undisputed chief, 
Ifr. Black, as a Republican governor, must consult 
Mr. Piatt's preferences before filling official posts, 
•nd the Republican legislature must know Mr. 
Platt^fl will before choosing a senator or enacting 
important laws. Such is the actual government of 
the Empire State as we enter upon this new year of 
grace 1897. 

^nMoecta "^ ^ ^°® important matter of legis- 
ft um *' Oreater lation to come up at Albany this 

MwYork." winter, it is well understood that 
Mr. Piatt's orders have been given in advance. We 
refer to the completion of the programme which 
was begun by the passage last year of the so-called 
*' Greater New York bill. ** The Commission which 
Governor Morton, —presumably with Mr. Piatt's 
aid, — selected for the preparation of a charter, has 
be^i working with great diligence for some weeks 
post, and its labors are just completed as these pages 
are closing for the press. We must reserve until 
next month our comment upon the form of the pro- 
posed framework of government for the metropolis. 
It is understood that Mr. Piatt has been kept in touch 
with the work of the charter commission, and that 
his decisive influence will be brought to bear to 
secure the ratification of the charter by the legisla* 
tore without much debate or any material change. 
Thus the prospect is that the Greater New York 
wiQ become a realized, working fact in the early 
fature. Good government for this huge metropolis, — 
under the proposed charter or under any other system 
or framework of government,— can only be had as a 



result of great diligence and grim determination on 
the part of the best citizens, acting together without 
regard to national party lines. We have faith to 
believe that the object lesson in good administration 
which New York has had under Mayor Strong and 
the present rigivfie, will be taken to heart: and that 
conditions will henceforth tend upon the average to 
grow better rather than worse. Mr. Piatt's type of 
Republicanism and Mr. Croker's type of Tammany 
Democracy are united in enmity to non-partisan 
good government for the city of New York; but 
they are doomed to defeat in the long run. 

Another ^® ^°® great claim of national service 
"Foot-note put forward in behalf of Mr. Piatt as 
to History." entitling him to a seat in the United 
States Senate, is his alleged success in securing the 
adoption of the gold standard plank in the St. Louis 
Republican platform. The bit of fiction which 
asserts that Mr. Piatt, —whose sole concern before 
the convention met was. first, the nomination of 
Mr. Morton as his own private candidate, and, sec- 
ond, in any event the defeat of Mr. McKinley,— had 
something to do with the shaping of the platform, 
has come to be accepted as if it were fact instead of 
fiction, simply because of its constant repetition in 
the New York newspapers. Our readers were set 
ri^ht on that i>oint at the time; but it remains true 
that the inside history of the framing and adoption 
of the gold plank at St. Louis has not been generally 
known. Mr. Walter Wellman contributes to this 
number of the Review a detailed account of the rise 
and progress of that famous plank. Its precise, final 
shape was due to the efforts of a distinguished citi- 
zen of Chicago, Mr. Kohlsaat of the Times-Herald. 
Mr. Wellman*s account is not based upon rumor, 
and may be regarded as authoritative. 

The Discussion ^h® P^^^^^ P"»<» ^^^^ teemed in 
of " Trusts" and these past weeks with discussion of 
Corporate AtHises. ^y^^ question how to deal with 
** trusts,'' and how to lessen the political and eco- 
nomic dangers incidental to enormous aggregpations 
of productive capital. Every part of the country 
has its own case in point. In New York, the half 
dozen gas companies have recently formed a combi- 
nation which is deemed by the newspapers preju- 
dicial to the interests of the community. The price 
of gas is certainly much higher than it ought to be» 
not to say anything of the quality furnished. With 
very scant public notice, the New York Board of 
Aldermen, early in December, voted to grant a fran- 
chise to a new company which proposes to dispense 
fuel gas, and distribute motive power. The com- 
pany was accorded a very comprehensive range of 
privileges, in return for which a frivolously small 
compensation to the public treasury was exacted. 
The newspapers joined in a vigorous attack upon 
the scheme, and Mayor Strong declared his opposi- 
tion to it. pronouncing the charter worth a compen- 
sation of at least $10,000,000 to the public treasury. 
The outburst of public opinion was so vigorous that 
the Aldermen rescinded their vote, and referred 



18 



THE REyiElV OF RE^IEIVS. 



the proposed franchise to a committee appointed 
to consider the feasibility of the direct municipal 
manufacture and supply of gas. The incident serves 
well to show that public opinion is having a very 
wholesome and satisfactory development in a city 
which was once the easy prey of boodlers and fran- 
chise-grabbers. It is through the further education 
and development of this kind of public opinion that 
the hope for future good government must lie in 
the city of New York. Furthermore, it is along 
these lines that the broad question how to control 
the trusts must in the end find its answer. President 
Cleveland made a strong pronouncement in his 
message of December 7 th against the practices of 
trusts and combinations; but he was inclined to con- 
sider that the United States anti- trust law as it now 
stands is practically incapable of enforcement, and 
that the most effective remedies against corporate 
abuses are to be applied by the states respectively, 
rather than by the United States government. A 
committee of the Senate is now investigating charges 
brought against several so-called trusts, but there is 
no reason to expect imx>ortant resulta 

Social ^^* Theodore Roosevelt, in an article 
Wrongs and contributed to this number pf the Re- 
Remedies. yjE^^ points out with commendable 
clearness the uselessness of mere denunciation of 
capital and capitalists. Doubtless the great corpora 
tions are to be brought under close restriction and 
firm public control ; but on the other hand there are 
economic tendencies making for the concentration 
of productive capital which it is worse than idle to 
oppose. Before the supporters of a platform like that 
which was adopted at Chicago last summer can 
reasonably hope to be entrusted with the control of 
public affairs in this country, they must substitute 
simple, workable proposals for broad and glittering 
generalities. In this remark, of course, we have 
reference to the platform in general, apart from the 
free-silver plank, which was as specific as language 
could make it. In our judgment, the country has 
pronounced its deliberate and final judgment against 
^he free coinage of silver by the United States alone 
at a ratio of 16 to 1. The other doctrines which 
belong to the creed of Mr. Bryan and his supporters 
must take on a form as simple, lucid, and tangible 
as their silver plank, before the country can pass 
an intelligent verdict upon their demands. 

„ , ^ It must not be forgotten that Mr. Bryan's 

Revised ^ ^ u j • xi 

Election supporters are numerous enough and influ- 
Figures. ^^tial enough to be entitled to a full and 
patient hearing for whatever proposition they may 
decide to bring forward. All the early estimates 
seem to have done injustice to the size of the vote 
polled in favor of the Bryan electors. The figures 
published in the Review last month were the best 
that could be obtained at the time, but did not pur- 
port to be official and final. The corrected returns 
are now accessible, and an examination of the 
officially revised tables shows Mr. McKinley's 
plrrsJity to be much reduced as compared with 



the earlier estimates. Instead of a. rou 
ion plurality, the returns now sliow on 
700,000; and it is not therefore tme, as "wa 
supposed, that Mr. McKinley was elected 
largest popular plurality ever accorded in 
dential election. The immensity of the ajE 
polling— approximately 14,000,000 votes wer 
remains an occasion of general surprise ai 
comment. It would seem to indicate an ti 
dented turn-out of voters on the one banc 
very positive growth of population on the otl 
the voting in the Southern states had been n€ 
heavy in proportion to population as in the 
the total number of ballots cast would ce 
have exceeded 15,000,000. Four years ago th 
number of votes was about 12,000.000, and 
years ago it was nearly 11,400,000. 

ne Census of 1900 ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ election i 
and the Question of much interest will attach 

a Permanent Bureau ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ censUS enume 

which must be made a little more than three 
hence. The preparations for that ennmeratic 
under discussion. It is quite time that the plai 
so colossal an undertaking should be well in 1 
The best opinion upon this subject, both in Et 
and in America, unanimously favors the main ten 
of a permanent census bureau, as distingui 
from an organization temporarily created oui 
ten years. It is true that the actual enumerc 
must require the employment of a great arm 
temporary agents; but the director of the ce: 
should be a permanent official, and be should I 
in his office at Washington a staff of expert asi 
ants and statisticians always at work. Most ot 
special inquiries which are undertaken every 
years in connection with the census, could well 
distributed throughout the intervening years, 
that there would be no lack of tasks of an importi 
character to keep the bureau occupied H< 
Carroll D. Wright, Superintendent of the Depa 
ment of Labor, was authorized some time ago 
Congress to draft a bill outlining the organizati 
and work of a permanent census bureau. Coloi 
Wright has complied with this instruction, and I 
draft is now in the hands of the proper Cougrt 
sional committee. The American Statistical Ass 
ciatioQ and the American Economic Association, i 
their last annual meetings appointed representativt 
to confer as a joint committee upon this question c 
a permanent census bureau. This joint committe 
was made up of statistical experts and other gentk 
men having a wide general knowledge of the sub 
ject in question. A unanimous agreement has beei 
reached by the joint committee in favor of a perma 
nent census bureau; and Congress has been memo 
rialized to that effect. The statistical work of the 
Department of Agriculture might well be made over 
to such a permanent census bureau, and other 
statistical undertakings could from time to time be 
devolved upon the bureau as circumstances might 
seem to render advisable. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD, 



19 



SeMarship -A-propos of this active interest on the part 
ana of the Statistical Association and the 
€ooenim€nt. Economic Association in one branch of 
the scientific ^ork of the government, it is worth 
while to note, as a very encouraging sign of the 
times, the steadily increasing influence of American 
scholarship upon various governmental activities. 
The Library Association, which embodies great 
knowledge of the management and use of public 




ilEV. RICHARD S STORRS. D.D. 

collections of books, will have had its measure of 
inflaence upon the arrangement and developnaent 
of the great national library at Washington, the 
sTidden expansion of which is now made possible by 
the completion of the new building,— the finest 
hhrtry building by far in the world. The Ameri- 
can Economic/ Association, through the practical 
stndiee of those of its members who have devoted 
themselves especially to the science of finance, will 
etentually have played a very influential part in 
the shaping of our g^ovemmental systems of taxa- 
tion and currency. Several of these scholarly stu- 
<ient8 of American finance have, *at our request, 
nuide brief contributions, printed elsewhere in this 
nmnher of the Review, to the discussion of current 
prohlems in finance. The American Historical As- 
*^tion has brought itself into close touch with 
iiatiooal and governmental life, and has formed 



close alliances in Washington, which are destined 
to have an excellent influence upon the scholarly 
standards of much of the work done in the name of 
the United States government. It was gratifying, 
for instance, to the scholarship of the country that 
two distinguished members of the American His- 
torical Association, namely, Dr. Andrew D. White 
and Dr. D. C. Gilman, were made members of the 
Venezuelan Commission for the historical investi- 
gation of a disputed boundary line. The annual 
sessions of the Historical Association are held in 
holiday week, this time at New York ; and the 1896 
meeting will have been completed by the time this 
number of the Review reaches its readers. The 
Association has had for its presidents a succession 
of distinguished men, beginning with the late Mr. 
Q^orge Bancroft, and during the past year was under 
the presidency of the Rev. Dr. Richard S. Storrs, 
one of the truly great Americans of our generation. 
Dr. Storrs only a few weeks ago completed the 
fiftieth year of his pastorate in Brooklyn. The 
Church of the Pilgrims (Congregational) was 
formed in 1846, and Dr. Storrs, then entering ux>on 
his work as a minister, became its first pastor. His 
oratory, whether judged by pulpit standards or by 
those of the general platform, is of a character 
which upon the whole entitles him to the first place 
among living American speakers. He is not only 
an orator, but also a profound scholar in theology 
and history. He has made contributions to Ameri- 
can historical literature, and has also worked in the 
field of church history. The intellectual and 
moral life of the nation at its official centre 
must surely receive some uplift and inspiration, 
when men like Dr. Storrs and his fellow members 
of the Historical Association are brought into con- 
tact with our law making and administrative 
agencies. Scholarship in America is destined to 
affect, wisely and deeply, many affairs of public life 
and policy. 

r*« Coming There is an all round disposition in Eng- 
Sesaion of land to belittle in advance the work of 
ParUamwt. ^^ coming sessiou. Parliament will 
meet on January 19, and the ministry, it is expected, 
will content itself with an irreducible minimum of 
measures to be announced in the Queen's speech. 
It is not expected that it will yield so far to the 
clamor of the Church party as to introduce any 
measure sanctioning rate aid for voluntary schools. 
What is more probable is that there will be a central 
grant, not made to all schools, but to needy schools, — 
the need of the schools to be decided by some local 
representative body. Such at least is Sir William 
Hart Dyke's suggestion, and there se^ms some proba- 
bility of its being accepted. 

In discussing the Education bill, it is 

Behind the well to remember that neither Lord 

Throne. Salisbury nor Lord Hartington will 

really decide this matter. All political questions 

are in the end financial questions, and the man 



20 



THE REyiElV OF REt^/ElVS. 



who keeps the strong box of the cabinet is a very 
strong man indeed. Sir Michael Hicks-Beach is 
not an heroic figure nor a very popular speaker : 
but upon most questions that come up in the cabi- 
net he has more to say than any of his colleagues. 
Take for instance this matter of education. It is 
he who holds the strings of the purse, and although 
the Anglican Church plays the rdfe of the importu- 
nate widow, it may weep and wail from morning 
to night, without relaxing the heart of Sir Michael. 
In like manner it is probable that it is he who will 
decide definitely what is to be done in the way of 
carrying out the recommendations of the Recess 
Committee in Ireland. He is believed to hold very 
strong views in opposition to the finding of the 
Commission on the financial relations of the two 
countries, and although he is no more Irish Secre- 
tary than he is Minister of Education, it will be 
found that he is the predominant minister when 
these matters come up for settlement. It may be 
good advice, therefore, to journalists, politicians 
and readers generally who are studying British 
politics to keep their eye on Sir Michael Hicks- 
Beach. 

gf^ A very remarkable illustration of the im- 
Michaei'a perturbable doggedness of the man was 
Veto, afforded by his speech at Bristol last 
month. Lord Lansdowno was the chief speaker; and 
as Secretary for War, he took occasion to launch a 
very carefully prepared manifesto in favor of the 
increase of the army estimates. He pointed out 
that the cost of the army had remained stationary, 
while that of the navy had more than doubled. For, 
at the present moment, instead of having a home 
battalion for every battalion abroad, there are no 
fewer than eleven battalions on foreign service 
which ought to be serving at the home depots. So 
Lord Lansdowne went on pointing out that even if 
the army were regarded solely as the handmaid and 
fidus Achates of the navy, it must be kept up, if 
only for the sake of the coaling stations, without 
which British ironclads would be but logs in the 
water. It was a powerful manifesto, and there 
was much in it to which it would be very difficult to 
frame a plausible reply. But Sir Michael Hicks- 
Beach was present ; and no sooner had Lord Lans- 
downe sat down than he got up. and in a very few 
sentences made it perfectly clear that as long as he 
was Chancellor of the Exchequer, Lord Lansdowne 
might whistle for his money. With a calm out- 
spokenness he told Lord Lansdowne that the army 
should make better use of the money it had. instead 
of clamoring for more. A Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer who is capable of saying that on the spot, 
immediately after the delivery of such a manifesto 
by a Secretary of Stai^ for War, is clearly one who 
does not intend to allow any of his prerogatives to 
perish of atrophy. So long as Sir Michael holds his 
post the British treasury will be well guarded 
against extravagant outlays 



The chief vacation speaker 02 

Sp9ec1hli\'ng. ^^^^ ^^^® ^^ heen Mr. Miorle: 
Henry Campbell- Bannenxiaii 
been on his feet, while Mr. Asquitli and Lc 
bery have made non party si)e€»ch.e8. Mr. 
visit to his constituents might be regarde 
sense as a sort of reconnoissance to ascert 
the ground lay after the recent landslip 
Rosebery's resignation. So far as can b 
tained from the temper of the meeting's. 
Glasgow and Montrose boroughs, there -wa 
means any i)assionate indignation against th< 
might be held responsible for Lord Rosebery ' 
nation Neither was there any passionate e 
asm for calling Lord Rosebery back ag'ain 
Scotch public seem to have taken their countri 
resignation of the Liberal leadership with 
matic indifference, nor were there any sigms tl 
William Harcourt stands less well than he 
the estimation of the Scotch electorate. Mr. 3 
made reference to the American presidential 
tion in terms which were as judicious and 
weighed as those of Lord Salisbury were tl 
verse. It would be a mistake to take too seri 
the angry protests that have been made in the U 
States against Lord Salisbury's declaration tha 
victory of Mr. Bryan would have wrecked 
peace which lies at the basis of civilization, 
would have been wiser if Lord Salisbury had 
said it, because it is never well for the head 
foreign government to echo the invectives wj 
the victorious political party has hurled agains 
adversaries. It is like interfering between a 1 
and his wife when they are quarreling: the iuii 
diate result is to unite both parties against yc 
self. As a matter of fact, Lord Salisbury has neit 
the time nor the opportunity to form a dispassii 
ate judgment of the issues which divided parties 
the last election in the United States. 

virements in ^^^^^^S the French Empire, a practi 
the London became very popular in the gre 
County Council, gpgnding departments which wi 
known by the convenient name of Vivement 
Virements was the term used to describe the tran 
fer of money voted to one department for the ei 
penditure of another. After the Empire fell, n>ii 
Republican investigators discovered that the sya 
tern had been carried to such an extent as to en 
tirely destroy any financial check Money thai 
was voted for the fleet would be used for building 
a prefect's house ; while moneys voted for buying 
powder and shot would be appropriated for decorat- 
ing an Imperial pavilion. Last month the London 
CJounty Council discovered among the officials of its 
Works Department the beginning of a system of 
virement which if it had not been promptly checked 
might have had disastrous results. According to 
the finding of the committee charged with the in- 
vestigation, these officials were acquitted of hav- 
ing done anything corruptly, or with corrupt m- 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD, 



21 



tent : bnt what they did do was to treat the Works 
Department as if it were a trading concern, and 
they maniptilated accounts so as to pnt to the credit 
of a job which coet more than the estimate the snr 
pins accruing to a job which cost less than the esti- 
mate. According to the report of the committee 
there has been practiced since April, 1895, a system 
of acconnt keeping in which there have been : 

*M1) Falsely sig^ned and bogus transfers of materials 
from one job to another ; (2) transfers of materials val- 
ued at altogether unwarranted prices ; (3) incorrect 
Appropriation of invoices to a job when the goods were 
xkot Tided ; (4) materials sent from stock and not debited 
to the job ; (5) the deUberate alteration up and down of 
the ascertained cost of a job for purposes of so-called 
departmental advantage/' As one of the witnesses put 
it : '* When we. found we were going to have a loss, we 
took the profit from one job and gave it to another ; it 
was a system of leveling up and down.'' 



Tkt 



The officials have been dismissed, and 



0ittMk0 of an inquiry has been ordered into the 
tke Ho^tratet. department where such a practice had 
originated. The rule of red tape, therefore, will be 
made more stringent, for although much abused 
r«d tape is an absolutely indispensable element in 
managing the finance of public bodies. At the 
wont, the recalcitrant officials who have had their 
career cut short and are thrown loose on the world 
are guilty of an error of judgment which has been 
fpeedily detected and severely punished ; but to 
jndge from the exultation of the so called Moder- 
ates, it would appear that they have an absolute 
delight in discovering, revealing and monstrously 
exaggerating any mistake made by their fellow 
citizens if they have the misfortune to be in the 
employment of the Coonty CounciL The County 
OouQcil is the elect of London, and its members are 
discharging a great trust committed to them with 
an honesty, industry, and a public spirit which 
makes London the envy and despair of every great 
city in America. Nothing could be worse, either 
in taste or in policy, than to exult over every error 
that is committed in any of the details of London 
administration. That is not the way in which to 
develop civic spirit, or to encourage the best class 
of citizens to devote themselves to the thankless task 
of the treadmill of administrative routine. 

Achitve- Lord Grey's report upon the present con- 
•fMfj in dition of Charterland, dated Bulawayo. 
**•**•'•• October 16, records an achievement 
which, if it had been performed by any other au- 
thority than the Chartered Company, would have 
commanded the enthusiastic eulogy of everyone. As 
Lord Grey says, the British public finds it difficult 
to realise what the Chartered Company has done 
in carrying on a war for six months nearly 600 
miles away from the nearest railway terminus, and 
keifping in a state of efficiency a fighting force of 3.000 
men. 3.000 animals, and storing, in addition, suffi- 
cirtJt supplies to feed 40.000 natives for three months. 
It is. as he says, more difficult than the task would 



be of keeping a big civil population in comfort and 
an army of 8,000 in a state of efficiency for six 
months at John O' Groat's House by means of sup- 
plies brought from Land's End. when there was 
not a cart horse to be obtained in the country, or a 
single feed of grain on the road for the mules 
which had to haul the supplies over territory with 
out a single macadamized road. Of the settlement 
which has been made, Lord Grey speaks hopefully. 
It amounts to the establishment of native Home 
Rule for Matabeleland. Lobengida's indunas are 
to have £60 a year and a horse each, and are to 
govern their own people in their own way, subject 
to the authority of a Native Commissioner, who is 
to act as general peacemaker and nexus between 
the chiefs and the Chartered Company, Lord Grey 
hopes that by a system of industrial and agricul- 
tural shows the Matabele will learn to accommo- 
date themselves to a system of regular labor. Until 
January, however, they must be fed from hand to 
mouth to keep them alive. Owing to the ravages 
of the rinderpest and the havoc made by war, some 
forty thousand natives were to be fed on daily 
rations for three months. Lord Grey speaks in 
the highest terms of the many services rendered by 
Mr. Rhodes, of whom he says : 

With infinite patience and characteristic tenacity of 
purpose he has sat down at the base of the Matoppos in 
a camp unprotected by a single bayonet, which coald 
have been perfectly well rushed any night during the 
last six weeks by the rebels with absolute safety to 
themselves. It was entirely due to the confidence which 
this action on his part inspired in the minds of the rebels, 
who were very suspicious and alarmed as to the treat- 
ment they would receive if they surrendered, that they 
were at length induced to go out from the hills on to the 
flats. 

Next year will probably be one of privation and 
high prices, but nothing seems to abate the absolute 
confidence which the Rhodesians have in Rhodesia, 
and the capacity of exciting that confidence is no 
mean asset in the personal resources of Mr. Rhodes. 

The Niger ^^ ^ probable that this Christmas another 
Co. ana lie Chartered Company, that which governs 
LiWe War. ^j^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^jj^y ^^ ^j^^^ ^^^^ 

river, will have put its fortunes to the touch to win 
or lose its all. The object of the exx)edition which 
Sir Taubman Goldie, with the aid of a score of 
British officers, and some thousands of trained 
native troops, is about to imdertake in West Africa, 
is part of a great design which has been carefully 
matured for the last ten years. Sir Taubman 
Gtoldie is a remarkable man, who has set his mind 
upon exterminating the slave trade in a district 
inhabited by forty millionth of persons. In the 
Upper Niger, which lies nominally in the terri- 
tories of the company, but over which they have 
hitherto exercised no direct authority, prevails the 
worst system of slave trading in the world. It is 
from the valley of the Upper Niger that slaves are 
taken every year for export to all parts of northern 



22 



THE REVIEW OF REI^IEU^S. 




THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 



23 



Africa, to Constantinople, and to Arabia. Slaves 
indeed are the currency of the country, cowries are 
bat as their i)ennie8, for gold and silver coinage 
they nse slaves. The value of a slave rises in pro- 
portion to the distance from his native village, 
hence the remoteness of the human mine that is 
worked by the Arab slave miners on the Niger. A 
Blave from the Niger has no chance of getting back 
to the west coast from Egypt or Africa. 

j^ The proposal made by the Chief Constable, 
Hambyrg the Mayor, and the Chairman of the Trades 
9tnk€. QQxirt in Hamburg that the dispute which 
caused the dockers' strike in that seai>ort should be 
referred to arbitration is a good sign. They suggest 
that a board of eight members should be formed, 
fonr to be elected by the dockers. No award to be 
made unless six members concur. It is significant 
of the difference between the two countries that 
a proposal which in England was made by a Cardi 
nal in Qermany emanated from the Chief Con- 
nable. Of the strike itself it is not necessary to 
•ttv much here. Hamburg is one of the greatest 
and most prosperous seaports in the world. And 
strikes always occur when trade is rapidly im- 
proving or rapidly diminishing. It is the interest 
of all civilized men, and especially of a great com- 
mercial nation, that these disputes should be settled 
as speedily and peacefully as possible. But because 
Tom Mann, in his capacity as dockers' champion, 
was busy enough to get himself locked up at Ham- 
bnrg as a foreign agitator, the German newspapers 
discover that the whole quarrel is due to British 
jealousy of Oerman trade— a kind of outward and 
Ti^ible sign of John Bull's dislike to the demand for 
thin^ ** made in G^ermany ! " The commercial 
men of modem times seem to be capable of generat- 
iiijC as much insane jealousy per square inch as 
the revolutionary men of a century ago, when Pitt 
wag the bogey of the French nursery. 



OkrtMcry 



Among the names enrolled in the obitu- 
ary list of the past month are several of 
international reputation, though none 
periups that belong in the first rank of fame. 
Probably the most widely known was Mr. William 
Steinway of New York, the head of the great firm 
of piano makers. His father before him was a 
piano manufacturer of Brunswick, Germany, who 
in 1850 came to New York with three of his sons. 
William Steinway was well educated, and every- 
thing in his training and environment fitted him 
for the place he was destined to occupy as the fore- 
most man in his line of business. He was a cosmo- 
politan character, knowing several languages well, 
and having friends in all parts of the world. But 
he was also a prominent local figure in and about 
Kew York, where, among the German Americans 
especially, his influence was commanding. He was 
active in politics, and his name was associated with 



various reform movements. Next to Mr. Steinway, 
perhaps the most widely known of the names men- 
tioned in our obituary list was that of Alexander 
Herrmann, the ** magician." His wonderful sleight 
of hand performances had made him famous in 
many lands, althoogh the United States was his 
adopted country and New York had for many years 
been his home. He was bom in Paris in 1844. and 
his father also was a prestidigitateur. In another 
department of endeavor, Alexander Salvini was 
widely known. His eminence as an actor was not 
so great as that of his father Tomaso Salvini, but 
he had fairly earned laurels of his own. Like Stein- 




THE LATE WILLIAM STEINWAY. 

way and Herrmann, Salvini was a man of European 
birth and education, who had adopted the United 
States as his home and had chosen to master the Eng- 
lish language as his own. It should be noted that all 
three of these men, with singular diligence and ap- 
plication, took up the calling which their fathers 
had pursued. Dr. Benjamin Ward Richardson, the 
eminent English physician and sanitary authority, 
died in the latter part of November, his death 
being a great loss to the medical and scientific 
world. Among literary personages who have pasjea 
away are to be mentioned Coventry Patmore, an 
English poet of exceptional refinement and talent, 
and Mathilde Blind, an industrious and well known 
writer. Another woman of distinction was Mrs. 
Sarah B. Cooper of San Francisco, whose portrait 
appeared in the last number of the Review of Re- 
views in an article upon kindergarten work. Mrs. 
Cooper was active in many movements of an educa- 
tional and reformatory character, and her reputa- 
tion was national. 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS. 



{From November tl to December IS, 1896.) 



PROCEEDINGS IN CONGRESS. 

December 7.— Both Houses assemble for the second ses- 
sion of the Fifty-fourth Congress. President Cleveland's 
annual message is received. 

December 8.— The Senate adjourns out of re8i)ect for 
the memory of ex-Speaker Crisp.... The Housci passes 
the pe^ion appropriation bill ($141,263,880). 

December 9. —The Dingley revenue bill is taken up in 
the Senate on motion of Mr. Allen (Pop., Neb.) ; Cuban 
resolutions are introduced by Messrs. Cameron (Rep., 
Pa.), Mills (Dem. Tex.) and Call (Dem., Fla.). 

December 10.— The Senate begins consideration of the 

Ijodge bill for the restriction of immigration The 

House passes the bill protecting tue rights of dramatic 
authors and musical composers. 

December 11. — The House of Representatives only in 
session ; private bills are considered. 

December 14.— Additional Cuban resolutions are intro- 
duced in the Senate — The army appropriation bill 
(123,126,344) is reported to the Uoube. 

December 15.— The Senate agrees to the resolution of 
Mr. Morgan (Dem., Ala.) requesting the President to 
transmit Cuban correspondence ; a private pension bill 
is passed over the President's veto. . . .The House passes 
the bill defining the rights and privileges of the pur- 
chasers of the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad under fore- 
clot^ure. 

December 16.— The Senate passes the pension appro- 
priation bill without amendment The House consid- 
ers the army appropriation bill. 

December 17.— The Senate passes the bill providing an 

educational test for immigrants The House passes 

the army appropriation bill. 





A BRILLIANT CAYALRT CHARGE IN CITBA. 
As depicted in a Spanish illustrated weekly. 



OEN. D. A. GONZALEZ MU^OZ, 

Spanish General of Division in the Province of Pinar del 
Cuba. 

December 18 —The House of Representatives onl 
session ; pension and other private bills are consider 

POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT— AMERICAN. 
November 23.— President Cleveland appoints Jm 
Charles C. Nott Chief Justice of the Court of C1&] 
and Charles B. Howry a judge 
that court. 

November 34.— Gen. Edmn 
W. Pettus is elected U. S. Sei 
tor from Alabama to succe* 
Senator Pugh .... W. J. Bryan b 
gins a new campaign for tn 
silver at Denver, Col. 

November 25.— The Vermor 
Legislature adjoams. . ..The lead 
ing silver advocates in Congres 
hold a conference at Washing 
ton. 

November 26.— A conference o/ 
ECansas Populists discusses pro- 
posed laws concerning life insur- 
ance and loan and investment 
companies. 

November 27. — President 
Cleveland appoints ex-Congress- 
man John H. Rodgers U. S. Dis- 
trict Judge for ttie Western Dis. 
trict of Arkansas. 

November 30. -The New York 
Senate committee to investigate 
the operation of the Raines liquor 
law begins its sessions in ^ew 
York City. 

December l.-The Delaware 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS. 



25 



coDstitxitional convention is organized at Wilmington. 
. . . .Manicipal and other local elections are held in Massa- 
chosetts. New Hampshire and Connecticut. 

December 2.— The electoral colleges meet in several of 
the states. 

December 5.— Alderman John Powers of Chicago, a 
9oand money Democrat, is elect^ed president of the Cook 
County Democracy ; his election is interpreted as a de- 
feat of Governor Alt geld. 

December 8.— Mu- 
nicipal elections in 
}(at«achusetts. e x • 
cepting in * Haver- 
hill Lowell and 
Worcester, are gen- 
erally favorable to 
the Bopubbcans. 

December 9. — 
Chairman H a n n a 
selects a building in 
Washington, D. C, 
fur permanent Re- 
pablican national 
headquarters. 

December 10.— The 
executive commit- 
tee of the National 
Democrats meets in 
Indianapolis and de- 
rides to preserve the 
ptrty organization. 

...The Union 
League dub of New 
York City adopts resolutions in favor of the election of 
J»«ph H. Choate as United States Senator. . . .The Na- 
tiuoal CHvil Service Reform League meets in Philadel- 
phia. 

December 14.— The Chicago Conunon Council passes an 
cffdinance to comi>eI the street-car companies to sell 

tickets at four cents apiece Joseph H. Choate of New 

York announces his candidacy for the Unite d States 

Senate President Cleveland nominates Charles A. 

Proaty of Vermont to be Interstate Commerce Commis- 
»jDer. 

December 15.— District conventions are held in New 
York Qty for the election of members of the Republican 

Oxmty Committee In Lynn, Biass., a fusion candidate 

of the Democrats and Populists is elected Mayor. 

POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT— FOREIGN. 

November 21.— The British Cabinet Councils resolve on 
the formation of a Board of Agriculture for Ireland. 
November 34.— Lord Onslow moves in the London 




HON. D. F. OODINEZ, 

Prestdent of the Spanish Bank of 
the Island of Cuba. 



County Council for a committee to inquire into the man- 
agement of the Public Works Department. 

November 26.— In his speech opening the Hungarian 
Diet Emperor Francis Joseph says that highly impor- 
tant political interests affecting the position of Austro- 
Hungary in Europe render it desirable that the economic 
and financial relations of the two divisions of the mon- 
archy be settled without delay.... Thfe formation of a 
new Chilian Cabinet is announced. 

November 27.— The Shah of Persia announces that 
henceforth he will dispense with the services of a prime 
minister and perform the duties of that office himself. 

November 90.— The French Chamber of Deputies 
orders the release of a Socialist Deputy who was ar- 
rested by the government.... The budget is introduced 
in the German Reichstag. 

December 1.— General Porflrio Diaz is inaugurated 

President of Mexico for the fifth time. 

December 2. —The Italian government's policy in 

_ Africa is approved 

in the CTiamber of 

Deputies by a vote 

of 186 to 27. 

December 5.— The 
revolt in Uruguay is 
reported ended. 

December 7.— The 
trial of the German 
newspaper editors 
for libeling Baron 
von Bieberstein and 
others results in the 
conviction of all the 
accused excepting 
Herr Leckert, Sr., 
who is acquitted. 
Sentences of fine or 
imprisonment are 
imposed. 

December 13.— A 
meeting is held in 
Cork to protest 
against the excess- 
ive Mxes imposed on Ireland by the British government. 
December 15.— The German Reichstag rejects the judi- 
cial procedure bill. 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. 

November 21.— M. Hanotaux. French Minister of For- 
eign Affairs, explains the nature of the Franco-Russian 
alliance in the Chamber of Deputies. 

November 25.— The formal proceedings of the Behring 
Sea Claims Commission are opened at Victoria, B. C. 




DR. D. ANTOICIO JOVER, 

Cashier of the Spanish Bank of the 
Island of Cuba. 





SPECIMENS OF THE NEW BILLS OF THE SPANISH BANK OF THE ISLAND OF CUBA. 



2H 



THE REyiElV OF RE^IEIVS. 



November 26.— President Crespo of Venezuela tele- 
graphs his acceptance of the settlement arranged be- 
tween the (Jnited States and Great Britain. 

NoTember 27. —The AmbassadurA present a note 
regarding Crete to the Sultan of Turkey. 

November ao.— The government of Liberia pays 91,000 
as comx>ensation for losses sustained by British subjects 
through the attempts of Liberians to force merchants in 
Sierra Leone to leave the country. 

December 8.— President Cleveland issues a proclama- 
tion ordering retal'atory tonnage taxes to be imposed on 
German vessels entering ports of the United States. 

December 5.— Germany protests against the imposition 

of retaliatory tonnage dues by the rinited States 

Ambassador Bayard declines a testimonial from the Brit- 
ish public ...The Egyptian government receives back 
from Great Britain the £500,000 ordered by the Court of 




AJLl^EKMAJH UBOBGE FAUDEL PHILIPS, 

The New Lord Mayor of London. 

(Photograph by the London Stereoscopic Company, Regent Street) 

Appeal to be repaid into the Egyptian treasury, on* the 
ground that it could not lawfully be advanced to meet 
the expennes of the Soudan campaign. 

December 7.— The State Department at Washington 
gives out the full text of the Venezuelan arbitration 

agreement Secretary Olney makes public a report on 

the foreign relations of the United States. 

December 8.— President Cleveland's references to Cuba 
in his annual message a]*e adversely criticised in Spain. 

Sir Edward J. Monson, the new British Ambassador 

to France, presents his credentials. 

December 14.— The Spanish Minister of Marine gives 
orders that if the Laura da enters the port of Valencia 
she shall be treated like any other merchant vessel. 

December 18.— The U. S. Senate Committee on Foreign 
Relations orders a favorable report on the Cameron 
resolution recognizing the independence of Cuba. 

INDUSTRIAL, COMMERCIAL AND FINANCIAL 
DOINGS. 
November 21.— Hamburg and Altona dock laborers, to 
the number of 2,500, go on strike. 

November 24.— In the Hamburg dock laborers* strike 
7,000 men are involved. 




GEN. D. BERNARDO Y. JAUREOUI, 
Spanish General of Division in the Philippines. 

November 25.— The West End Street flai'road of Bos- 
ton comes under new management. 

November 30.— The Ohio Steel Company starts its 
plant at Youngstown, Ohio — A conference committee 
representing shipowners and workingmen is appointed 
to settle the Hamburg dock strike. 

December 1.— The Wire Nail Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion and the Cut Nail Manufacturers' Association decide 

to disband The American Sanitary Ware Association 

is dissolved. . . .The perpetual control of the Postal Tele- 
graph Company is placed with the Commercial Cable 
Company. 




THE LATE COL. JOHN R. FELLOWS, 
District Attorney of New York 



RECORD OF CURRENT El^ENTS. 



27 



December 2.— The Newfoundland government pur- 
chases the last railway system of the colony remaining 
under phyate management. . ..The employers reject the 
compromise proposals in the Hamburg dock strike. 

December 4.~A11 the harbor workmen in Hamburg 
ire called oat. 

December 14.— Many of the Hamburg dock strikers 
return to work. . . .The annual convention of the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor opens in Cincinnati As a 

result of the signing of the window-glass wage scale at 
Pittsburgh more than 15,000 men who have been idle 
since June 27 return to work. 

CASUALTIES. 

Xovember 21.— Floods in Washington state cause 
great damage to property and loss of life; it is estimated 
that the loss to the railroad companies alone amounts to 
IS.000,000. 

November 27.— Many lives are lost through a storm in 
Greece. 

November 29.— In a crush at the gates of a park at 
Baroda^ India, on the occasion of a visit of the Viceroy 
to the native ruler, 29 persons are killed and 35 injured. 

November 30.- The burning of a business block in 
Bradford, England, causes losses estimated at $1,000,000. 

December 1.— An ice gorge in the Chippewa River, 
Wisconsin, causes a sudden rise in the river which does 
DQch damageand suffering. 

December 8.— A cyclone sweeps over the Windward 
and Leeward Islands. 

December 7.— The North German Lloyd steamship 
Salier is wrecked off the Spanish coast near Vigo, and 
in on board, numbering nearly 800 persons, lose their 
hvee. 

December 8. — An office building in Montreal is de 
itroyed by fire at a loss of 1400,000. 





THK KfiV. THE HON. X. CARR GLYNN, 

Appointed Bishop of Peterborough. 



THK REV. DR. THOMAS J. *^ONATY, 

New Rector of the Catholic University at Washington. 

December 11.— A falling building in Xeres, Spain, is 
reported to have buried 110 personal. 

December 17.— An earthquake in Southern England 
and Wales does much damage. 

OTHER OCCURRENCES OP THE MONTH. 

November 21.— At football Princeton defeats Yale, and 

the University of Pennsylvania Harvard Yao Chief 

Katuri, north of Maugocbe, British Central Africa, re- 
ported captured by Lieut. Alston. 

November 23.— General Kitchener starts on his return 
to Cairo — Captam-Geueral Weyler returns to Havana 
from the province of Pinar del Rio, Cuba. 

November 26.— John E. Redmond, the Irish leader, 
arrives in the United States The Rt. Rev. Dr. Tem- 
ple, Bishop of Loudon, elected Ai'chbishop of Canterbury 
and Primate of All England. 

November 26.— Thanksgiving Day observed through- 
out the United States and by American residente in 
London, Paris and Berlin.. ..Lopez Coloma, leader of 
the rebellion in Matanzas, Cuba, is executed in Havana. 

November 27. — President Cleveland purchases a home 
in Princeton, N. J.... Tom Mann, the English labor agi> 
tator, is arrested in Hamburg. 

November 80.— Sir Joseph Lister presides at the annual 
meeting of the Royal Society. 

December 1.— Severe cold prevails in England. . . .The 
new U. S. cruiser Brooklyn is placed in commission. 

December 5.— The U. S. gunboats Xewport and Vicks- 
burg, each of 1,000 tons displacement, are launched at 
Bath, Maine. 



•2S 



THE RE^^IEIV OF REVIEWS. 



December 7.— Two men accused of murder are taken 
from jail and hanged by a mob at Lexingtou, Mo. 

December 8.— Reports of the death of Antonio Maceo, 
the Cuban commander, in battle cause intense excite- 
ment in Havana ; the Spaniards are charged with 
treachery. 




THE LATE SIR BENJAMIN WARD RICHARDSON. 

December 10.— M. Andr6 Theuriet, the French poet 
and story-writer, and M. Albert Vandal, the historian, 
are elected to membership in the French Academy.. . 
Citizens of Edinburgh decide to erect a memorial to R< b- 

ert Louis Stevenson The U. .S. coast-defense monitor 

Puritan is put in commission. 

December 12.— The six-day bicycle race in New York 
City is won by Hale, with a record of 1,910 miles. 

December 13.— President Cleveland goes to South 
Carolina on a shooting trip ...The reported assassina- 
tion of Antonio Maceo, the Cuban revolutionist, causes 
much indignation in the United States. 

December 15.— The National Irrigation Congress meets 
in Phoenix, Arizona. 

OBITUARY. 

November 21.— Sir Benjamin Ward Richardson, the 
celebrated English physician, fiS.. ..Dr. P. C. Williams, 
a well-known physician of Baltimore, Md., 6^. 

November 22.— General Riva Palario. Mexican Ambas- 
sador to Spain.... George W. G. Ferris, inventor and 



builder of the " Ferris Wheel " at the World's Fair of 
1893. 

November 23.— Rev. Dr. William T. Gibson of Ctica, 
N. Y., 75. 

November 24. —Rev. Dr. Morris D*C. Crawford of Ne^v 

York City, 77 Lieutenant-Governor Fraser of Xew 

Brunswick Rev. Dr. William Fitzgerald, Bishop of 

Ross, 70. 

November 26.— Professor Benjamin Apthorp Gould, 
the astronomer, 72. . . Coventry Kearsey Deigbton Pat- 
more, the English poet, 73 Sir Frederick Napier 

Broome, British writer, 54 Francis Victor Emmanuel 

Arago, French advocate and politician, 84. 

November 27. -Mathilde Blind, author and lecturer, 49. 

November 28.— Myles Pennington, the first general 

manager of the Grand Trunk Railway, 82 G^eorge Y. 

Coffin, cartoonist, of Washington, D. C. 46.... Patrick 
Maguire, a leading Democratic politician of Boston. . . 
Prince Charles Egon of Furstenberg, 44. . . Count Moltke 
Hvitfeldt, Danish Minister in Paris, 68. 

November 29.— Rev. Dr. Oliver Crane, classical scholar 
and author of Boston — Ex-Senator John Scott of Penn- 
sylvania, 74 Professor Austin Stickney, 65 Baron 

Saville, British diplomat, 77. 

November 80.— William Stein way, the piano manufac- 
turer, 60. 

December 1.— Rev. Hubert Ashton Holden, English 
scholar and teacher, 74. 

December 2. —Colonel R. U. Hardeman of Georgia. 

December 3.— Rev. Dr. Benjamin F. Tappan of Maine, 
81. 

December 6.— Nathan Mears, Chicago pioneer, 81. 

December 7.— District Attorney John R. Fellows of 
New York aty, 64.... Professor Emil von Wolff, Ger 

man chemist Luis Fallero, the painter, 45 Mrs. 

Caroline B. Winslow, prominent in woman suffrage 
movements, 74. 

Decembers.— Ex-Congressman Benjamin H. Williams 
of Buffalo, N. Y., 66 — Ernest Engel, the German statis- 
tician, 75. . . . Vincente Da villa Lorrain, Chilian politician. 

December 9.— Alfred Nobel, inventor of nitroglycer- 
in. .. .M. A. Rousseau, Governor-General of Tonq^. 

December 11.— (General George L. Beal of Maine, 71 

Mrs. Sarah B. Cooper, a leader in the kindergarten and 
women's club movements, 61. 

December 12.— Rev. Dr. James A. McCauley of Balti- 
more. Md., 74. . . .Dr. Leonard J. Sanford of New Haven, 
Conn., 63. . . . Maria G. Porter of Rochester, N. Y., a well- 

known worker in the anti-slavery cause, 91 Count 

Trautmansdorf-Weinsberg, president of the Austrian 
House of Lords. 

December 13. —Martin Kaiser, a well-known German 
singer J. A. Rosier, a leading New Orleans lawyer, 79. 

December 15.— Alexander Salvini, the actor, 35.... 
Emile Chatrousse, French sculptor, 67. 

December 16. — Cardinal Jean Pierre Boyer, Archbishop 
of Bourges, 67. . . .Rev. Dr. A. B. Goodrich of Utica, N. Y., 

68 Ex- Mayor Sayles Jenks Bo wen of Washington, 

D. C, 83. 

December 17.— Alexander Herrmann, the magician, 52. 
... .Ex- Congressman Henry L. Pierce of Boston, 71. 

December 18.— Paul Auguste Ar^ne, French littera- 
teur, 51 Ex- Congressman Roswell G. Horr of Mici- 

gan, 66. 



CURRENT HISTORY IN CARICATURE 




TURNING OVER A NEW LEAF. 

FVom niunt ated American (New York). 




PEACE PUDDIN*;. 

RmrrHER Jonathan: *-What do you thmk »>( it. 
J % nnie ♦ '' 

BvrrHER John Bull: *'Well. it's better than your 
Wi'ly ham ble pie, anyhow.'* From Punch (London). 




BRITANNIA ANT> MISS COLUMBIA. 
From the Hindi Punch (India). 



30 



THE REyiEW OF REVIEWS. 




"J?.; 







■^' 




.2 




fi -< 



CURRENT HISTORY IN CARICATURE. 



31 





A pair nt recent Spanish Cartoons shovring the blood- thii-sty Canovas before be assumed charge of the government and 

the mild and saint-like Canovas as he appears to-day. 
Reproduced from Hijo del Ahuizote (Mexico). 




THE BRAVJE SENATORIAL SQUAD GETTING READY TO LIBERATE CUBA. 
From the Times- Herald (Chicago). 



32 



THE REyiEiV OF RE^IEIVS. 





^vO>S^ 



ANOTHER SPANISH VICTORY. 
From U»U€'8 Weekly (New York). 



WHAT KIND OF AN ANSWER WILL HE GET AT THIS HOUSE ? 
From Judge (New York). 




THE EVERLASTING CUBA. 

Uncle Sam : " Can Spain stand that much longer ? '^ 
From Klndd^adaUch (Berlin). 



VXTJI9TUHBED BY flRVAX's DEFEAT THK GETtHAN BlMlTAl^ 



CURRENT HISTORY IN CARICATURE. 



33 




COMMENT ON PRESIDENT CLEVELAND'S FAllEAVELL MESSAGE —From Tinu s-Herald (Chicago). 







^IV.r^-. ..,_.... 



TRuiT5^j| 



^> 



ni^ 




THE APPRECLA.TION OF GOLD. 

AXEEICAH Working Man (^o Mr. Jonathan)-. "That's all 
^^V It is I who have saved the country's credit— now what are 
7ca iQCng to do for Labor ? From Westmiri^ter Gazette (London ). 





A 6EX1KA17 VnSW OF ANGLO-AMERICAN DISCUSSION. 
From Zladdemdatach (Berlin). 



UNCLE SAM " HAS AN ELEPHANT ON HIS HANDS." 

By an unprecedented majority the people of this country 
voted to do away with the treasury deficit. The oulv way t«) 
accomplish this result is to provide a tariff law which will raisr* 
sufficient revenue to pay the expenses of the government. 
Give us more revenue, and be quick about \X.— Daily paper. 

From Judge (New York). 



34 



THE REyiEiV OF REI^/EIVS. 




THE INK-BESPATTERED BISMARCK. 

From Ulk (Berlin). 



' As a person politically dead."— Mr. Gladstone to Mr. Bit 
SON, Liberal Cindidate for East Bradford. 

From Picture Politics (London). 



CURRENT HISTORY IN CARICATURE. 



35 




THE MECHAKIS31 OF TUB ALLIANCES. 



Wl;i".h U the better pictare: the horizon . ^ - » , • i,i ». ^ .. ., .^ ,, 

'TiL^ieo«d by the Pranro-RiiHsian Alliance, The mechanism consists of balancing alliances here and there until the European 

«>r tbc qsarrelj* of England and Germany! equilibrium is finally eMtablisljeci. In ordt^r to bring the whole thing to the ground 

there is but one hope — that the little 8<x;ialiMt party will one day cut the cord. 



From Sipy, 



From L'Aiino ( Rome). 




THE nn^ERTED ROLES. 



A RUSiSlAN VIEW. 

Trm&KY • '* I can carry It all right. It will not fall.' 
Prom Strekuza (St. Petersburg). 



Formerly the fbear danced to the sound of the flute play<Ml liy 
civilized man. In Europe to day mankind dances to the m'u>i(- »»f 
the bear. 

From Neue Gliihlichter, 



HOW NOT TO BETTER SOCIAL CONDITIONS. 



BY THEODORE ROOSEVELT. 



AFTER the publication of my article in the 
September Review of Reviews on the vice- 
presidential candidates, I received the following 
very manly, and very courteous, letter from the 
Honorable Thomas Watson, then the candidate 
with Mr. Bryan on the Populist ticket for Vice- 
President. J publish it with his permission : 

Hon. Theodore Roosevelt : 

It paius me to be misunderstood by those whose good 
opinion I respect, and upon reading your trenchant ar- 
ticle in the September number of the Review of Re- 
views the impulse was strong to write to you. 

When you take your stand for honester government 
and for juster laws in New York, as you have so cour- 
ageously done, your motives must be the same as mine 
— for you do not need the money your office gives you. 
I can understand, instinctively, what you feel — what 
your motives are. You merely obey a law of your na- 
ture which puts you into mortal cumbat with what you 
think is wrong. You light because your own sense of 
self-respect and self loyalty compels you to fight. Is not 
this so f 

If in Georgia and throughout the South we have con- 
ditions as intolerable as those that surround you in New 
York, can you not realize why I make war upon them ? 

Tammany itself has grown great because mistaken 
leaders of the southern Democ- 
racy catered to its Kellys and 
Crokers and feared to defy 
them. 

The first '* roast " I ever got 
from the Democratic press of 
this state fpUowed a speech I 
had made denouncing Tam- 
many, and denouncing the 
craven leaders who obeyed 
Tammany. 

It is astonishing how one hon- 
est man may honestly misjudge 
another. 

My creed does not lead me to 
disUke the men who run a bank, 
a factory, a railroad or a foun- 
dry. I do not hate a man for 
owning a bond, and having a 
bank account, or having cash 
loaned at interest. 

Upon the other hand I think 
each should make all the profit 
in business he fairly can ; but 
I do believe that the banks 
should not exercise the sover- 
eign power of issuing money, 
and I do believe that all special 
privileges granted, and all ex- 
emption from taxation, work 
infinite harm. I do believe that 
the wealth of the Republic is 



practically free from federal taxation, and that the 
burdens of government fall upon the shoulders ©f thoi-.j 
least able to bear them. 

If you could spend an evening with me among my 
books and amid my family, I feel quite sure yon would 
not again class me with those who make war upon the 
"decencies and elegancies of civilized life." And if 
you could attend one of my great pohtical meeilKigs iu 
Georgia, and see the good men and good women who 
believe in Populism, you would not continue to cla.s.s 
them with those who vote for candidates upon the *• no 
undershirt " platform. 

In other words, if you understood me and mine your 
judgment of us would be dififerent. 

The " cracker " of the l^outh is simply the man who 
did not buy slaves to do his work. He did it all himself 
— hke a man. Some of our best generals in war, and 
magistrates in peace, have come from the "cracker'* 
class. As a matter of fact, however, my oWn people, 
from my father back to Revolutionary times, were slave 
owners and land owners. In the first meeting held in 
Georgia to express sympathy with the Boston patriots 
my great-great-grandfather bore a prominent part, and 
in the first state legislature ever convened in Georgia 
one of my ancestors was the representative of his county. 

My grandfather was wealthy, and so was my father. 
My boyhood was spent in the idleness of a rich man's 
son. It was not till I was in my teens that misfortune 




Mr. Jacob A. Rlla. 



31 r. Theodore Koo8«velt. 



MR. ROOSEVELT AT HI3 HfCwR AT POLICE HEADQUARTERS, NEW YORK. 



HOH^ NOT TO BETTER SOCIAL CONDITIONS. 



37 



overtook us, sent us homeless 
into the world, and deprived me 
of the thorongh collegiate train- 
ing my father intended for 
me. 

At sixteen years of age I thus 
had to commence life money- 
less, and the weary years I 
itpent among the poor, and the 
kmdness I received in their 
homes, and the acquaintance I 
made with the hardship of their 
lives, gave me that profound 
sympathy for them which I yet 
retain— though I am no longer 
poor myself. 

Pardon the liberty I take in 
intruding this letter upon you. 
I have followed your work in 
New Vork with admiring sym- 
pathy, and have frequently 
written of it in my paper. 
While hundreds of miles sepa- 
rate us, and our tasks and 
methods have been widely dif- 
erent, I must still believe that 
we have much in common, and 
that the ruling force which 

ictuates us both is to challenge wrong and to fight 
the battles of good government. 

Very respectfully yours, 

(Signed) Thos. E. Watson. 

TaonPSON, Ga., August 80, 1896. 

I intended to draw a very sharp line between Mr. 
Watson and many of those associated with him in 
the same movement ; and certain of the sentences 
which he qnotes as if they were meant to apply to 
Idm were, on the contrary, meant to apply generally 
to the agitators who proclaimed both him and Mr. 
Bryan as their champions, and especially to many of 
the men who were running on the Populist tickets 
m different states. To Mr. Watson's own sincerity 
and coarage I thought I had paid fall tribute, and 
if I failed in any way I wish to make good that 
fiOnre, 1 was in Washington when Mr. Watson 
was in Congress, and I know how highly he was 
«teemed personally by his colleagues, even by 
those differinjg very widely from him in matters of 
]winciple. The staunchest friends of order and 
decent government fully and cordially recognized 
Ht. Watson's honesty and good faith — men, for 
iastance, like Senator Lodge of Massachusetts and 
Representative Bellamy Storer of Ohio. Moreover, 
I tiympathize as little as Mr. Watson with denuncia- 
tioo of the ** cracker.'' and I may mention that one 
cf mj forefathers was the first Revolutionary Gk)v- 
of Georgia at the time that Mr. Watson's 
sat in the first Revolutionary legislature 
4f tte state. Mr. Watson himself embodies not a few 
4f the very atiributes the lack of which we feel so 
kMnly in many of our public men. He is brave, he 
is earnest, he is honest, he is disinterested. For 
many of the wrongs which he wishes to remedy I, 
too, believe that a remedy can be found, and for 




MB. WATSON AT HT8 EDITORIAL DESK IN GEOROIA. 

this purpose I would gladly strike hands with him. 
All this makes it a matter of the keenest regret 
that he should advocate certain remedies that we 
deem even worse than the wrongs complained of, 
and should strive to correct other wrongs, or rather 
inequalities and sufferings, which exist, not because 
of the shortcomings of society, but because of the 
existence of human nature itself. 

There are plenty of ugly things about wealth and 
its possessors in the present age, and I suppose there 
have been in all ages. There are many rich people 
who so utterly lack patriotism, or show such sordid 
and selfish traits of character, or lead such mean 
and vacuous lives, that all right-minded men must 
look upon them with angry contempt ; but, on the 
whole, the thrifty are apt to be better citizens than 
the thriftless ; and the worst capitalist cannot harm 
laboring men as they are harmed by demagogues. 
As the people of a state grow more and more intelli- 
gent the state itseU may be able to play a larger and 
larger part in the life of the community, while at 
the same time individual effort may be given freer 
and less restricted movement along certain lines ; 
but it is utterly unsafe to give the state more than 
the minimum of power just so long as it contains 
masses of men who can be moved by the pleas and 
denunciations of the average Socialist leader of to- 
day. There may bo better schemes of taxation 
than those at present employed, it may be wise to 
devise inheritance taxes, and to impose regulations 
on the kinds of business which can be carried on 
only under the especial protection of the state ; and 
where there is a real abuse by wealth it needs to be, 
and in this country generally has been, promptly 
done away with ; but the first lesson to teach the 
poor man is that, as a whole, the wealth in the com- 



38 



THE REI^IEIV OF RE^IEIVS. 



munity is distinctly beneficial to him. that he is 
better off in the long run because other men are 
well off, and tliat the surest way to destroy what 
measure of prosperity he may have is to paralyze 
industry and the well-being of those men who have 
achieved success. 

I am not an empiricist ; I would no more deny 
that sometimes human affairs can be much bettered 
by legislation than 1 would affirm that they can 
always be so bettered. 1 would no more make a 
fetish of unrestricted individualism than I would 
admit the power of the state offhand and radically 
to reconstruct society. It may become necessary to 
interfere even more than we have done with the 
right of private contract, and to shackle cunning as 
we have shackled force. All I insist npon is that 
we must be sure of our ground before trying to get 
any legislation at all, and that we must not expect 
too much from this legislation, nor refuse to better 
ourselves a little because we cannot accomplish 
everything at a jump. Above all, it is criminal to 
excite anger and discontent without proposing a 
remedy, or only proposing a false remedy. The 
worst foe of the poor man is the labor leader, 
whether philanthropist or politician, who tries to 
teach him that he is a victim of conspiracy and 
injustice, when in reality he is merely working out 
his fate with blood and sweat as the immense ma- 
jority of men who are worthy of the name always 
have done and always will have to do. 

The difference between what can and what cannot 
be done by law is well exemplified by our experience 
with the negro problem, an experience of which Mr. 
Watson must have ample practical knowledge. The 
negroes were formerly held in slavery. This was a 
wrong which legislation could remedy, and which 
could not be remedied except by legislation. Ac- 
cordingly they were set free by law. This having 
been done, many of their friends believed that in 
some way. by additional legislation, we could at 
once put them on an intellectual, social and busi- 
ness equality with the whites. The effort has failed 
completely. In large sections of the country the 
negroes are not treated as they should be treated, 
and politically in particular the frauds upon them 
have been so gross and shameful as to awaken not 
merely indignation but bitter wrath ; yet the best 
friends of the negro admit that his hope lies, not in 
legislation, but in the constant working of those 
often unseen forces of the national life which are 
greater than all legislation. 

Often the head in the air social reformers, because 
people of sane and wholesome minds will not favor 
their wild schemes, themselves decline to favor 
schemes for practical reform. For the last two 
years there has been an honest effort in New York 
to give the city good government, and to work intel 
ligently for better social conditions, esi>ecially in 
the poorest quarters. We have cleaned the streets : 
we have broken the power of the ward boss and the 
saloon-keeper to work injustice ; we have destroyed 



the most hideous of the tenement houses in whicli 
poor people are huddled like swine in a sty ; we 
have made parks and play grounds for the children 
in the crowded quarters ; in every possible way we 
have striven to make life easier and healthier, and 
to give man and woman a chance to do their best 
work ; while at the same time we have warred 
steadily against the pauper- producing, maudlizi 
philanthropy of the free soup kitchen and tramp 
lodging-house kind. In all this we haye had prac- 
tically no help from either the parlor socialists 
or the scarcely more noxious beer- room socialists 
who are always howling about the selfishness of the 
rich and their unwillingness to do anything for 
those who are less well off. 

There are certain labor unions, certain bodies of 
organized labor — notably those admirable organiza 
tions which include the railway conductors, the 
locomotive engineers and the firemen — which to my 
mind embody almost the best hope that there is for 
healthy national growth in the future ; but bitter 
experience has taught men who work for reform in 
New York that the average labor leader, the average 
demagogue who shouts for a depreciated currency^ 
or for the overthrow of the rich, will not do any- 
thing to help those who honestly strive to make bet- 
ter our civic conditions. There are immense num- 
bers of workingmen to whom we can appeal with 
perfect confidence ; but too often we find that a 
large proportion of the men who style themselves- 
leaders of organized labor are influenced only by 
sullen short sighted hatred of what they do not un- 
derstand, and are deaf to all appeals, whether to 
their national or to their civic patriotism. 

What I most grudge in all this is the fact that 
sincere and zealous men of high character and hon- 
est purpose, men like Mr. Watson, men and women 
such as those he describes as attending his Populist 
meetings, or such as are to be found in all strata of 
our society, from the employer to the hardest 
worked day laborer, go astray in their methods, and 
are thereby prevented from doing the full work for 
good they ought to. When a man goes on the 
wrong road himself he can do very little to guide 
others aright, even though these others are also on 
the Mrrong road. There are many wrongs to be 
righted ; there are many measures of relief to be 
pushe<l ; and it is a pity that when we are fighting 
what is bad and championing what is good, the m«^ii 
who ought to be our most effective allies should 
deprive themselves of usefulness by the wroag- 
headedness of their position. Rich men and poor 
men both do wrong on occasions, and whenever a 
specific instance of this c«n be pointed out all citi- 
zens alike should join in punishing the wrong-doer. 
Honesty and right mindededness should be the tests ; 
not wealth or poverty. 

In our municipal administration here in New 
York we have acted with an equal hand toward 
wrong- doers of high and low degree. The Board of 
Health condemns the tenement house property of 



HOIV NOT TO BETTER SOCIAL CONDITIONS, 



39 



the rich landowner, whether this landowner be 
priest or layman, banker or railroad president, 
lawyer or manager of a real estate business ; and 
it pays no heed to the intercession of any politician, 
whether this politician be Catholic or Protestant, 
Jew or Oentile. At the same time the Police De- 
partment promptly suppresses, not only the crimi- 
nal, but the rioter. In other words, we do strict 
justice. We feel we are defrauded of help to which 
*we are entitled when men who ought to assist in 
any work to better the cx)ndition of the people decline 
to aid us because their brains are turned by dreams 
only worthy of a European revolutionist. 

Many workingmen look with distrust upon laws 
which reaUy would help them ; laws for the intelli- 
gent restriction of immigration, for instance. I 
have no sympathy with mere dislike of immigrants; 
there are classes and even nationalities of them 
which stand at least on an equality with the citi- 
sens of native birth, as the last election showed. 
But in the interest of our workingmen we must in 
the end keep out laborers who are ignorant, vicious 
and with low standards of life and comfort, just as 
we have shut out the Chinese. 

Often labor leaders and the like denounce the 
present conditions of society, and especially of our 
political life, for shortcomings which they themselves 
have been instrumental in causing. In our cities 
the misgovemment is due. not to the misdeeds of 
the rich, but to the low standard of honesty and 
moraUty among citizens generally ; and nothing 
helps the corrupt politician more than substituting 
either wealth or poverty for honesty as the standard 
by which to try a candidate. A few months ago a 
socialistic reformer in New York was denouncing 
the corruption caused by rich men because a certain 
judge was suspected of giving information in ad- 
vance as to a decision in a case involving the inter- 
otsof a great corporation. Now this judge had 
bera elected some years previously, mainly because 
he was supposed to be a representative of the '* poor 
Bum ; '' and the socialistic reformer himself, a year 
ago, was opposing the election of Mr. Beaman as 
judge because he was one of the tirm of Evarts & 
Choate, who were friends of various millionaires 
and were counsel for various con^orations. But if 
Mr. Beaman had been elected judge no human 
being, rich or poor, would have dared so much as 
hint at his doing anything improper. 

Something can be done by good laws ; more can 
be done by honest administration of the laws : but 
most of all can be done by frowning resolutely upon 
the preachers of vague discontent ; and by uphold- 
ing the true doctrine of self-reliance, self-help and 
»elf-niastery. This doctrine sets forth many things. 
Amoni? them is the fact that though a man can 
oa^asionally be helped when he stumbles, yet that it 
is useless to try to carry him when he will not or 
cannot walk ; and worse than useless to try to bring 
down the work and reward of the thrifty and intel- 
ligent to the level of the capacity of the weak, the 



shiftless and the idla It further shows that the 
maudlin philanthropist and the maudlin sentimen- 
talist are almost as noxious as the demagogue, and 
that it is even more necessary to temper mercy with 
justice than justice with mercy. 

The worst lesson that can be taught a man is to 
rely upon others and to whine over his sufferings. 
If an American is to amount to anything he must 
rely upon himself, and not upon the state ; he must 
take pride in his own work, instead of sitting 
idle to envy the luck of others ; he must face 
life with resolute courage, win victory if he can, 
and accept defeat if he must, without seeking to 
place on his fellow-men a responsibility which is 
not theirs. 

Let me say in conclusion that 1 do not write in 
the least from the standpoint of those whose associa- 
tion is purely Avith what are called the wealthy 
classes. The men with whom I have worked and 
associated most closely during the last couple of 
years here in New York, with whom I have shared 
what is at least an earnest desire to better social and 
civic conditions (neither blinking what is evil nor 
being misled by the apostles of a false remedy), 
and with whose opinions as to what is right and 
practical my own in the main agree, are not capital- 
ists, save as all men who by toil earn, and with pru- 
dence save, money are capitalists. They include 
reporters on the daily papers, editors of magazines, 
as well as of newspapers, principals in the public 
schools, young lawyers, young architects, young 
doctors, young men of business, who are struggling 
to rise in their profession by dint of faithful work, 
but who give some of their time to doing what they 
can for the city, and a number of priests and clergy- 
men ; but as it happens the list does not include any 
man of great wealth, or any of those men whose 
names are in the public mind identified with great 
business corporations. Most of them have at one 
time or another in their lives faced poverty and 
know what it is ; none of them are more than well- 
to do. They include Catholics and Protestants, 
Jews and men who would be regarded as heterodox 
by professors of most recognized creeds ; some of 
them were bom on this side, others are of foreign 
birth ; but they are all Americans heart and soul, 
who fight out for themselves the battles of their 
own lives, meeting sometimes defeat and sometimes 
victory. They neither forget that man does owe a 
duty to his fellows, and should strive to do what he 
can to increase the well- being of the community ; 
nor yet do they forget that in the long run the only 
way to help people is to make them help themselves. 
They are prepared to try any properly guarded legis- 
lative remedy for ills whicli they believe can be 
remedied, but they perceive clearly that it is both 
foolish and wicked to teach tne average man who is 
not well off that some wrong or injustice nas been 
done him, and that he should hope for redress elne- 
where than in his own industry, honesty and intelli- 
gence. 



42 



THE REI/IEIV OF REI^JEIVS. 



than upon the testimony offered by liis numerous 
correspondents in the party. The Governor exhibited 
hundreds of letters received from prominent Repub- 
licans in all parts of the country bearing upon this 
very point. The great majority of these writers 
said the word gold should not be in the platform. 
They pointed out that in many of the Western states 
the Republican party and Republican leaders had 
been friendly to free coinage, or at least to bimetal- 
lism, and contended that a sudden change to the gold 
standard would be generally regarded as a violent 
and unjustifiable shift. Most of these writers were 
emphatic in expression of the opinion that the word 
gold would cost the Republican party the presi- 
dency. Among the party leaders who objected to 
the word gold was Senator Sherman of Ohio. Though 
Mr. Kohlsaat met all these arguments with earnest- 
ness he was compelled to leave Canton without 
securing from Governor McKinley any concession 
from the form of currency plank which had been 
earlier agreed upon between himself and Mr. Hanna. 

The Friday before the meeting of the St. Louis 
convention Mr. Kohlsaat was in conference with the 
friends of Mr. McKinley at the Southern Hotel. He 
had come direct from his unsuccessful mission to 
Canton, but without any notion of abandoning his 
campaign in favor of an explicit gold platform. 
For five hours seven of the friends of McKinley were 
in conference over the vexing question of a currency 
plank. There were present Mr. Hanna, Mr. Payne 
of Wisconsin, Mr. Herrick of Ohio, Governor Mer 
riam of Minnesota, Senator Proctor of Vermont, Mr. 
Stone of Chicago and Mr. Kohlsaat. For a time it 
was six men against one. Single-handed, and with 
an energy and persistence which would not listen 
to defeat, Mr. Kohlsaat hammered away. After 
several hours of argument Mr. Hanna turned impa- 
tiently to the Chicago editor, and said, in his char- 
acteristic way : 

** Confound you, Hermann, haven't you a bit 
of compromise in your make-up ? '* 

** Not on this question, which involves the future 
of the country,'* replied Mr. Kohlsaat. 

Mr. Hanna then left the conference to attend to 
some work, and the discussion was continued. Mr. 
Hanna was personally favorable to the strongest 
possible expression in favor of the gold standard, 
but as the representative of Governor McKinley he 
was naturally anxious to avoid doing anything 
which could jeopardize the interests of his principal. 
Accordingly, he thought it his duty to stand for a 
conservative plan until the convention itself, or its 
leading men. should take the initiative for a stronger 
declaration. 

After a time Messrs. Payne, Merriam and Stone, 
who had been somewhat neutral in the discussion, 
came over to Mr. Kohlsaat's side, and this gav^ea 
majority in favor of the word gold. Mr. Hanna 
afterward agreed to it, and from that moment for 
ward the special friends of Mr. McKinley stood 
pledged to insert the much discussed word in the 



platform. All this was done before the arrival in St- 
Louis of Mr. Piatt and Senator Lodge, and of 
course before their agitation in favor of a stt-on^ 
gold plank was started. When the Kohlsaat plank: 
was submitted to them on Sunday or Monday they 
promptly accepted it as all that could be desired. 

The plank which Mr. Hanna had carried witli- 
him from Canton was used as the- basis of the new 
plank. Certain changes were made, according to 
suggestions offered by one or other of the friends of 
McElinley, but the all imx)ortant change was the 
insertion of the word gold as a result of the persist- 
ency, persuasiveness, moral courage, keen percep- 
tion of coming events, and sublime faith in the love 
of the people for frankness and sincerity, which had 
been displayed by Mr. Kohlsaat. 

The manner in which all the conservative forces 
of the country rallied round this unequivocal cur- 
rency plank and supported the bold step forward 
which the Republican party, thanks to the efforts 
of one man, had taken at St. Louis, has already- 
passed into history. When the analytical chronicler 
of these times comes to the task of recording the 
events of the year 1896 he will comment upon the 
magnificent, ^ert intelligence and the quickened 
conscience with which the American people pie- 
pared themselves to vote on the money question. This 
chronicler will find especial cause for amazement in 
the sound money majorities cast in such states as 
Michigan. Minnesota. Iowa, Indiana and California, 
where free silverism had long been taught by Re- 
publican leaders who had now to educate themsel res 
before they could go forth to educate the people. 
Looking a little under the surf ace, the historian will 
find that the frankness of the Republican currency 
plank was the great magnet which atti*acted the 
stable forces of society and welded them together as 
a power for the common good. 

That currency plank saved the country from the 
evils and dangers of repudiation, a debased currency, 
a successful assault upon the judiciary, a change 
in the unwritten law and administrative spirit which 
might have led ultimately to the failm*e of popular 
self government in this country. 

Tliis statement is justified by the fact that if the 
St. Louis platform had been equivocal or shifty, if 
there had been in it the faintest note of indecision 
or compromise, if the word gold had not been 
employed to make its meaning plain, the second 
Democratic national convention of 1896 would have 
declared for gold in terms, and Grover Cleveland 
would have been its nominee for President. Presi- 
dent Cleveland's long and inexplicable silence on 
the third -term question, in view of his well-known 
disinclination to continue longer in political life, 
had just this significance : He was waiting to see 
what the Republicans did in the way of a platform 
at St. Louis ; if there was no other strong hand to 
take up the banner of the gold standard he was will- 
ing to do so, come what might. When the gold plank 
was adopted at St. Louis all chance of the nomina- 



MR. KOHLSAAT OF CHICAGO. AND HIS PART IN THE HISTORY OF i8g&. 43^ 



tion of Mr. Cleveland by the gold wing of the 
Democracy came to an end. and not till then. 

If the St. Louis convention had failed to rise to 
the level of its duty and opportunity, of which there 
was at one time grave danger, Mr. Cleveland, as the 
only candidate standing upon a sterling platform, 
would have had the 8upx>ort of thousands and thou- 
fiainds of business men who were able to throw their 
influence for McKinley, as the matter happily 
turned out Mr. Kohlsaat himself and the Chicago 
Times-Herald would have supported Cleveland and 
not McKinley had the 
former been nominated 
upon a gold platform 
and the latter on a strad- 
dle plank. With Mr. 
Cleyeland in the field 
the country would have 
had a triangular contest 
between McKinley, 
Geveland and Bryan in 
which the sound money 
forces would have been 
divided and in which | 
free silver would have 
won the day. 

Hermann H. Kohl- 
mat, owner of the Chi- 
cago Times-Herald and 
Giicago Evening Post, 
is one of the remarkable 
men of the day. In the 
pist few years he has 
forged rapidly to the 
front as a leader in jour- 
nalism, politics and 
thought. He is now 
without question the 
dominating force in Chi- 
cago journalism and the 
most influential leader 
of men and opinion in 
the West. He is only 43 
years old, and has won his way in the world solely 
through his own ability and self-reliance and in the 
face of discouraging conditions. He was bom March 
J2. 18.>3. near Albion, Edwards County, 111., but his 
parents removed to (Galena within a year. There 
the boy worked on a farm and attended the public 
school till he was 12 years of age. when his father 
moved to Chicago. His parents were poor and when 
his father died it became necessary for young Kohl- 
•«at to do something to help his mother. Accord- 
ingly he found* work as a carrier of the Chicago 
Tnbtme, delivering papers to subscribers on the 
North Side every morning at daylight, then going 
to the public school. 

One wintry morning the slight little fellow 
reached home very much exhausted after his strug- 
rie with a big bundle of papers amid the snowdrifts 
wd contrary wind. ** Never mind. Hermann,'" said 




MR. KOHLSAAT. 



his mother encouragingly, ** you will not have to 
carry the newspapers all your life.*' 

** No, mother," replied the slip of a boy, *' I 
intend to own a big newspaper of my own some 
day. " 

This ambition was real and earnest. The 
youngster had been in the press room of the Tribune 
and seen the damp sheets rolling from the ma- 
chines. He had noted the eagerness with which 
all sorts of people grabbed up the papers and 
perused them. The object lesson had stirred him 
deeply. He had caught 
a glimpse of the power 
over the minds of men, 
over communities and 
nations, that lies in the 
press. His ambition, 
thus stimulated, was 
never abandoned. It was 
his dream. More and 
better, it was his pur- 
pose, and with his in- 
domitable will the way 
to grratify it was ulti- 
mately fotmd. 

Young Kohlsaat 's first 
regular employment was 
as a cash- boy in the dry 
goods store of Carson, 
Pirie & Co. His salary 
was $2 a week. He was 
a good cash boy, it 
seems, for he was rap- 
idly promoted, as he 
grew older, till finally 
he had charge of all the 
cash of the firm. 
Through all this time he 
lived within his salary. 
** When I first earned 
money," Mr. Kohlsaat 
once told us, '* I sat 
down and thought it all 
out. I perceived that it did not matter how much 
one earned, it was necessary to save something all 
the time or one could never be anything but an 
employee. Even when I earned only $2 a week 
a certain part of it was put aside for future use." 

Having arrived at manhood Mr. Kohlsaat became 
a traveling salesman for a Chicago baking estab- 
lishment. It was while ** on the road " as a sales- 
man that he entered Canton, Ohio, and tliere met 
Major McKinley, then a j^oung Congressman, un- 
known to fame. A friendship sprang up between 
the two men that day, and it has continued ever 
since, with what effect ui)on the politics and polity 
of the nation we have already seen. 

The young traveling salesman was not long in 
getting into business for himself. He started in 
Chicago a number of those popular restaurants (*oni 
inonly called ** dairy lunches." They were succt'ss 



44 



THE RE^IEIV OF RE^IEIVS. 



fnl and earned money rapidly. Mr. Kohlsaat made 
some investments, in a small way, in Chicago real 
estate. His judgment enabled him to turn quick 
profits, and his courage led him on to more important 
deals. In a comparatively short time he became a 
wealthy man. He has long been known in Chicago 
as one of the most sagacious realty investors in that 
city. An example of his pluck is found in the case 
of a corner lot at the comer of Adams and LaSalle 
streets. It was offered for sale at a price which to 
most men seemed exorbitant. Mr. Kohlsaat said he 
thought he would take it. Marshall Field, himself 
a real estate investor of great sagacity, told Mr. 
Kohlsaat to let the property alone; that he would 
ruin himself if he bought it. Witliin eighteen 
months thereafter Mr. Kohlsaat sold the same lot 
to Mr. Field at a profit of about $100,000. 

All this time Mr. Kohlsaat had in mind his early 
ambition to own a newspaper. An opportunity pre- 
senting itself, he purchased a half interest in the 
Chicago Inter-Ocean, which was then a losing 
ventiure. Mr. Kohlsaat became its business man- 
ager. In two years, by legitimate methods, he had 
so much increased the circulation of the paper that 
profits began to take the place of a deficit for the 
first time in the history of the concern. About this 
time arose an incident which gave a clue to Mr. 
Kohlsaat's character, and which changed to a marked 
degree his future. The editorial control of the 
paper was in the hands of another, and when the 
editor persisted in supporting certain politicians for 
local office Mr. Kohlsaat objected. He declared he 
would not be owner of a newspaper which was 
willing to countenance anything that seemed to 
him against public policy. He offered to buy his 
partuer^s interest or to sell his own. An option was 
given by him, and at its expiration the partner 
begged for still another thirty days. Though not 
legally bound to do so, and though retention of 
the paper which he had made a financial success 
was dear to his heart. Mr. Kohlsaat generously gave 
the extension. At the end of the period the holder 
of the option came forward with the money and 
Mr. Kohlsaat left the Inter-Ocean forever. 

For a year or more Mr. Kohlsaat endeavored to 
purchase the New York Tribune or the New York 
Times. For the latter paper terms of sale were once 
made, but at the last moment the owners concluded 
to retain the property. It was a misfortune to New 
York journalism that the sale was not effected. It 
would have brought to the metropolis another 
Western editor, but one devoted to journalism upon 
a high plane. Mr. Kohlsaat once offered $2,000,000 
in cash for a bare majority of the stock of the Chi- 
cago THbiine, and it is said that he came within an 
ace of getting the paper. 

About two years ago James W. Scott, one of the 



founders and for a long time publisher of the Chicago 
Herald, bought the old Chicago THmes and consoli 
dated it with the Herald. Shortly afterward Mr. 
Scott died suddenly in New York City. He and Mr. 
Kohlsaat had been warm friends, and when the 
query arose as to what should become of the prop- 
erty Mr. Kohlsaat amazed Chicago and the news- 
paper world by a daring act. He bought the Times 
Herald and Evening Post at a cost of a million and 
a half and announced himself their editor. Men 
predicted his failure and ruin. The Times and 
Herald had both been Democratic journals for many 
years. Mr. Kohlsaat was a Republican, and had 
managed a Republican paper in that very town. 

But the man soon made a newspaper that was like 
himself. It was cleanly, high minded, alert in the 
public interest. Like the man. it soon acquired repu- 
tation for independence of thought, for conscience, 
for vigorous championship of the right. To the 
surprise of all observers, and of Mr. Kohlsaat him- 
self, the loss of circulation after his purchase was a 
mere trifle. These losses were soon recouped, and 
the Times- Herald and the Evening Post have grown 
ever since in popularity and influence. Mr. Kohl- 
saat gave Chicago its first taste of a thoroughly 
independent newspaper that was at the same time 
vigorous and positive. Chicago liked it, notwith- 
standing its training in party journalism and in 
independence that was simply colorless neutrality. 
The Times-Herald is now without question the lead- 
ing newspaper of the West, and in some respects it 
is the model newsi)aper of America. 

Mr. Kohlsaat has no political ambition. He has 
been much mentioned for a place in the McKinley 
cabinet, but he would not accept such a post He 
is thoroughly devoted to his newspapers, and their 
policies as well as their details are daily under his 
watchful eye. 

Mr. Kohlsaat founded the Colored Men's Library 
in Chicago. He gave to the city of Galena a bronze 
memorial tablet of General Grant, and also a paint- 
ing of the surrender at Appomattox by Thos. Nast. 
He is active in the public spirited work of Chicago 
business men which has made that city notable 
throughout the world. In 1880, Mr. Kohlsaat mar- 
ried Mabel, daughter of £. Nelson Blake, a promi- 
nent business man of Chicago and former president 
of the Board of Trade. The KohlFaats live in a 
beautiful home on the Lake Shore Drive, in North 
Chicago. 

This in brief is the life story of the man, still 
young, who through devotion to principle, perception 
of the right and insight into the causes which move 
public opinion and bring about great popular move- 
ments, last year did more than any other man to 
place his country upon the rock of a sound and hon- 
orable standard of value. 



SOME PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS FROM STUDENTS 

OF FINANCE. 

[In OTir principal American universities the problems of taxation, currency and banking are now studied 
with fn^at thoroughness, and by the same modem and fruitful methods as are employed in the study of 
the physical sciences. Few men engaged in banking or other businesses conducted for private profit have 
had either time or opportunity to acquire broad knowledge of financiering in its public aspects. How to 
make money in the competitive field of business is one thing; how to lay the taxes, regulate the currency 
and organize the credit machinery of a great nation is quite a different thing. The bankers and private 
capitalists of the country have, assuredly, a right to be heard upon the pending questions of banking and 
currency reform. Some of them are not only successful in private financial undertakings, but are also 
inthorities in the wholly different field of public finance. But, meanwhile, it should be remembered that 
the so-called ** practical '* men of private business have often shown themselves to be theorists as regards 
pnbhc policies, while the so-called ''theorists^* who have made a thorough historical, comparative and 
sdentific study of legislation and government are the men whose views are really practical. This is 
why statesmen are wiser than business men in matters of public policy, while publicists and professional 
economists are especially entitled to an attentive audience. At a time when the business men through 
Boards of Trade and through delegations sent to Washington are seeking to influence legislation on the 
tariff question, on the general subject of national revenue, on the question of circulating notes, and on the 
banking system as a whole, it has seemed to us worth while to obtain the opinions of some representative 
economists identified with half a score of our leading American universities. — Editor.] 



I. ABOVE ALL THINGS, REST AND A STABLE POLICY. 

BY PROFESSOR ARTHUR T. HADLEY OF YALE. 



THERE never was a time when we had more 
need of Talleyrand's caution. ** Above all 
things, gentlemen, not too much zeal.*' What the 
coon try now wants more than all else is rest; and 
seal in the right direction is almost as great a dis- 
turber of rest as zeal in a wrong direction. 

The evils under which we suffer to-day are com- 
mercial rather than legislative in their origin. True, 
there is a deficit in the current revenues of the gov- 
ernment which has been itself a potent cause of 
commercial distrust; but that deficit is moderate in 
amount and not improbably temporary In character. 
It may safely be attributed to the Venezuela war 
Mire quite as much as to the Wilson compromise 
tariff. For this war cloud, unimportant as it ulti- 
mately proved, was enough to prolong by at least a 
year the commercial depression which had previously 
seemed to be nearing its end. and thus to diminish 
the pnblic revenues at a most critical juncture. It 
was enough to cause Europe to pay for our goods by 
sending some securities or coin instead of by ship- 
ment of goods which might have paid duty. If we 
may judge by past exi>erience, a renewal of com 
mercial prosperity is not unlikely to make the reve- 
irae adequate under existing acts. 

Bat even if the present deficit should last for two 
or three years, this would not of itself be a very 
•erions matter. What made it serious in 1896 was 
the doubt which existed in the public mind whether 
the government would continue to pay its bills in 



gold, and the consequent pressure for immediate 
settlement of some of its outstanding obligations, 
which would otherwise have been allowed to remain 
undisturbed. This doubt was removed, for the pres- 
ent at any rate, by the result of the presidential 
election ; and unless some course is adopted by the 
authorities at Washington which will renew the 
same doubt the acutest stage of our trouble is over. 

The rest which we so much need is threatened 
from three quarters— by the premature agitation of 
plans of currency reform, by the desire for radical 
changes in tariff legislation, and by the pressure 
for a*' spirited" foreign policy. The last of these 
is the most dangerous and the least excusable. 

The advocates of speedy measures of currency re- 
form have the strongest prima facie case in their 
favor. They say that as long as our currency con- 
tains so much silver and ill arranged paper we are 
always in danger of the return of evils like those of 
the last three years, and that quiescence under exist- 
ing circnrastances is like leaving a barrel of nitro- 
glycerine in your cellar. To which it may be 
answered that it is sometimes better to leave the 
nitroglycerine quiet in the cellar than to try to carry 
it up a rickety staircase in the dark. The break- 
down of a prematurely adopted plan of currency 
reform would be infinitely more dangerous than a 
continuance of present conditions. 

Nearly the same thing may be £aid about our tar- 
iff policy. The apparent need of an increased 



46 



THE REVIEW OF REk'JEU/S. 



revenue may cause the tariff on certain articles to 
be placed so high as to provoke an agitation for its 
reduction when the piesent emergency is over. A 
tariff which is thus temporary and uncertain makes 
A disturbance in the business world whose evils are 
sure to overbalance the good arising from any 
momentary gain in government revenue. 

Fortunately our experience with the. tariff of 1890 
is well enough remembered to lessen the probability 
of rash action in increasing duties. At the present 
moment the danger from ill-considered foreign policy 
seems much greater than that from ill-considered 
tariff or currency laws There is enough popular 
dislike of Spain and sympathy with those who are 
defying her power to make the recognition of Cuban 
belligerency or even Cuban independence an attract- 
ive theme with those politicians who care more for 
feelings than for facts, more for jwpularity than 
for public policy. There is an appreciable danger 
that Congress may allow itself to be stampeded by 
such leaders and commit itself to the assumption 



that the Cuban insurgents have a responsible go^sr- 
emment, a well-defined territory and a basis of sys- 
tematic foreign relations, when it is not certain th.^t 
they have any of these things and quite certain tlkSLt 
they do not have them all. Should it become possil>lo 
to interfere in Cuban affairs on the basis of recagr 
nized methods of international dealing, we can plao© 
the matter in such shape as to command the ap 
proval of disinterested nations. Until we can do 
this we had better remain quiet. Our experience 
with the Venezuela affair showed how much finazx- 
cial trouble was entailed by infelicities of utterance* 
where we had a relatively good case. The temporary 
crisis which was thus engendered may be made per- 
manent if we adopt a reckless course with regard to 
Cuba. The most important matter for the imme- 
diate attention of those who seek an intelligent solu.- 
tion of our financial difficulties is to insist that the 
dealings of our government with Spain should be 
marked by courtesy of demeanor and strict adherence 
to facta. 



II. HOW TO ASSURE THE MAINTENANCE OF THE GOLD STANDARD. 

BY PROFESSOR J. LAURENCE LAUGHLIN OF CHICAGO. 



IN order to meet the existing deficit in income, 
one must consider not merely what is economi- 
♦cally ju&tifiable, but also what is practicable. The 
gold- standard Democrats who voted for Mr. McKin- 
ley are not protectionists ; and yet a strong body of 
Mr. McKinley's Republican supporters will natu- 
rally urge a tariff bill which will restore the duty on 
wool. Such a proposition is likely to alienate the 
Democrats who voted with the Republicans on the 
money question, and will also disturb the manufac- 
turers of woolen goods. If possible, industry should 
be disturbed as little as practicable (for it has already 
•endured a great strain), and the suppoi^ters of cur- 
rency reform should be kept united. A measure 
designed wholly for revenue, such as a tax on beer, 
would obviate both of the objections above men- 
tioned, while it would fulfill all the requirements 
of a good tax. It would easily provide all the in- 
come needed to meet existing deficits. 

n. 

To insure the stability of the existing gold stand- 
ard the United States notes (or '* greenbacks") 
should be canceled as they are redeemed, and the 
whole issue should be ultimately retired. So long 
as the government remains the issuer of demand 
obligations, immediately redeemable in the present 
gold standard, any failure to maintain an adequate 
reserve of that standard money, or even a suspicion 
of such a failure, will produce doubt and uncer- 
tainty as to the permanency of the standard itself. 
For, unless the notes are convertible on demand 
into gold, they will cease to be equal in value to 



gold ; and the moment that happens the govern- 
ment itself will have indicated that it has aban- 
doned the gold standard. And when the Treasury 
ceases to pay in gold private institutions will also 
be obliged to change their standard of payments. 

It is common knowledge that since the end of 
1894 serious doubts have been felt as to the ability 
of the Treasury to redeem the United States notes 
in gold. The presentation of these notes for gold 
was the means by which the gold reserve was. in 
fact, depleted, and a general anxiety was created 
as to the permanence of the standard. If the gold 
had been exhausted, our standard would have been 
set by the value of the paper obligations ; and if 
these obligations had become redeemable only in 
silver (instead of gold), that would have meant a 
change to the silver standard. The way in which 
the United States notes have threatened the stability 
of the standard must have been clear to every man 
of affairs in these last three years ; and probably 
nothing else has so depressed trade and production 
as this. Certainty as to the future is the very breath 
of life to business. It is a suggestive fact that in 
these last three years the machinery just described 
worked in such a way that a single silver standard 
could have been brought about without any legisla- 
tion at all favorable to silver, and without the pas- 
sage of any bill enacting free coinage of silver. 
All that was needed to establish the single silver 
standard was an interruption of the means of re- 
plenishing the gold reserve adopted by the Execu- 
tive, or even by creating such distrust that notes 
would be largely presented for gold. In brief, so 
long as the existing currency system remains as it 



SOME PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS FROM STUDENTS OF FINANCE. 



47 



is. the maintenance of the gold standard depends 
00 the mere will and discretion of the Executive. 
Of course such a situation is intolerable ; and the 
xnAcbinery by which business uncertainty is pro- 
duced should be promptly removed. This can be 
jKcomplished by the repeal of the act of May 81, 
1S78. which unfortunately requires that notes, after 
being once redeemed, ** shall not be retirad, can- 
celed or destroyed, but they shall be reissued and 
paid out again and kept in circulation.'* If these 
notes cannot be refunded in low interest bearing 
bonds they should be slowly retired from surplus 
reTenue. 

The notes have not been a loan without cost. As 
a fact, in order to preserve the reserve (because of the 
reisRue of notes) we have been obliged to increase the 
pablic debt by $357,815,400, imposing a tax for an- 
nual interest to the sum of $15,632,616 ; and the tax- 
payers are to day paying annually $5 322,186 more 
than if we had refunded the notes in 3 per cent 
bonds. We have redeemed $407,000,000 of these 
notes, and yet they are outstanding to their full 
amount (less those in the Treasury). Since these 
notes have been an enormously expensive form of 
Indebtedness, and, moreover, since in practice they 
act to disturb the stability of the standard, there 
i» no business reason for their existence. 

IIL 

The stability of all kinds of our currency should 
be secured. But the retirement of United States 
notes would still leave us the duty of providing for 
the permanent value in gold of our silver dollars 
and silver certificates. The Treasury notes of 1890 
arp now redeemable in **coin,'* which, so long as 
ow standard is gold, protects their value absolutely. 
Hence we should go beyond the indirect legislation 
«f 1890 and 1893. and establish by direct require- 
ment the redemption in gold of silver dollars. 
Then, and then only, would our standard money be 
hroaght to equality protected from fluctuations. 

IV. 

On tlie supposition that the recent election de- 
cided against a silver standard, the foregoing meas 
ores are necessary to meet the expectations of the 



country and to the removal of all doubt as to the 
maintenance of the existing gold standard. Then, 
being assured of our standard, we should next 
proceed to establish an elastic medium of exchange, 
based upon this standard. The retirement of 
United States notes will produce no contraction of 
the currency if a banking system be created able to 
issue notes safely when urgently needed, and which 
will be withdrawn as the need disappears, elastic- 
ally adjusting the quantity of the medium to the 
work to be done. The mechanical action of govern- 
ment issues can never suit the needs of persons 
actually engaged in business, because the govern- 
ment cannot possibly engage in all the banking 
functions of deposit and discount. Only those in- 
stitutions to which men are always going for loans 
and deposits can know what are *' the needs of 
trade.'' The very fact that our government is not 
a bank unfits it for regulating the quantity of the 
media of exchange ; that must be automatically 
arranged by the business public itself through the 
banks with which it is constantly dealing. 

The suggestions regarding a larger percentage 
of note issues to bonds by national banks, and the 
reduction of taxation on their circulation, are in 
my judgment wholly inadequate. The difficulty lies 
deeper in the inelastic character of the national 
bank issues ; they cannot, as now regulated, expand 
and contract in that manner which is essential to 
a sound and satisfactory carrency. Therefore the 
whole banking system mast be reshaped, especially 
as regards its issues. This should be done only with 
great care and by experts. 

The essential features of a good system of bank 
issues can be briefly indicated : 

1. A sufficient security to note holders. (This was 
obtained in the so-called ** Baltimore plan," even at 
the sacrifice of depositors. 

2. Elasticity. Possibility of expansion in times 
of great need without special legislation, but 
checked by a tax as in the German Reichsbank. 

3. Redemption. Such provision should be made 
that in all parts of the country redundant notes 
would speedily be retirc»d by redemption. Such an 
automatic system regulated by business demands 
and not by national legislation will remove the 
money question from politics. 



IIL A MODERATE TARIFF AND A LIBERAL BANK LAW. 

BY PROFESSOR WILLIAM W. FOLWELL OF MINNESOTA. 



IT is not to be expected that the Fifty- fourth Con- 
gress will undertake in its short session, already 
begun, any but the most necessary routine fiscal 
IcfllMlation Whether the Fifty- fifth 0)ngress. 
likely to be called in special session soon after the 4th 
of 3Carch instant, will be composed of chambers 
capable of harmonious action is doubtful. 
There ought, however, to be shown in that Con- 



gress moderation enough, patriotism enough and 
political ** horse sense '" enough to permit the adop- 
tion of certain reasonable, conservative measures. 
The following suggestions relate to such measures 
regarded as possible. It would not be worth while 
to enter upon any discussions of free silver, scientific 
money, the abolition of banks or any such question. 
The revenue will naturally be the first great con- 



48 



THE REyiElV OF RE^IEIVS. 



cem of the Fifty-fifth Congress. The judgment 
of the chiefs of the present administration that the 
present tariff— other sources of income remaining 
unchanged — will yield a sufficient revenue is not 
likely to be accepted by the leaders of a victorious 
party pledged to a revision of the tariff to secure 
more efficient protection of American labor and 
industry. A revised tariff bill, already ** in the 
work," will be introduced at an early moment. It 
will be a happy circumstance if this bill shall be 
conservative, moderate and fairly equal in its pro- 
visions. The American people are accustomed to 
the tariff. They tolerate willingly its come-easy 
go-easy indirect and imx>osed exactions, and they do 
not dote upon direct assessed taxes which require 
them to walk up and settle on a given day. They 
will consent to the indefinite continuance of a tariff 
for revenue with incidental protection of industries 
which are really infantile or juvenile; and for the 
protection of American labor, when they see it really 
endangered by foreign competition, they will submit 
to almost any scale of taxation. But the time is 
past for the coddling of any few selected indus- 
tries, and indeed it is no longer to the interest of an 
industry to be unduly stimulated by tariff legisla- 
tion. Steady growth under normal conditions is far 
to be preferred. 

It will be a fortunate circumstance if the new 
tariff bill shall be free from the objection of favor- 
ing any monopolies, trusts or combines. The opinion 
is widespread among the people that trusts have 
heretofore been most numerous and profitable In the 
protected industries. For this reason a new tariff 
will be the more acceptable and the more stable if 
it shall be accompanied by efficient anti trust legis- 
lation. We have here a problem of exceeding diffi 
culty. but one which must be entertained and not 
put off. Congress may as well understand that the 
American people will not indefinitely submit to the 
tyranny of trusts, and it will be the part of wisdom 
to provide for their extinction by peaceful means 
before that be too late. 

The only monetary project to which the Republi- 
can majority stands pledged is that of international 
bimetallism. No doubt every possible effort will be 
made to secure an international conference. If the 
great powers, or most of them, agree to a scheme of 
coining silver upon a stipulated ratio it will take 
some time for the several high contracting parties 
to enact the necessary laws to give it effect. It is 
not important that any conjecture as to the out- 
come of the negotiations be here ventured. 

Meantime certain ameliorations in our currency 
system are important and ought to be feasible. 

The experience of our government and many 
others has proven that there is no economy to a 
nation in the issue of non-interest bearing paper. 
Stress of war may force a government to do it, but 
it never pays. 

The greenback issues have been a costly affair to 
the United States, and their retirement ought not 



long to be delayed, and a standing menace to tlie 
Treasury thereby removed. The details of such re- 
tirement need not be discussed here. Although tlie 
** Sherman notes " are serviceable for working the 
** endless chain " scheme for depleting the Treasury 
of its gold, no special action may at once be de- 
manded in regard to them. Their amount is limited, 
and their issue is not mandatory. 

The retirement of the leg^ tender notes to the 
amount of near three hundred and fifty millions nat 
urally raises the question of filling the void thus mad e 
in the volume of the currency. Just as naturally, 
under existing circumstances and traditions will 
come in answer the suggestion of some other form 
of paper currency. II is the conviction of the writer 
that no government that will exist may be safely 
entrusted with the issue of paper money according^ 
to the judgment of the casual majority in Congress. 
We may make the experiment of late so loudly de- 
manded of government issues, but it will b& sowing" 
the wind to reap the whirlwind. 

There remains the resource of leaving to banks 
the issue and handling of paper circulation under 
legislative control and administrative supervision. 

This principle has had abundant exemplification 
in our country. The national banking system was 
founded upon the best experience of state banks, it 
has stood for a third of a century and it is submitted 
that candid observers will agree that it has worked 
well, especially its issue side. The computations o^ 
the Comptroller of the Currency, which may be seen 
in any volume of the Finance Reports, show that 
the profits of the banks on circulation have not been 
excessive. Indeed, the bare fact that the banks, in 
the twenty years preceding 1893, reduced their cir- 
culation by about one-half is sufficient evidence that 
there was greater profit in lending their funds over 
the counter than in buying bonds to obtain circula- 
tion. The issue and management of a paper circu- 
lation is a useful function, and should be properly 
compensated. If the government undertakes it the 
people have the expenses to pay. As a first and im- 
mediate means of maintaining a due volmne of cur 
rency let the national banks be authorized to issue 
to the market value of the bonds deposited to secure 
circulation and the tax on the circulation be mate- 
rially reduced. 

It will then be in order to investigate the merits of 
various plans proposed to give to our currency a 
property in which it is now greatly wanting — that 
of elasticity. The Canadian plan has much to com- 
mend it ; the Baltimore plan and the Merriam plan 
are worthy of consideration. 

The project of a third United States Bank, of late 
feebly voiced, is still too crude and revolutionary 
to deserve present attention. 

Whenever in the future the postal system shall 
be manned and conducted according to the principle 
of the civil service reform, a national postal savings 
bank maj* be made a serviceable part of our fiscal sys- 
tem and render a great benefit to the working people. 



SOME PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS FROM STUDENTS OF FINANCE. 



49 



IV. RETIRE THE GREENBACKS WITHOUT DELAY. 



BY PROFESSOR F. W. TAUSSIG OF HARVARD. 



I PROPOSE to confine myself to one aspect solely 
of the corrency question, — ^the position of the 
United States notes, or greenbacks, and the policy 
which it is best to adopt in regard to these. I be- 
lieve that they should be got rid of. and that steps 
sboold be taken at once looking to their retirement. 
Any plan for getting rid of them will naturally con- 
template their gradual disposal and the substitu- 
tion for them of some other form of currency. — 
partly bank notes, partly specie. Upon the details 
as to the mode of retirement and the nature of the 
rahstitutes I do not propose to enter, confining my- 
aelf to the fundamental question whether it is de- 
Biible to retire the greenhacka at all. 

My reasons for desiring to get rid of the green- 
hatis are simple reasons of expediency — strong 
reaMos of expediency, no doubt, and so strong, x)er 
hap6. as to crystallize into a principle. It is per- 
fectly possible for a government like the United 
States to issue convertible paper money, to keep it 
at par with specie, and to secure some slight ma- 
vmal gain for the community by the process. But 
the probabilities of good management are so small 
and the possibilities of evil are so great that the 
afest course is not to resort at all to this mode of 
faniiahing paper money. 

Oertainly it is impossible to defend the mode in 
winch the greenbacks are now managed. While 
they are convertible into specie, — that is, into gold, 
—Congress has in no way determined how large a 
ftock of gold shall be kept for their redemption ; 
nay. has in no way provided any separate stock of 
goW for that purpose. The so-called gold reserve 
exists simply because there is an excess of available 
cash in the Treasury over current liabilities. That 
ezcflK swells and dkninishes with the increase or de- 
crease of public revenues as compared with expendi- 
tnrw. The reserve is thus dependent upon the ac- 
cident of the financial condition of the Treasury. 
Xonh has been said of late of the need of increasing 
the revenue as a means of strengthening the finan- 
cial position of the Treasury. Very likely an increase 
of rerenne is needed ; but ' the whole system by 
which the resources at the Treasury's command for 
redeeming the paper money issued by it are made 
V» depend on the relation of the current income 
from taxes to the current outgo by appropriations 
kk Ticious and indefensible. Dependent as our fed- 
eral revenue is mainly on receipts from customs, it 
u inevitably subject to wide fluctuations : and we 
moat expect in future, as we have had in the past, 
some years of excessive revenue and some years of 
deflrient revenue. This will happen imder any 
tinif system and under any revenue system as long 
as the aoorces of revenue are uncertain and irregu- 
lar. No measure of present taxation can cure these 
difflcoltiee, which are inherent in the system itself. 



The only defensible system under which the green- 
backs could be kept in use would be that of estab- 
lishing a separate department of issue in the Treas- 
ury at Washington, with cash of its own and re 
sources of its own, and absolutely separated from 
the other financial operations of the government. 
Doubtless it would be possible to do this ; to estab- 
lish an Issue Department analagous to the Issue De- 
partment of the Bank of England ; to put aside a 
large stock of gold (the larger the better) which 
should serve no other purpose that that of redeem- 
ing government notes when presented ; and to en- 
act that all notes redeemed should be held, and not 
paid out again, except in exchange for specie. With 
a large stock of gold, say 150 or 200 millions of dol- 
lars, and with a limitation of the greenbacks to 
their present volume, and with a steady and un- 
faltering maintenance of the system, this might 
work well enough. The difficulty of the case is 
that there would need to be a constant struggle to 
maintain the system. The presence of a large stock 
of gold held by the Treasury for the purpose of re- 
deeming the greenbacks. — very possibly not called 
upon, for months or years together, to make any 
cDusiderable payments, — would be a constant invi- 
tation for attack and a constant temptation for 
extravagance. At every session of Congress we 
should have demands tlial this stock of gfold, in- 
stead of being hoarded by the government, should 
be spent and allowed to ** fructify in the t)ockets of 
the people ; " and in every appropriation bill we 
shTkild be in danger of finding a provision that 
some of the expenditure should be met by taking 
something or all from the Issue Department's stock 
of gold. 

These are some of the difficulties (obvious 
enough) which such a system would encounter un- 
der political conditions like ours. The safe and 
sound plan is to avoid them once for all by confin- 
ing the monetary functions of the government to 
the coinage of specie and the due supervision of 
banking operations. The mode in which other 
forms of paper money can advantageously replace 
the government notes is a complicated question, but 
not a very difficult one. To get quite the ideal sys- 
tem of bank issues is indeed a knotty question ; but 
to get a satisfactory one, much better than our pres 
ent system of Treasury issues, is comparatively 
simple, A more liberal management of the na- 
tional banking system, such as the Comptroller of 
the Currency has proposed in his recently issued 
report, would suffice to bring about a great im- 
provement over the existing state of affairs, and 
would pave the way for a still more liberal and 
elastic regulation of note issue such as we may look 
forward to as the eventual outcome of the abolition 
of greenbacks. 



50 



THE REyiEU^ OF REyiEiVS. 



V. THE PRINCIPLES OF BANKING REFORM. 



BY PROFESSOR SIDNEY SHERWOOD OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY. 



'T^HE ultimate causes of our existing industrial de- 

1 preesion are not in the evils of our currency, 
nor in the embarrassments of our Treasury, nor in 
political agitation. They go deeper down into indus- 
trial conditions and are world-wide in their operation. 
We shall not create prosperity by legislation. We 
do not want at the present time, therefore, too much 
** reform " agitation, but rather opportunity for 
slow, healthful recuperation. 

The doctrinaires who shout, ** The government 
ought to go out of the banking business," are just 
as reprehensible as those who declare that the value 
of money is created by law. Intelligent reform calls 
for dispassionate consideration. 

To secure such consideration the government 
ought to appoint a commission of experts to investi- 
gate the condition of the banks and the currency 
and to recommend needed reforms. Assuming that 
such a commission were to consist of seven members, 
it should contain one representative of the Treasury, 
one senator, one member of the House, two profes- 
sional bankers and two professional economists. No 
legislation should be attempted until the report of 
the commission, which should be delayed until the 
next session of Congress. Industry could mean- 
w^hile quietly revive under the assurance that no 
hasty reforms were to be attempted. 

It might be profitable, however, in the light of 
facts already known, to discuss certain possible re- 
forms. The election having settled the question of 
the monetary standard, for the present at least, one 
of the most hnperative reforms is that demanded for 
the national banking system. 

The history of banking in this country shows the 
necessity, for sound banking under modem condi- 
tions, of the following requisites: Consolidation, 
practical or legal, of banking institutions ; govern- 
ment regulation and supervision, and uniformity of 
regulation. These qualifications our national bank- 
ing system has, and it would be unwise to nullify 
their power by giving state banks greater oppor- 
tunity for growth. The tax on state bank issues 
ought not to be repealed. 

Bnt there are serious defects in the national bank 
system. In the first place, it does not afford adequate 
banking facilities in agricultural communities. To 
remedy this defect the following reforms are advo- 
cated: 

1. Provision for the establishment of branch banks. 
A small country \nnage which could not put up the 
capital necessary to operate a separate bank might 
easily sustain a branch of a large city bank. A 
separate bank with smaller capital than now per- 
mitted would not be nearly so effective as a branch 
bank, for it would require a full equipment of offi- 
cers and more capital than would be required for the 



branch. The branch would have the advantage, als< 
of actual identity of interests with the jmrent ban I 

2. Introduction of the Scotch ** cash credit " 85rg 
tern or some similar safe plan to render borrowinj 
easy to persons of small credit. This would great 1, 
increase the usefulness of the system in the mor 
backward sections of the country. 

8. Either the abolition of the bond security sys 
tem of issues or the extension of the limit to, say 
125 per cent, of the par value of the bonds. 

The present limitation discriminates powerfully 
against country banks, because in the country tin 
deposit and check system is used relatively far lesi 
than in cities. If the banking system is to serve 
the country as well as the city the issue of notes 
must be made easier. The substitution of some 
plan like the Baltimore plan for the present regula- 
tion would likewise secure that much needed elas- 
ticity of issues. If, however, bond security is to 1>€ 
retained, the limit ought to be raised at least to 125 
per cent. 

In the second place, the relation of the present 
system to the government is not altogether satisfac- 
tory. The government should not undertake the 
redemption of bank notes, nor should it hold such 
large imused funds in its Treasury. A certain legal 
modification of present practice would constitute a 
genuine conservative reform. The clearing house 
associations should be incorporated by federal law. 
The various sub-treasuries would be mainly govern- 
ment agencies for dealing with the clearing house 
associations. To the extent to which the sub- treas- 
uries should deposit moneys with the clearing houses 
the latter should, under proper regulation, be 
charged with the obligation of redeeming ** green- 
backs,'' the government then being relieved, if it 
chose, of the necessity of maintaining its gold re- 
serve. Bank notes should no longer be redeemable 
by the government, but at the re8i>ective clearing 
houses to which the issuing banks belonged, with 
central redemption at New York. This would make 
the clearing house in reality into a great banking 
corporation, but it would simplify the whole 
machinery of banking and would enable the 
government to go out of the banking business with- 
out conferring unrecompensed privilege upon the 
banks. 

Popular hostility to the banks would be largely 
disarmed by a provision that the government should 
share in the profits of the banks when such profits 
were in excess of a certain rate. Should the gov- 
ernment receive one -quarter of the profits over 10 per 
cent, per annum and one half of the excess over 12 
per cent. . the regulation would be fair to the people 
in the banking business and fair to the people who 
are not. 



SOME PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS FROM STW^ENTS OF FINANCE, 



51 



VI. WHAT THE INCOMING CONGRESS OUGHT TO ACCOMPLISH. 

BY PROFESSOR J. W. JENKS OF CORNELL UNIVERSITY. 



IF a person were asked to frame bills regarding 
the revenues or the currency that in his judg- 
ment were the best that Congress could be per- 
fOAded to pass within the next year or eighteen 
months, his report would be quite different from 
hi» reply to the question. What policies ought to be 
ftdopted ? The latter asks for the statement of a 
desirable policy — a workable one, to be sure ; the 
fonner keeps prominently in mind the necessity of 
oompromise and deference to the opinions of pres- 
«t members of Congress. The editor of the Re- 
TiEw OF Reviews asks us what the opinions of 
members of Congress, in our judgment, ought to be, 
vithout reference to what they are. 

The Secretary of the Treasury ought to be au- 
thorized to sell in the market short time obliga- 
tkms, at current rates for such securities, to meet 
pfessmg calls when a deficit appears. 

THE REVENUES. 

Congress should give attention as much to lessen- 
inic expenditures as to increasing the revenue. 

The system of Congress in dealing with the 
finances ought to be so changed that the United 
States will have a real budgetary system. Esti- 
mAte« of necessary and wise expenditures should 
firtrt be carefully made, then measures to secure the 
r«qui8ite amount of revenue provided. A large sur- 
pli» should be as carefully avoided as a deficit. 
The final form of the budgets should be settled by 
one committee and be brought as a balance before 
Congress for full discussion. For the years 1889 
to 1H92 the £nglish expenditures varied only about 
one twentieth of 1 per cent, from the estimates. 

Because the income from the tariff, owing to 
the varying conditions of business, is always so un- 
c«tam, changes should be made but rarely in that ; 
but the internal revenue system should be consid- 
ered the financial balance wheel by which to adjust 
revenues to expenditures as long as the Federal 
foremment makes no use of direct taxes. 

If in the opinion of Congress, therefore, more 
i*?eniie w now needed, it should be secured rather 
by changes in the internal revenue than in tariff 
rat-*. Tariff changes had better be recommended 
by a permanent commission of experts, as has been 
often suggested. 

THE MONEY QUESTION. 

The money question is the one of chief impor- 
tance. As there seems to be no reasonable pros- 
pect of action in the near future in favor of inter- 
national bimetallism, gold monometallists and in- 
teniational bimetallists ought to agree upon a plan 
to fomifih a currency that will adapt itself to the 
ba>.m«*B needs of the country for an indefinite 
logth of time, as well as any currency based 
chiefly on gold can so adapt itself. Such a system 
OQgfat not to be based so much upon bonds that it 



must be changed when the government wishes to 
pay off its debts. Furthermore, the burden of 
keeping the currency at par with coin, or redeem- 
able in coin, ought to rest upon the institutions best 
adapted to bear it. and not upon the government, 
which has no normal facilities for the protection of 
its coin reserves. The following provisions should, 
therefore, be made : 

a. The greenbacks should be retired as rapidly as 
they can readily be replaced by new bank notes well 
secured. The means can i)erhaps be most readily 
provided by a bond issue, unless new revenue could 
be counted on to provide for their gradual retire- 
ment within reasonable time. So long as the green- 
backs remain in circulation under the present laws 
they are likely at any time, if commercial need calls 
for gold in large quantities, to be the means either 
of forcing the country upon a silver basis or of 
causing repeated issues of bonds. . In either case, 
in a time of commercial need, they add to the evils 
of the situation. 

6. A new national banking system should be pro- 
vided which might gradually replace our present 
one. The chief characteristics of the new system 
might well be : 

BANKING REFORMS. 

1. The notes, issued to an amount not above the 
capital stock paid in. redeemable in lawful money 
of the United States at the bank or any of several 
agencies, should be made, for their security, a first 
loan upon all the assets of the bank, including the 
double liability of the stockholders. 

2. A guarantee fund equal to 5 per cent of the 
average circulation should gradually be accumu- 
lated in the Treasury by annual contributions from 
each bank of issue of perhaps 2 per cent, on the 
circulation until the 5 per cent, were reached. This 
fund is to be administered by the Treasury for the 
redemption of the notes of failed banks, if in any 
event the assets should not suffice. If the fund 
thus became depleted it should be made good by 
new contributions from the banks. 

8. During a period of transition banks might, if 
they wished, retain bonds to cover part or all their 
circulation and go gradually over to the new sys- 
tem at will. 

4. The larger banks should be permitted to estab- 
lish branch banks. Many country villages, espe- 
cially in the South, could thus to the advantage of 
all concerned be more easily supplied with bank- 
ing facilities than is now possible. The rates of 
interest in different sections of the country would 
be more nearly equalized than at present, and the 
branch banks would be safer than very small 
independent banks. Of course, local capital and 
men might well be employed in the branch banks. 

6. Detailed provisions should be added covering 



52 



THE REVIEW OF RE^IEIVS. 



the nature of discounts, closing of insolvent banks, 
duties of comptrollers of the currency, inspection of 
banks, etc. 

6. If the United States is to levy any tax on the 
banks, more than enough to pay the expenses of 
government inspection and administration, such 
tax should not be merely on the circulation, but 
on the entire business, possibly on a percentage of 
the profits above a fixed maximum, as in Germany. 
A tax on circulation tends to discourage national 



banks in rural districts, where they are most needed, 
and to encourage them where discount business is 
most common. 

7. The United States needs also a careful system 
for supplying credit on farm security, similar to 
the systems of Germany and France. A thoroughly 
soimd system under national or state supervision 
and control would do much to quiet discontent and 
to remove sectional prejudices. In my judgment 
the moVe had better be made by the states. 



VII. PREFERABLY, RETIRE THE SHERMAN NOTES. 

BY PROFESSOR EDWARD A. ROSS OF LELAND STANFORD UNIVERSITY. 



CONGRESS confronts the financial problems of 
revenue, debt and money. As it may properly 
assume a mandate for the gold standard, I shall 
offer suggestions on the last two problems from that 
point of view. 

The United States has afloat $500,000,000 of prom- 
ises to pay money on demand and $320,000,000 of 
silver certificates, both of which it considers itself 
bound to keep on a par with gold. This is done by a 
gold reserve of $100,000,000. When formed in 1878 
in order to keep permanently redeemable a fixed 
mass of $346,000,000 of greenbacks inherited from 
the war, this was an ordinary banking reserve of 30 
per cent., and hence safe. But by 1890 we had piled 
on it a second story in the form of over $820,000,000 
of silver. By 1898 we had added a third story in 
the form of $150,000,000 of new Treasury notes paid 
out for bar silver. There now rests on the reserve 
the crushing weight of over $820,000,000 of obliga- 
tion, a burden which it cannot and was nevec in- 
tended to bear. As reliance upon this narrow 12 
per cent, reserve has repeatedly led to sudden perils 
to the Treasury and sudden aJarms to the business 
world, we are called upon to put an end to this dis- 
parity of obligation and available means. 

We are urged to borrow money and pay off the 
greenbacks. If we do this we convert a demand 
debt costing us no interest into a bond debt costing 
$11,000,000 of interest every year. Do the American 
people want to pay $11,000,000 every year to please 
the glib doctrinaires who insist that '* the govern- 
ment must go out of the banking- business ? '* Be- 
sides this the fimding of the greenbacks will knock 
a hole of $346,000,000 in our circulation. Although 
there would be an instreaming of gold that would 
partly fill this hole, the effects would be serious. The 
gap left by the destruction of the greenbacks would 
hold the world's gold money at a standstill till 1900. 
for it would take all the coinage of the world's gold 
output for three years to fill it. 

I would therefore suggest, instead, that Congress 
retire the Sherman notes and remove the burden of 
the silver certificates, thus leaving our gold reserve 
just where it was in 1879— viz., supporting the 
greenback burden. It is better to wipe out the 



Sherman notes rather than the greenbacks, (a) be 
cause they are not adapted legally and quantitatively 
to the reserve, (6) because there is no sentiment 
respecting them, (c) because they contract the circu- 
lation only three- sevenths as much, and (d) because 
the bar silver behind them is now perfectly useless 
for redeeming them. 

It is safe to cut loose the silver certificates from 
Treasury support, (a) because they are needed as 
** large change " just as the sixty million silver 
dollars are needed as medium change, (b) because 
they will still be upheld by their legal tender power 
and their receivability for an annual $450,000,000 of 
government taxes, (c) because their volume is not 
large in proportion to the total circulation and can- 
not increase. Therefore if the Treasury will do what 
every other payer in this country can do— use its 
option of paying silver or gold at its convenience in 
meeting its expenses— the gold reserve will be re- 
lieved, while the gold par of the silver certificates 
will not be endangered. 

The proposition to extend the note issuing powers 
of banks is a twin to the greenback retirement 
scheme, but is infinitely more impudent. Are we 
to pay $11,000,000 a year in order to create a money 
vacuum that shall give banking corporations a 
chance to issue their notes at a handsome profit ? Of 
course every banker gets a profit on his credit as 
well as his capital, but the time is surely gone by 
when an enlightened democratic government will 
hand over to private parties the lucrative privilege 
of marketing their credit in the form of notes pay- 
able to bearer on demand and designed to circulate 
as money. 

It is not pleasant to suggest any measure of con- 
traction, but such cannot be avoided if we cleave to 
the gold standard. When a man is riding two horses 
going at different rates of speed the time comes 
when he must shift to one or the other. We have 
been straddling so long between metals drifting 
further and further apart that it will take some sac- 
rifice to place ourselves squarely on gold. It was 
just the knowledge of this cost yet to be incurred in 
realizing "soimd money" that led silver men to 
oppose the gold standard in the late campaign. 



SOME PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS FROM STUDENTS OF FINANCE. 



53 



VIII. REVENUE ADJUSTMENT AND CURRENCY REFORM. 

BY PROFESSOR W. M. DANIELS OF PRINCETON UNIVERSITY. 



/ SHOULD say that the first duty incninbent upon 
1 Congress is to restore the equilibrium between 
the annual receipts and expenditures of the federal 
government For the past three fiscal years, as well 
as for the current year thus far, the federal income 
has been unequal to the federal expenditures. The 
paramount demand which a financier should make 
upon any system of taxation is that it furnish reve- 
nue sufficient for the public needs. It is desirable, 
indeed, that a tax system be popular ; it is impor- 
tant that it be equitable ; but it is absolutely essen- 
tial that it furnish adequate revenue. Adequacy 
in finance is like charity among the virtues. Its 
abaence renders all collateral excellencies as noth- 
ing and its presence covers a multitude of sins. 
How is stich equilibrium to be restored ? 

First, by economy in making appropriations. 
To this abstract principle there will. I suppose, be 
no demurrer. The trouble is that the t3rpical Con- 
greasman imagines that economy consists in paring 
down all appropriations except that for the new 
public building in Buncombe, and as this convic- 
tion is strongly held by several hundred members, 
it results in extravagant spending. There is thus 
little hope of actually lessening the average annual 
expenditures of the government, though much of 
foch expenditure is at present misapplied. To keep 
intruders out of the public crib is dij&cult, but to 
eipel them when they have once battened thereat 
is aU but impossible. Still the pressing demand 
upon Congress for moderation in exx)enditure can 
hardly be disregarded with safety. 

Second, it is probable that additional sources of 
revenue must be opened to satisfy the annual ap- 
propriations. It is true that the existing tariff 
duties on imxiorts would yield much more were 
international trade to resume its normal proportions. 
In exclusive dependence, however, on indirect tax- 
ation always involves the risk of surpluses in times 
of prosperity and of deficits in times of depression 
—and this, too, largely irre8i)ective of the nature of 
such tariff duties, whether they* be for protection or 
merely for revenue. How, then, shall the additional 
revenue be raised ? That some fraction thereof 
must be raised by protective duties, especially on 
wool and woolens, would seem an almost necessary 
outcome of the political complexion of Congress. 
But that any general advance in tariff rates ap- 
proaching the high protection level of the McKin- 
iey bill would be a solution seems unlikely, mainly 
on political grounds. The Republican popular ma- 
jority in the late election was probably not in excess 
of 700.000. If the sound money Democratic vote be 
subtracted the margin in favor of protection is 
smaD, if not imaginary. The control of the Senate 
by the Republicans after March 4 will be difficult 
in the extreme. Certain well known trusts are en- 
abled by the tariff to maintain the prices of their 
products ; and the tide of i>opular disaffection, 



whether reasonable or not, is rising against such 
aggregations of capital. Lastly, many of the indus- 
tries hitherto fostered by protective duties have sur- 
mounted early difficulties, are competing in foreign 
markets and have little further need of protection. 

These i*easons seem to preclude the possibility 
of any further extreme application of protec- 
tion, and would indicate that but a portion of the 
additional revenue can be* thus raised. The re- 
mainder could be most readily raised by imposing 
revenue duties on sugar, tea and coffee or by in- 
creased internal taxes on tobacco and beer. The 
existing tax on distilled spirits is probably above the 
rate that would yield the maximtmi revenue. But 
this is certainly not the case with tobacco and beer, 
from which much heavier taxes could be collected 
without great likelihood of evasion, and where a 
part of the burden— at least in the case of beer- 
would be almost certain to be borne by the producer 
instead of being shifted to the constmier. In addi- 
tion to other advantages attendant upon the raising 
of revenue from tobacco and beer is the relatively 
greater steadiness in the yield of such internal 
taxes as compared with the fluctuating yield of 
customs duties. 

Next, as to currency reform. In general there 
are but two logical positions with reference to a 
paper currency resting upon a credit basis. The 
whole business of note issue and the attendant duty 
of note redemption might be relegated to the banks, 
or the whole business of note issue might be left to 
the federal Treasury. I am free to sAy that if 
choice could be made between the two policies I 
should unhesitatingly choose the former. But any 
one acquainted with the compromise nature of our 
legislation, and especially our financial legislation, 
must be aware how unlikely is the adoption of any 
such a clear cut progranmie. It seems highly prob- 
able that for some years to come the obligal^ons of 
the federal p:ovemment will constitute a large part 
of our circulating medium, and the national bank 
issues will constitute a part of the remainder. Un- 
der such circimistances 1 see no better practical plan 
of making the government currency safe than one 
suggested, I believe, by Senator Sherman. This 
plan would prohibit by law the reissue of any obli- 
gation redeemed by the Treasury except upon the 
deposit of the coin in which the redemption was 
made, and would prohibit the use of such coin ex- 
cept for redemption purposes. This would enable 
the Treasury to accumulate gold when, for example, 
exchange on the West caused eastern banks to de- 
posit their coin in exchange for the notes held by 
the Treasury. Under this plan gold, when once 
in the keeping of the Treasury, could not leave the 
government vaults without decreasing the obliga- 
tions bearing upon the government's gold stock. 
The plan also has the tactical advantage of seeming 
not to contract the voltmie of the currency. 



54 



THE REyiElV OF REVIEWS. 



The reorganization of our banking system is a 
still more complex problem. In general, I approve 
the Baltimore plan. This contemplates a system of 
note issues based on general assets, rather than upon 
government bonds. Such a system under federal 



supervision should, in order to secure the note hold- 
ers, make the banks liable for the ultimate redemp- 
tion of their notes, and should also provide a safet> 
fund whose amount might be based on the statistic- ^ 
of bank mortality, and might be collected by taxation. 



IX. A COMPROMISE FINANCIAL PROGRAMME. 

BY PRESIDENT WILLIAM F. SLOCUM OF COLORADO COLLEGE. 



THE public certainly has come to hold the opinion 
that "the time has now arrived when the 
government must either discontinue the banking 
business, with its expensive and complicated system, 
or go into it on a broader, better defined and more 
comprehensive scale." It is also quite clear that a 
large majority of the people are unwilling that 
private corporations should issue money, either paper 
or coin, and are strongly opposed to any movement 
that tends in this direction. This is not an indication 
that the country is willing, to place more power in 
the hands of the banks, especially by granting to 
them greater control over the currency. Coining 
money and issuing paper which represents coin must 
remain the sole function of the central government. 
At the same time this does not necessitate the govern- 
ment being in the banking business, and just as far 
as possible it should be out of it. The stability of the 
business of the country will be conserved much bet- 
ter if the government is kept free from such humil- 
iating financial conditions as that through which it 
has recently passed in ** the scramble for gold." For 
this reason, as soon as possible, the greenbacks 
should be retired and canceled. Not only must the 
government collect and disburse revenues, but it 
must also issue and circulate money in such a way 
that the United States Treasury will be kept beyond 
the reach and influence of the ordinary change and 
casualties which occur in the business world. To 
accomplish this the government must pay its current 
expenses from revenues provided by legislation. No 
political programme will suffice as an excuse for 
putting a country like this into debt, and the people 
will not countenance any party that does not provide 
for the annual expenditiires of the government with- 
out borrowing. The first business of CJongress should 
be to see that this is accomplished. The Dingley 
bill is better than nothing, but it is so iinscientific 
and unbusinesslike that some better way of meeting 
the deficiency should be found We shall never 



secure satisfactory revenue legislation until a per- 
manent tariff commission is appointed which shall 
lift this complicated and technical problem above 
the prejudices of partisan politics, so that it may be 
considered simply in the light of good business and 
the needs of the country as a whole. A tariff suffi- 
cient for revenue, with limited protection, seems to 
be the golden mean best fitted to our needs. 

There are legitimate ways of protecting our Treas- 
ury and also the covmtry's supply of gold. For 
example, the protection of the sugar interests of the 
country will not only put a check upon the sugar 
trust, but will develop an industry that will help 
legitimately a large number of our agrricultural 
population and at the same time ultimately sftve 
many millions of gold from leaving the country 
annually. Protection of this nature will develop 
such large sections of the country that the nation as 
a whole will be greatly benefited. At the same 
time such legislation will do much toward protect- 
ing the supply of gold by keeping at home the JF130.- 
000.000 that now goes abroad for the purchase of 
crude sugar. 

Another step that would help in the present diffi- 
culty would be the placing of a larger amount of 
coin in circulation. There is no more reason in thia 
country than there is in England for paper money 
of small denominations. The withdrawal of paper 
money under |10 may seem a hardship to some for 
a time, but a year or two of such experience would 
destroy all objections to the plan. The advantages 
of this plan are that it would bring about a larger 
use of silver without danger to the financial system 
of the country; it would help to distribute coin 
throughout the country so that it could not be easily 
driven into a few cities for export, and would so 
accustom the people to the si^ht and use of the 
precious metals as money that it would accomplish 
much toward destroying the financial heresy of fiat 
money that is lurking ever in the minds of our 
Populist friends. 



X. HOW TO ALLAY POPULAR DISCONTENT. 

BY PRESIDENT CHARLES KENDALL ADAMS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 



I^HE agitation in behalf of free silver at 16 to 1 
was, in my opinion, so devoid of any good reason 
for its support that it will never arise to trouble 
the nation again. But there are many reasons for 
thinking that this agitation was only an expression 
of a fundamental discontent that is of far greater 
importance than the financial question as it was 
then presented. There is throughout the country 



undoubtedly a feeling, not only among the poor, 
but among the intelligent people of moderate means, 
that for some reason or another our economic sys- 
tem is not so adjusted as to give to those classes 
their share of the general prosperity of the country. 
While this feeling no doubt often exaggerates the 
facts, it can hardly be claimed that it is entirely 
without reason. The fact should be looked fairly 



SOME PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS FROM STUDENTS OF FINANCE. 



55 



in the face that a widespread conviction prevails 
thait the rich do not do their part in the support of 
the government. It is the province of wise legis- 
lation to recognize this conviction and, so far as 
possible, remove the grounds for its existence. If 
this conviction is not removed we cannot hope that 
ablation and turbulence will disappear with the 
defeat of the silver craze. 

It seems to me exceedinglj' unfortunate that the 
constitution does not permit of an income tax. No 
duubt the matter of taxation is one of the most 
difficult subjects with which governments have to 
deal We certainly do not succeed in securing cor- 
rect returns of the amount of personal property that 
ia liable to taxation ; but personal property con- 
tinues to be taxed, and it is not easy to see why an 
income tax should be hedged about with greater 
difficulties. Other governments have found no in- 
superable obstacles in the way of imposing such a 
tax and securing from it a very considerable part 
of the means for the current necessities of the state. 
Bnt as in this country the Supreme Court has de- 
cided the tax unconstitutional, we must look to 
other ways to accomplish the same end. That the 
people of the nation will ultimately in one way or 
mother insist upon having the rich bear a larger 
part of the financial burdens of the coimtry seems to 
me to admit of no doubt This fact should be con- 
stantly borne in mind by the legislators in Con- 
grefe and in the several states. 

One of the ways in which this can be done is by 
the general adoption of provisions for an inherit- 
ance tax. In some of our states this has already 
been done, but in others attempts to secure the pas- 
sage of such an act have been unsuccessful. The 
general adoption of such a policy of taxation would 
do tKnnething at least to relieve the discontent now 
prevaient 

Another and a much more serious source of dis- 
ratisfaction is the chaotic condition of our methods 
of transportation. The simple fact that so large a 
part of the price of coal and grain when they reach 
the consumer has been made necessary by the cost 
of transportation is a matter of very wide- spread 
discontent and complaint. It is quite possible that . 
the railroads are not earning more than they ought 
to earn ; but it seems nevertheless to be true that 
combinations have been made, and still are made, 
for the purpose of destroying competition and keep- 
ing np the price of transportation even over roads 
which are able to pay ditridends on a capitalization 
greatly in excess of the cost of construction. No 
donbt our railway system has been made enormously 
expensive by the construction of lines that render a 
very small return upon the capital invested ; but 
the fact that branches remote from the centres of 
traffic are unable to pay dividends would seem to 
furnish no just reason why some of the trunk lines 
«honld keep their charges so high as to enable the 
corporations to pay large dividends upon a capi- 
talization amounting to many times the cost of con- 



struction. The subject, of course, is not without 
difficulties, but unless the signs of the times are all 
awry legislators will have to grapple with them 
and make provision for their alleviation. They 
should receive the serious attention, not only of Con- 
gress, but of the legislatures of all our states. Rail- 
roads are practically monopolies, and the time has 
come when the controlling of monopolies by the 
state must receive the most careful attention of our 
most thoughtful minds. 

Another source of very serious discontent is in 
the prevalent habit of overcapitalizing such corpora- 
tions as are in the nature of monopolies. It has 
been again and again shown to be easy for a gas 
company to establish a plant, pay very large divi- 
dends upon the capital invested and then, in order 
to avoid competition, to establish an electric plant, 
either in the name of the same corporation or by 
members of the corporation under another name, 
and so get an absolute monopoly of the business of 
furnishing light for public and private purposes. 
Sometimes two or more corporations owned and 
controlled by the same persons have been united 
under a new name and capitalization enormously 
increased in excess of the cost of construction. The 
same has been true of street railways. Figures are 
not easy to be obtained, but it is probably true that 
in all of our cities with more than 25,000 inhabit- 
ants the street railways, if they have been properly 
and economically constructed, pay reasonable divi- 
dends upon a capitalization much in excess of the 
original cost. It has to be admitted, of course, that 
upon these various subjects precise information is 
very difficult to obtain, but the very fact of this 
difficulty is a reason why the subject should receive 
the most careful consideration. If the people are 
wrong in their general supposition, they ought to 
be set right through a careful investigation and 
publication of the facts. It will not satisfy the 
people to make vague and general denials. Noth- 
ing short of sworn statements in regard to the cost of 
construction and maintenance, as well as receipts 
and dividends paid, will be satisfactory. These are 
insisted upon in other countries, and should be in- 
sisted upon in our own. 

And that is not all. Whenever it is found that 
the income from any corporation whatever arises 
above a reasonable i)erc€ntage on the cost of con- 
struction and maintenance, that excess should be 
taxed so as to force all corporations of the kind to 
bear their share of the general burden. Such a 
method has been generally adopted in Great Britain 
and elsewhere, and is found to be free from reason- 
able objection. 

These are some of the ways in which the present 
discontents can be relieved. That they are difficult 
subjects no one will undertake to deny. To assert 
that they are impossible would be equivalent to ad- 
mitting that the state of public opinion will drift 
on from bad to worse, until social upheaval is the 
result. 



SOME REPUTATIONS IN THE CRUCIBLE OF 1896. 



BY W. T. STEAD. 



y OQ/" HAS been a year testing and trjung 
' i QyyJ the reputations of men, and although 
this process may be occasionally disagreeable to in- 
dividuals, it is one of the most useful forms of na- 
tional and imperial stocktaking. After all, the 
strength of nations lies, not merely in the character 
of their ordinary men, but also in the greatness of 
their great ones. A nation which has lost the ca- 
pacity of begetting great men is a nation in its 
decadence. But to know the greatness of the truly 
great it is necessary to pass them time and again 
through the ordeal of adverse circumstance, to 
smelt away their dross in the crucible of trial and 
temptation. It is only after a long continued 
series of these processes, which indeed never cease 
while life lasts, that mankind is able to ascer- 
tain beyond all doubt who are really worthy of 
supreme homage as the heroes of the race. 1896 
has not been devoid of the tests supplied by 
trial and temptation to the great ones of the 
earth. Bismarck, for instance, who for many years 
towered like some magnificent column above the 
waste of European diplomacy, has afforded only too 
painful demonstration of the faults and failings 
which assail the statesman in retreat. But despite 
the revelations, which seem to be prompted more 
by impatience of the dull obscurity of Friedrichsruh 
than by any consuming desire to promote the inter- 
ests either of his country or of European peace, he 
remains one of those whose greatness has been best 
ascertained and best proved. On the fallen pillar 
the lichen may grow, and here and there its marble 
may be flawed and stained ; but it is a pillar stilL 
l^ot even Prince Bismarck himself, with the Ham- 
burg newspaper as the Mephistopheles continually 
at his ^ide, can destroy or even appreciably impair 
the reputation of the maker of modem Germany. 

Another of our greatest, perhaps one who in his 
own way is as great as Prince Bismarck, has this 
year been tested and tried, and foimd not wanting 
in the qualities which made him great. Mr. Glad- 
stone has continued to manifest that marvelous 
vivacity of boyhood which he has carried into ex- 
treme old age, and he has also shown that not even 
the snows of eighty winters can chill the ardor of 
liis aspirations for liberty, and the passionate vehe- 
mence of his recoil against cruelty and wrong. But 
1896 has also revealed Mr. Gladstone as one who, if 
he has not worsened in his best qualities, has not 
improved in those which have always been the de- 
spair of his friends. Mr. Gladstone, who in 1876 
sent around the fiery cross on behalf of Bulgaria 
and the Southern Slavs, whose cause Russia had 
made her own, was also the Mr. Gladstone who, in 
1885, came perilously near going to war with Russia 
ih one of the worst causes that any nation could 



have made its own. In 1896 we see the same t'^svo 
currents of good and evil blended. There is ttie 
same enthusiasm against the atrocities of the Tui-k, 
but there is also the same unsympathetic incapacity 
to recognize the difficulties of Russia's position 
which in 1885 so nearly brought the two Empires 
into coU ision. Mr. Gladstone has never quite learned, 
that without Russia England can do no good in tlie 
East, and his apparent advocacy of the adoption of 
an isolated ix)licy that would have brought Britain 
into antagonism with Russia is a curious instance 
of the survival of the instinct which made him ap- 
prove of the Crimean War and threaten to fig-lit 
over the Afghan boundary. 

Among the great established reputations to 
which 1896 applied the touchstone of life, that 
of the Pope must be numbered as among those 
which have survived. Leo XIII. has continued 
to maintain the prestige which has compelled 
even the non Catholic world to hail him as one 
of the greatest of pontiffs. This year he showed 
that his passion for Christian unity and his de- 
sire to include all mankind within the fold of 
what he regards as the Catholic faith did not 
lure him into taking any liberties with what he con- 
sidered the well established boundaries of his 
Church. His decision concerning Anglican orders, 
although it has been somewhat fiercely resented by 
those who had deluded themselves into the belief 
that the Pope would try to convert the steel wire of 
the Roman fold into an elastic band, was only one 
more proof that the Pope is too logical, consistent 
and veracious to snatch at an apparent advantage 
by any straining of the well established law of the 
communion over which he presides. His interven- 
tion on behalf of the Italian prisoners in Abyssinia 
showed his desire to play the part of general medi- 
ator and intercessor, even on behalf of those whom 
he believes have usurped his patrimony and despoiled 
the inheritance of the Church. And his utterances on 
behalf of international arbitration have shown once 
more how keenly alive he is to the movements which 
tend toward the realization of the Christian ideal. 

After the Pope there is probably only one man who 
might exercise as much influence for good or evil 
upon the welfare of human segments large enough 
to include hundreds of millions of units. The 
Chinese Empire presented in 1896 a spectacle of 
singular interest. To our Western eye that huge 
yellow ant heap is almost as unknown as if its 
denizens were a colony of termites. In the midst 
of that bewildering and multitudinous expanse of 
undistinguishable human cheese mifes there stood 
out in 1896 one man — and one only. Li Hung 
Chang's journey through Europe and America has 
fair ^Harized the Western world with the personality 



SOME REPUTATIONS IN THE CRUCIBLE OF 1896. 



57 



of the only Chinese mandarin who may possibly be 
ible to do anything in China. Yet Li Hang Chang's 
past career does not justify any very sanguine con- 
fidence as to his capacity to do much. When Gulli- 
ver visited the king of Lilliput, he tells us that the 
king exceeded his subjects in stature by about the 
sixteenth of an inch, a circumstance which of itself 
was sufficient to strike awe into the beholder. But 
the mass of Chinese humanity is too immense for it 
to be impressed by Li Himg Chang. His genius 
for statecraft and his talent for the governing of 
men may exceed that of all other Chinamen by 
much more than one sixteenth of an inch, but it is 
insufficient to give him power to mould the des- 
tinies of that ancient empire. One thing only ap- 
pears certain —viz. , that despite what are apparently 
the earthquake shocks of miUtary and of naval de- 
feat8« or of domestic revolutions, the tough old Mid 
die Kingdom which existed in splendor long before 
oor ancestors had even been visited by the Romans, 
and which had laws, civilization and science before 
Moees was discovered among the bulrushes by 
Pharaoh's daugher, will continue to exist as an in- 
teger in the world's affairs. 

Returning to the British Empire, there confronts 
xa the figure of a man whose proportions have long 
loomed so large before mankind that he may be for 
the present spoken of almost as if he were a mon- 
arch in eclipse. Cecil Rhodes is the one great man 
^hom the colonies have produced who has played 
a leading part in Imperial policy. Until the begin- 
ning of this year his career had been almost with- 
out a reverse. From the i>osition of a consumptive 
imdergraduate to that of the foremost man in Great 
Britain, he had mounted step by step almost with- 
out stumble. Difficulties he had had, but he sur- 
moonted them. Of enemies there was no lack, but 
he had either bought them off or defeated them in 
fair fight. From victory unto victory he plodded 
on, nntil there was no man in all the English speak- 
ing world in whom foreign nations learned to recog- 
nize more completely and conspicuously the Im- 
perial spirit of our Imperial race. He was the man 
who in an age when the nations were smitten with 
a Inst for territorial extension had extended his em- 
pire more widely than any king or emperor, and ex 
tended it too over richer territory, and, at the same 
time, with less loss of life and treasure. We are too 
near the African Colossus adequately to realize how 
his imposing figure impresses the imagination of out- 
ttders. To Frenchmen, Germans, Americans, and 
also to our own colonists, Cecil Rhodes is British 
Sonth Africa, and British South Africa is Cecil 
Rhodes. 

At the beginning of this year the failure of the 
Johannesburg insurrection, accentuated by the un- 
fortunate effort of Dr. Jam^on to force the hatch- 
ing of an addled egg, by bringing his high pressure 
incnbator to bear from the outside, administered 
the first check to a career hitherto unprecedentedly 
prosperous. Probably the very uninterrupted con 



tinuity of previous success unfitted him for dealing 
promptly and successfully with the different situ- 
ation which then confronted him. It is x>ne thing 
to play a great and Imperial rdle, it is another thing 
to readjust himself promptly to circumstances when 
the Imperial statesman finds himself detected in a 
conspiracy which has failed. Many Imperial states- 
men have taken part in conspiracies a thousandfold 
less defensible than the one on which Mr. Rhodes 
embarked when he endeavored to secure the federal 
union of South Africa by financing a reform move- 
ment and promoting an insurrection in Johannes- 
burg. That Johannesburg ought to rebel as soon 
as it had a fair chance is an axiom which no English- 
man or American can for a moment dispute ; but 
what communities ought to do, and what they ac- 
tually will do, are two very different things. Mr. 
Rhodes* reputation at the present moment suffers 
chiefly because on this occasion he did not know his 
facts. It was right and proper for him as a Johan- 
nesburg capitalist to support with his purse and 
with his coxmsels the movement for reform which 
would in the natural course of things culminate in 
revolution. The reputation of Cecil Rhodes through- 
out the world to day is not in the least impaired by 
the fact that he entered into a conspiracy to bring 
the Transvaal into federal union with the other 
South African States. It is affected somewhat by 
the fact that having decided to play the revolution- 
ary rd/e, he failed to provide adequately the revolu- 
tionary means, and that when the conspiracy had 
failed he did not discern with sufficient promptitude 
the necessity for readjusting his position to the ne- 
cessities of the constitution. When a Privy Coun- 
cillor and the occupant of a high office is revealed 
as having promoted a revolutionary conspiracy 
which has failed, the laws of the game necessitate 
an immediate abandonment of his constitutional 
position. This Mr. Rhodes recognized in surrender- 
ing the Cape Premiership ; but although he ad- 
mitted the same thing in relation to the Managing 
Directorship and Privy Councillorship. he left the 
application of the principle to his friends. A frank 
acknowledgment in public of the extent to which 
the Johannesburg movement was his own handi- 
work, although it would have had immediate risks, 
might have obviated most of the disadvantages 
which have accrued from the gradual unfolding of 
the ramifications of the conspiracy. 

Since his return to Africa Mr. Rhodes has done 
much to vindicate his prestige. Hastening at once 
to the heart of the empire which he had founded, 
he found himself almost immediately confronted by 
a formidable native rising. The Matabele had only 
been partially disarmed, and the majority of the 
nation had never actually confronted their con- 
querors in open battle. It was inevitable, there- 
fore, that when an opportunity arose they would 
try to throw off the yoke of the white man. This 
they did after Dr. Jameson and his police were 
shipped off to England. In the long and trying 



58 



THE REyiElV OF REVIEWS. 



campaign which ensued Mr. Rhodes bore the hard- 
ships of the war with equanimity and good humor. 
Those who saw most of him have come home full of 
admiration over the imperturbable good temper 
and the cheery composure with which he made the 
best of things. There never was any danger which 
he did not confront, there never was any misfor- 
tune which he did not endeavor to mitigate. As a 
result, although his resignation was accepted and 
he was only a simple citizen in the midst of other 
citizens, his personal ascendency gained ground 
daily, until when the war came to a close the na- 
tives refused to recognize any one but Mr. Rhodes 
himself as the Chief of the Whites. His action in 
venturing unarmed into the camp of enemies who 
might easily have made him a captive, or used 
him as a hostage, was but the most conspicuous of 
many acts of bravery and of wisdom which have 
convinced his fellow countrymen that he of all 
others is the man for South Africa. When Mr. 
Rhodes returns to London, as he is expected to do 
next month, in order to give evidence before the 
Select Committee, he will come as the representa- 
tive of all British South Africa, which, having seen 
him under fire and in adversity, is more enthusias- 
tically devoted to him to day than it was in the 
zenith of his prosperity. 

It has hardly fared so well with another con- 
spicuous figure in the British arena. 1896, which 
brought to Mr. Rhodes in January humiliation 
and defeat, but which before it closed has al- 
most re-established him in popularity and power, 
has reversed the order of its gifts to the British 
statesman who is most closely associated with 
Mr. Rhodes. January saw Mr. Chamberlain at 
the very summit of popularity and prestige. 
Never before had ** Pushful Joe" shown such re- 
source, alertness, vigor and audacity as he displayed 
in dealing with Dr. Jameson and the German con- 
spiracy which Mr. Jameson's raid unmasked. It is 
true he displayed the faults of his qualities. Some 
of his references to Germany were hardly those of 
a prudent and tactful statesman ; but on the whole, 
the cheers which greeted Mr. Chamberlain wher- 
ever he showed himself in public testified to a i)opu- 
lar appreciation of his qualities which for some time 
past has been perceptibly on the wane. His method 
of dealing with the Boers can hardly be character- 
ized as happy. He began with winking at, if not 
actually approving of, the conspiracy carried on for 
the purpose of securing the success of an insurrec- 
tionary movement in Johannesburg. The uioment 
that the movement miscarried, he won quite an un- 
expected amount of kudos by jumping upon Dr. 
Jameson Then after a time he endeavored to se- 
cure from the Boers concessions which would give 
us tolerable security for a settled state of things in 
the Transvaal. His dispatches show that when he 
telegraphed to the High Commissioner to use vigor- 
ous language in support of the Uitlanders' demands 



he appeared to be heading straight for war. The 
High Commissioner, however, was not in a warlike 
mood, and instead of applying any pressure what- 
ever he returned to Cape Town and reported noth- 
ing could be done. Thereupon began the final stage 
of Mr. Chamberlain's evolution, which, although it 
may have been inevitable, can hardly be regarded 
as heroic or even satisfactory. Two Englishmen 
who refused to sign the petition to President Kruger 
offering to sacrifice their civil rights are still in 
prison at Pretoria, and none of the others were 
allowed to escape until they had been severally 
mulcted of a heavy money fine. 

But all that Mr. Chamberlain has lost in popu- 
larity and power may be recovered if before the 
Select Committee he is able to prove that he has 
acted with the straightforwardness of a British 
statesman. That he had full cognizance of much 
of the conspiracy which he afterward condemned 
is probably true ; nor will any one blame him for 
sympathizing heartily with any effort to assist a 
I)opulation which is struggling, and rightly strug- 
gling, to be free from the oppressive and corrupt 
government which denied it representation and sad- 
dled it with fifteen-sixteenths of the whole taxation 
of the state. But the public will be slow to forget, 
and will never forgive, any attempt to deceive it 
by a resort to subterfuges, the object of which 
would be to deny the facts and to throw the whole 
of the responsibility upon the shoulders of others. 
If Mr. Chamberlain had guilty foreknowledge of 
the preparations to aid and abet the insurrection at 
Johannesburg, if he had given Mr. Rhodes reason 
to believe he heartily approved of and sympathized 
with the attempts being made to bring the Trans- 
vaal into line, all would be forgiven him if it were 
frankly owned and manfully defended. Of course, 
it would entail, as in the case of Mr. Rhodes, the 
loss for a time of his ministerial portfolio. That, 
however, is a bagatelle compared with the doom 
that would overwhelm him if, should he have had 
such knowledge, he endeavored to conceal the fact 
by any shirking before the committee, either on 
his own part or on that of those who might be 
wanted for the purpose. But in the case of Mr. 
Chamberlain and in that of Mr. Rhodes, 1896 leaves 
the final verdict to 1897. If they stand together in 
truth, they may stand altogether. If, however, 
either of them should allow his steps to stray in 
such devious ways as the tempting suggestion that 
the revolutionary conspiracy of 1895 was no more 
than a continuation of the policy of Lord Loch, then 
they will not stand but fall. One or the other or 
lK)th. whichever flinches from the ordeal. So far, 
then, as the survey of the great personages of the 
world is concerned, the passing year cannot be said 
to have made any great reputations. It has im- 
paired one or two. others have remained stationary, 
while others again are still undergoing a period of 
probation which is not yet ended. 



MODEL LODGING HOUSES FOR NEIV YORK. 



til 



men coming in with wet clothing may have it 
dried for wear in the morning. There will be 
' great kitchens and ample restaurant facilities. 

Especial attention will be paid to the social re- 
quirements of the men. Commodious and well 
equipped reading, writing, games and music rooms 
will be provided. In fact, everything- possible will 
be done to make a real home for men, keeping them 
oat of saloons and other evil resorts. There is no 
doabt that much of the prosperity of the saloons is 
dae to the fact that they are by far more attrac- 
tiTe and comfortable than the homes of the poor. 
It 19 not at all improbable that the entire cost of 
healthy, comfortable homes and lodging houses for 
the entire working population of New York could 
be paid for from the resulting saving in the liquor 
bills and reduced hospital, asylum, charity and 
prison expenses. 

It is expected that twenty cents a night will be 
charged for rooms, with baths, laundries, etc. , free 
of charge to guests, and it is believed by the most 
experienced that on this basis the enterprise will 
prove a decided financial success. 

It is worthy of especial note that Mr. Mills, who 
has an able and sympathetic coadjutor in his son, 
Mr. Ogden Mills, is determined that these houses 
shall be confined to the worthy class of men who 
need such a home— sober, industrious men of the 
most limited means. These hotels will not be con- 
genial places for the ** tramp " and ** bum." 

It is understood to be Mr. Mills* intention to de- 
Telop his system till New York is fully supplied 
with model lodging houses. It should be re- 




MB. ERNEST FLAOO, ARCHITECT. 

marked that Mr. Mills is also interested in the great 
work of model tenement building which was de 
scribed in our last number, and that he is one of the 
directors of the City and Suburban Homes Com- 
pany, which has so promising an outlook in every 
direction. 




bLt ;-->^cf. :;-«trT 



SECONIVFLOOR PLAN SHOWING ARRANOEJIENT OF BED ROOMS. 



A TYPICAL ENGLISHMAN: DR. W. P. BROOKES 
OF WENLOCK IN SHROPSHIRE. 



BY THE BARON PIERRE DE COUBERTIN. 



1 THINK I can say that Br. Brookes was my old- 
est friend, because he had just completed his 
eighty-second year when 1 made his acquaintance . 
and visited him in his little kingdom of Wenlock. 
His name had come first to my ears at the time of 
the Paris Centennial Exhibition of 1889. Arrange- 
ments were being made to hold international Con- 
gresses on this occasion, and the organization of a 
Congress on Physical Education was committed to 
my care. Considering as I do that since ancient 
Greece has passed away the Anglo-Saxon race is 
the only one that fully appreciates the moral influ- 
ence of physical culture and gives to this branch of 
educational science the attention it deserves, I 
endeavored to secure the co-operation of those who 
in England and America are the recognized leaders 
of the movement in favor of athletic exercises and 
outdoor sports. In answer to a call for help pub- 
lished in several imx>ortant English papers, a pam- 
phlet came from Dr. Brookes— a pamphlet which I 
should have deemed the work of a very young man, 
owing to the enthusiastic and boyish brightness of 
the style and conclusions, had not the writer taken 
care to insist on the fact that he had been at work 
for fifty years to bring about the enactment of a 
law providing for compulsory physical training in 
the primary schools of Great Britain, that so far he 
had not succeeded, but that he felt sure he would 
succeed some day, and was willing to wait patiently 
for the result of his efforts. It is not uncommon to 
see a man devote thus the whole of his life to one 
idea, and show as much energy as perseverance in 
trying to impress his views on the public mind : but 
it is exceedingly rare to find that repeated failure has 
not embittered his mind nor weakened his confi 
dence in the goodness of his cause. There came 
with the pamphlet a number of paper cuttings, pho- 
tographs and printed matter from which I inferred 
that Wenlock must be a queer and charming little 
place, and Dr. Brookes a very popular man in Wen- 
lock, and so it was. 

A SHROPSHIRE BOROUGH. 

The railway from Wellington to Craven Arms 
runs through a valley as green and sunny as a 
Shropshire valley can be Here and there the train 
has to make its way into a narrow pass with over- 
hanging rocks and bunches of heath that remind you 
of the Scotland highlands ; then the valley widens 
again and the hills on both sides are crowned with 
woods, while at the bottom a nice stream of water 
shines in the meadows. On nearing Wenlock the 




DR. W. p. BROOKES. 

scenery grows less imposing, but more merry, and 
when the old borough comes to sight you almost 
feel as if you had been there before and had made 
friends with the people. You walk pleasantly down 
the main street casting a familiar eye on the gray 
stone houses and the church tower with the ivy 
creeping up its walls and the picturesque town hall 
with its Norman windows and wood carvings. On 
the left stands the beautiful and mighty Wenlock 
abbey, foimded eight hundred years a^o; the chapel 
and cloisters are roofless ; the ruined vaults, the 
overthrown pillars and broken .statues lie on the 
groimd, while the prior's house has been restored 
by Mr. Charles Gaskell, M.P., into a comfortable 
summer home. There is something peaceful and 
soothing about Wenlock that one notices at once ; 
everybody seems satisfied with his own lot ; every- 
thing looks clean and neat. This is Dr. Brookes' 
work and Dr. Brookes' spirit. 1 suppose the Wen- 



A TYPICAL ENGLISHMAN: DR. IV. P. BROOKES OF IVENLOCK. 



G3 



lock people don't know all that they owe to him. 
Tbey feel thankful for his services as a surgeon and 
a magistrate, but they can't realize how deeply 
influenced they were by his quiet and equitable 
philosophy, his refined manners, his everlasting 
good humor, and, above all, his favorite theories on 
the importance of bodily training. 

CrVICUM VIRES, CIVITATIS VIS. 

Living as we do at the close of the nineteenth 
century, it becomes easy for us to note the general 
and uninterrupted progn'ess ot the athletic revival 
which will, no doubt, be considered as characteris- 
tic of the present century. This great movement 
doesn't seem, as yet, to have found its historians, 
but they are sure to come, because its history is 
most interesting and instructive. We already know 
bow the revival originated in Germany, after Jena, 
when the patriotic German maitre d'ecole, taking 
hold anew of the Roman idea that the power of the 
city is made up of the individual energies of its 
citizens, began to reassociate the teaching of science 
with the teaching of gymnastics. About the same 
time Ling, the illustrious inventor of the *' Swedish 
System," was giving his attention to the wonderful 
influence of physical exercise on many diseases of the 
body. Thus at the beginning the movement had a 
strictly military and medical character. In G^ermany 
the aim was toward preparing good soldiers for 
the ** great revenge:" in Sweden it was toward 
strengthening and bettering public health. One 
can say that in both countries the issue has been 
great The German army became one of the most 
powerful and best-trained that the world has known, 
Mid won more victories than was necessary to re 
store the Prussian prestige, and in the Stockholm 
'* Institutes *' the professors have gone so far as to 
endeavor to cure even heart diseases, and they have 
succeeded. In England things went quite another 
way. Englishmen had, of old, been fondly devoted 
to manly games and outdoor sports. They dis- 
played still some eagerness and skill for hunting 
and shooting, but the eighteenth century civiliza- 
tion had reacted upon them as upon the rest of 
Europe, lowering their morality and turning their 
activity to less wholesome pastimes. Drinking and 
playing cards were quite common among the Oxford 
and Cambridge students ; what they used to call 
" wines '" were evening parties of a rather disgraceful 
kind. In the public schools the brutality that can 
be expected from boys to whose buoyancy and heat 
no sufficient outlet is given had grown up into the 
shameful system called "fagging," a system that 
meant little less than the privilege of the bigger 
boys to make slaves of the smaller ones. For a gen- 
tleman to attend cock fights or the prize ring was 
cansidered a sufficient proof of sportsmanship, 
?MionKh the only sport indulged in on these occa- 
sions was betting. As to the word athletic, it was 
seldom made use of, and when used was applied to 
rop« dancers or circus weight lifters. It had lost its 



meaning, because what it meant existed no longer. 
Then came Kingsley, who through physical exer- 
tion sought moral improvement, and Thomas 
Arnold, who made athleticism his chief educational 
lever. Neither of them cared for improving the 
army or curing diseases ; but they both firmly be- 
lieved that the nation would benefit by the individ- 
ual progress of each of her sons. Shouts of laughter 
greeted Kingsley and his followers ; for a time 
*' muscular Christianity " was ridiculed on every 
occasion. As to Arnold, his first steps as headmaster 
of Rugby were unjustly and bitterly censured, even 
by those who were the least aware of what he in- 
tended to do. 

The first two athletic clubs were founded at Exe- 
ter College, Oxford, in 1850, and at St. John's Col- 
lege. Cambridge, in 1855.* In 1864 took place the 
first of those inter- university meetings that rouse 
nowadays so much interest all over the country and 
bring together crowds of people. Strange to say, 
the account of this 1864 meeting takes up two or 
three lines of the Times. Since then the United 
States and France have been conquered, both after 
they had undergone the terrible shock of great wars 
that brought them on the very verge of ruin. Latin 
nations are following rapidly ; in Italy, especially 
in the north, fencing, rowing and yachting are be- 
coming every day more popular ; Spain has bicycle 
and rowing clubs, while in Belgium and Hungary 
athleticism is spreading with unexpected swiftness ; 
the Bohemian ** Sokols '* and the Swiss " federal 
gymnasts and shooters " are known the world over. 

International meetings have thus been made pos- 
sible, and several have already taken place here and 
there ; London has welcomed German and French 
foot-ball teams ; Paris, Italian fencers, English 
rowing men and American athletes; Athens, finally, 
has opened its restored stadium to the representatives 
of all foreign nations. But such meetings are of an 
essentially modem character ; the games are mod- 
em ; modem are the rules, the dress and the prizes. 
In Wenlock only something of the past has sur- 
vived ; it is safe to say that the Wenlock people 
alone have preserved and followed the true Olym- 
pian traditions. 

AN OLYMPIAN FESTIVAL. 

Dr. Brookes' natural bent as well as the experi- 
ence he had acquired in the successful pursuit of 
the medical profession led him to establish in Wen- 
lock as early as 1849 Olympian festivals that were 
to be held every year, and at which running, tilting 
at the ring on horseback, jumping, cricketing and 
other sports and exercises would have their place, 
the classic parallel being completed by the award of 
prizes for literary compositions and artistic works. 
This was done amid the difficulties and discourage- 
ments incident to such an undertaking in the midst 
of a comparatively sparse population in a locality 
isolated from the influences likely to save such an 

♦ See Turner, The Progress of Athleticism. 



64 



THE REyiEiV OF REk'lElVS. 




THE CROWNING OP THE CHAMPION TILTER AT WENLOCK. 



attempt from ridicule, if not stronger opposition. 
But Dr. Brookes persevered, brought patience, per- 
sonal tact and untiring energy to bear upon his 
apparently hopeless task, and had the gratification 
of seeing the festival become year by year more 
8uc<jessful. 

No modem athletes ever walked down to the 
ground where the games and sports were to take 
place amid such displaying of etiquette and stateli- 
ness as did the Wenlock youth going to their 
" Olympian field " at the opening of the annual 
festival. The morning rendezvous was at one of 
the two inns, the Raven or the Oaskell Arms. 
There the procession was formed. The herald came 
first on horseback, wearing a richly embroidered 
shoulder belt and a red velvet cap with white 
feathers, and carrjdng the banner of the association. 
Behind him were the committee and officers and the 
Wenlock band playing a march. Then the school 
children singing hymns and casting flowers from 
their baskets, and last, the yeomen and the tilters 
riding their horses and bearing on their uniforms 
the association badge. Through the streets gayly 
decorated with flags and flower wreaths the pro- 
cession would make its way toward the Olympian 



field, where another kind of ceremonies was entered 
upon. The field is beautifully situated on a spot 
that dominates the borough and valley; it contains 
two grass tracks, one for foot racing and one for 
equestrian sports, lawn tennis and cricket grounds, 
large and comfortable stands, an open-air swimming 
tank and a dancing lawn. But what makes it 
charming and unlike any other athletic field is the 
row of rare and beautiful trees that surrounds it. 
These have been solemnly dedicated to distinguished 
guests or to persons of high rank on some notewor- 
thy occasion. The dedication of a tree was the 
ordinary prologue of the celebration ; short speeches 
were delivered, a hymn was sung, and champagne 
was poured on the tree out of a large silver drinking 
cup that used to go round afterward from lip to lip 
among the officers of the day. Then the cortege 
was resumed and marched toward the grand stand 
in front of which the sports were to take place. 

They had no special character except the tent peg- 
ging— aji exercise very popular in India — at which 
the Shropshire yeomen show some ability, and the 
tilting at the ring, for which all the plucky young 
farmers of the neighborhood are always ready to 
enter their names. Dr. Brookes, while on the on© 



A TYPICAL ENGLISHMAN: DR. IV. P. BROOKES OF WEN LOCK. 



65 



hand he did not lack in admiration of the Atheni- 
ans, on the other had against them one grievance. 
The sense of ** galanterie *' had remained unknown 
to them : no woman had ever been allowed into the 
Greek stadium. This injury to the beauty and 
charm of the fair sex the old gentleman resented 
deeply. Not feeling satisfied with giving the ladies 
the best seats at the Wenlock festival, he had forced 
apon his countrymen the queer custom of having 
the champion tilter crowned with laurels by a lady. 
After the title of champion for the coming year had 
been solemnly proclaimed by the herald, the winner 
was ordered to kneel down before the lady who had 
accepted the duty of crowning him and to kiss her 
band. The scene was, indeed, strange, because of 
its derivation from three very different forms of 
dvilization; the dress and the speeches were mod- 
ern : the use of laurels and the quotations from 
Greek authors inscribed on the flags and banderoles 
were antique ; the latter part of the ceremony was 
tn homage paid to mediaeval ideas and theories. 

C0RRE8PONDINO WFTH THE QUEEN OF GREECE. 

Dr. Brookes had hoped to see the '' Olympian fes- 
tivals " succeed not only in Shropshire, but in the 
rest of England. Several were held under the same 
regulations in Birmingham, Shrewsbury and Wel- 
lington. But no regular movement was started. 
As early as 1860, when no such organization was in 
existence elsewhere, the Wenlock meetings were 
already attracting attentioiL The ode which carried 
off the prize in that year had been written by Mr. 
Dtraglas, editor of the North Wales Chronicle, and 
was set to music by Mr. W. C. Hay of Shrewsbury. 
The cantata was in the following year performed 
by the students of the Royal Academy of Music 
with great success before a crowded audience at the 
Hanover Square rooms, London. A curious circum- 
stance is connected with this celebration. An ac 
count of it found its way into the London papers, 
and there met the eye of the Greek minister at the 
English court He communicated with the man- 
agers of the festival, inquiring whether any memento 
of an occasion so interesting to a descendant of the 
andent Greeks conld be furnished to him for trans- 
misnon to his sovereign. The committee forwarded 
in response a specimen of the silver decoration 
awarded to victors in the Wenlock games, also a 
silver waist belt clasp, ** worn," says Dr. Brookes, 
in his memorial to Queen Amalia, ** by the female 
relatives of the members of the society." An oflft- 
cial intimation was afterward received that the 
Qoeen of Greece had graciously accepted the gift. 
Seventeen years later another memorial was ad- 
dressed to King George, who had succeeded to the 
Hellenic throna His Majesty presented to the 
Wenlock AjBSOciation, as a prize for the Pentathlon, 
a cop of the value of £10, and was of course honored 
hy the dedication of a tree. 

Dr. Brookes even endeavored to promote a festival 
b Athens ; many young Englishmen, he thought. 



wotQd gladly avail themselves of such an opportu 
nity of visiting the classic land. But the proposal 
was declined by the Greek government. A festival 
of this kind could hardly be planned as long as the 
Paris Congress had not met to reorganize and revive 
the Olympian games on a permanent and broader 
scale. Dr. Brookes lived long enough to see this 
work done, and stood on that occasion among our 
most hearty supporters. 

LOCAL PATRIOTISM. 

It was CsBsar*s opinion that the first rank in a 
small village was to be preferred to the second one 
in a big city. But since Caesar's time new ideas 
and new feelings have prevailed, and the general 
tendency of the age lies toward city life and city 
, prominence. Very few are the men who remain in 
their native place and content themselves with im- 
proving things around them and doing good to their 
neighbor. If it had always been so, England would 
not be England — that is, the British Empire would 
have less solid foundations and no centre. Local 
patriotism has been its cornerstone. What, then, 
is local patriotism ? 

A man is bound to love and serve his country ; it 
is not considered a duty for him to love and serve 
the smaller community where he was bom or edu- 
cated. The former feeling is pressed upon him ; 
the latter grows up freely. Patriotism is a moral 
^tie ; local patriotism a more material one. The one 
is hereditary and general : the other is exceptional 
and depends on circumstances. You can love your 
country without even knowing it ; you don't love a 
town or a village unless you have spent within its 
walls or fences the greater or most imt)ortant part of 
your life. This is sufficient to explain why local 
patriotism decreases in proportion as patriotism 
grows strong. The modem nation has eclipsed and 
overpowered the antique city. The Anglo-Saxon 
race alone has succeeded in keeping up the two feel- 
ings, and in strengthening the one through the 
other. Local patriotism is not imcommon in Conti- 
nental Europe, but there it remains platonic or be- 
comes selfish. It manifests itself by words, not by 
acts ; verba, non acta ; and if money is given or 
bequeathed for the purpose of erecting a public 
building or founding a museum or an hospital or a 
library, the motive will seldom prove a purely civic 
one. Vanity or a sense of broader philanthropy 
will urge the benefactor, not a simple, modest and 
noble desire to beautify a spot dearer to him than 
any other in the world, or to improve the conditions 
of a community of which he still feels himself a 
member. 

This is the way Dr. W. P. Brookes did love Wen- 
lock and the Wenlock people. He did not care for 
immortality and was a practical philanthropist. He 
believed in every man taking care of those near to 
him and leaving others to do the same. If progress 
can be reached by a shorter road, there exists no-^ 
safer one. 



VOICE-PHOTOGRAPHY AND RATIONAL VOICE- 
PRODUCTION. 



BY LAURA CARROLL DENNIS. 



MUCH interest has recently been attracted in 
the musical world by the investigations of 
Dr. Floyd S. Muckey and Dr. William Hallock in 
the field of vocal science. This work has been in 
progress for several seasons, but it is only since it 
has begun to bear fruit in practical results that the 
attention of the public has been called to it. Last 
winter scores of musicians attended the informal 
Thursday afternoon talks given by Drs. Muckey 
and Hallock at Columbia University, and various 
articles on their work have appeared in the musical 
journals, as well as a few in the New York daily 
papers. These, with a number of lectures delivered 
in and out of New York, have, to a certain extent, 
acquainted the musical profession and the public 
with their investigations. 

The subject is naturally one whose interest is spe- 
cial rather than general, and would, perhaps, be 
confined to singers, singing-teachers, lecturers, and 
others who use the voice professionally or as ama- 
teurs were it not for the introduction into the work 
of several novel elements, that of " voice-photogra 
phy " being to the general public the most attract- 
ive. 

The value of this work to singing- teachers and 
their pupils can hardly be overestimated. On per- 
l»aps no subject have there been so much discussion 
and such radical disagreement as on that of ** voice- 
production.** and out of the confused mass of tra- 
dition and theory it has been difficult to draw much 
material that would stand the light of day. 

We have had endless discussions of the relative 
merits of the different schools, Italian, German, and 
French ; dissertations on the " Lamperti method," 
the ** Garcia method," the methods of Marchesi, of 
Shakespeare, of Sbriglia. of Behnke, and other 
famous teachers too numerous to mention, these 
being not merely schools of musical style, which are 
both inevitable and desirable, but of tone-produc- 
tion. Yet there can be but one right and natural 
vocal mechanism, and it would seem possible to so 
firmly and scientifically establish this as to preclude 
at least fundamental disagreement. Variations in 
the superstructure are necessary, as vocal style must 
be altered to meet the requirements of different 
schools of composition. Very different qualities are 
needed for the rendition of a Donizetti aria, of a 
chanson of Massenet and of a great dramatic scene 
like ** Isolde's Liebestod." Good tone, produced 
correctly and with a minimum of effort, is, how- 
ever, the first requisite for all, and with this f ounda 
tion it is possible for the singer, whose other gifts 



are adequate, to adapt himself to the requirements 
of all schools. 

For many years we have prostrated ourselves 
before a sort of fetich, known as the " old Italian 
method." a holy of holies, accessible only to the 
chief high priests and the chosen few. Numerous 
vocal teachers claim to be the repositories of this 
glorious tradition, but their versions thereof vary so 
widely that one is puzzled to determine the authen- 
ticity of any. I myself have at different times 
learned three distinct ** old Italian methods." con- 
tradicting each other in vital principles, and all con- 
taining both good and bad features. When we read 
that the tenor Bubini, one of the greatest of the old 
Italian singers, in the daye when they held undis- 
puted sway in the musical world, broke his collar- 
bone one night at the opera, in the effort to sing a 
powerful high tone, we must incline to skepticism 
as to the perfection of the method, even in its palmy 
days. And now, when we have apparently lost its 
inmost secret, is it not time to shelve the ** old 
Italian method" and find out for ourselves how 
nature really meant for us to use our voices ? We 
are constructed, anatomically, much as were the 
singers of other days, and 1 fancy that we have not 
retrograded intellectually since then, nor is our 
knowledge of physical laws less complete. 

Imbued with such ideas, and convinced that, what- 
ever might have been the knowledge of voice- pro 
duction in the past, the vast majority of teachers of 
to day were working on false principles, with fatal 
results to the voices intrusted to them. Dr. Muckey 
determined to undertake a thorough and scientific 
study of the voice in all its relations and, if possi- 
ble, to wrest the secret from nature. He was by 
no means the first who had addressed himself to* 
this task, as, especially since Garcia invented the 
laryngoscope, making it possible to observe the 
action of the vocal cords, there have been theorists 
innumerable. In two points, however, Dr. Muckey, 
who is a throat specialist of wide experience, has 
shown himself wiser than any of these, hence the 
greater value of his investigations. 

In the first place, they have simply studied the 
vocal mechanism as they found it in the throats 
they observed,- and hare based their theories thereon, 
taking it for granted that it was the mechanism in- 
tended by nature. As a matter of fact, nothing is 
more rare than to hear a voice used naturally. 
Children force their voices as soon as they begin to 
sing together, and show also at a very early age the 
pernicious effects of bad example. This, it may be 



t^O/CE PHOTOGRAPHY AND RATIONAL yOlCE^PRODUCTION. 



67 



remarked in passing, is a powerful argument against 
choral singing in the public schools. Knowing the 
simplicity and perfection of nature's methods in 
general Dr. Muckey found it difficult to persuade 
himself that the complicated mechanism employed 
by most singers, involving "registers'* and 
''breaks*' and a tremendous strain on both the 
vocal cords and the muscles of the throat, could 
have been designed by nature. He therefore trained 
hifl own throat to a remarkable degree of tolerance, 
80 that the presence of the laryngoscope caused him 
no inconvenience or discomfort, and after long 
months of observation and experiment discovered 
an entirely different action of the vocal organs, an 
action which made it possible to produce tone 
throaghout the entire compass of the voice with 
bat one mechanism, reducing the muscular effort 
and greatly enhancing the beauty of tone. This 
may seem an extravagant claim, but its truth has 
been established step by step, and to any one who 
possesses the knowledge of acoustics and anatomy 
necessary to appreciate the force of the arguments 
advanced, almost every point can be definitely 
proved. 

Dr. Muckey's second strong point was his recogni- 
tion of the fact that to insure the value of such 
investigations and the finahty of their conclusions 
his equipment must comprise not only an accurate 
knowledge of the anatomy of the throat, and a 
Jinger's practical knowledge of existing methods, 
both of which he possessed, but also a specialist's 
miderstanding of the laws governing musical soimd 
and resonance, the acoustic side of the problem 
being not the least important. His knowledge of 
acoustics he did not consider sufficient for such an un- 
dertaking, and he therefore appealed to Dr. William 
Hallock. Professor of Physics at CJolumbia Univer- 
«ity, and an acknowledged authority on this subject, 
to en-operate with him. and as theories developed in 
> his mind as a result of his studies, they were sub- 
^ mitted to the most rigid scientific tests, and only 
adopted when, from every x)oint of view, they were 
foond to be perfectly tenable. Thus the mistakes 
of former theorists were avoided ; and since these 
new theories have already stood the severest test, 
that of practical application, they may be accounted 
the most important ever formulated on this subject. 
The voice-photographing apparatus was devised 
by Dr. Hallock to assist them in the acquisition of 
certain data of much importance in their studies. 
His object was to ascertain accurately what was the 
awnstic composition of tone generally acknowl- 
edged to be good, and likewise that of inferior tone, 
that by comparing them the dominant character- 
irtics of each might be determined. The scope of 
this article permits but a brief description of the 
apparatus and the principles upon which it is based. 
A string vibrating to produce tone vibrates as a 
whole, producing the fundamental or pitch tone, 
and may also vibrate at tlie same time in segments, 
dividing into baWes, thirds, fourths, fifths, sixths. 



etc., producing partial tones or overtones, which are 
heard at the same time with the fundamental, 
though except to a very highly trained ear they are 
not distinguishable as separate tones. These over- 
tones give to the tone its richness and fullness, and 
it is by variations in their use that we articulate 
vowels. The tone of a string, then, instead of being 
simple, is a composite tone or klang. The voice fol- 
lows the same laws, being practically a stringed in- 
strument and having the same series of overtones,, 
while in a reed, to which it has often erroneously 
been likened, the first overtone is more than two* 
and a half octaves above the fundamental and 
higher than the fifth overtone actually found in the? 
voice. 

By the use of the hollow brass spheres known as 
Eoenig resonators, each of which is tuned to the 
pitch of one of the overtones in a given klang, it is 
possible to pick out all of these single tones. The 
air vibrating within the resonator reinforces the 
particular tone that has the same pitch, and if held 
close to the ear will make that tone more prominent 
tOithe listener than any other in the klang. The 
apparatus is a modification of that used by Helm- 
holtz and Koenig for tone analysis, but the plan of 
photographing the flames is original with Dr. Hal- 
lock, 

Hundreds of voices have been thus photographed 
and placed on record, from those of the greatest 
singers now before the public to those of the jKwr- 
est amateur, and a careful inspection shows that m 
the great voices the fundamental is invariablyr 
strong and well defined, the dominant tone of the 
klang, with the overtones growing gradually fainter 
as they ascend ; while in the inferior voices the 
fundamental is weak and uncertain, being in many^ 
cases overbalanced by one or another of the over* 
tones. The thing to be accomplished, then, was the 
development of the fundamental, and for this noth- 
ing has been found so helpful as the use of free 
nasal resonance. This brings us to a brief consider 
ation, from several points of view, of the method- 
advocated by Drs. Muckey and Hallock. First, we 
will consider resonance or tone reinforcement. 

The carrying power or intensity of a tone depends 
upon the amplitude of vibration in the string and 
upon the amoimt of reinforcement which the initial 
tone receives by means of resonance of one kind or 
another. The wider the swing of the cord the 
greater will be the strain upon it, hence in a deli- 
cate mechanism like that of the voice it is impor 
tant to avoid the necessity for this strain by the 
beet possible use of the means at our disposal for 
giving resonance to a tone already produced. Over- 
turning with ease the many prevalent fallacies con- 
cerning tone reinforcement. Dr. Hallock has proved 
to us conclusively tliat nature has provided us with 
but one means of resonance, that of vibrating air in 
the partially inclosed cavities above the larynx — 
namely, the mouth, the lower and upper pharynx 
and the various cavities of the nose. A prime 



THE REyiElV OF REVIEWS. 



essential of a resonance cavity is that the air within 
have free communication with the outer atmos- 
phere, else its vibrations cannot reach the ear. The 
chest, therefore, being a closed cavity, cannot possi- 
bly reinforce tone, nor, for the same reason, can the 
antra and the frontal and sphenoidal sinuses be util- 
ized for this purpose. Again, the hard palate, the 
spine, and the bones of the face and head, which are 
popularly supposed to act as "sounding-boards," 
contain 48.6 per cent, water, and can no more pro- 
duce resonance than could a water-logged sounding- 
board in a piano, absolute dryness being the sine 
qua non of a sounding-board. In addition, the 
bones are all covered with a moist membrane which 
would deaden their vibrations like wet cotton. 

Granting, then, that we have no means of rein- 
forcing tone except by the vibration of air in these 
cavities above the larynx, is it not of the utmost 
importance that we have free use of all of them ? 
Yet almost all singers draw the soft palate up and 
back against the rear wall of the pharynx, -thus 
effectually cutting off the large vault of the pharynx 
and depriving themselves of more than half* the 
resonance at their command. To gain power then 
they must greatly increase the force of the initial 
tone by increasing the amplitude of vibration of the 
cords, putting an injurious and unnecessary strain 
upon them. In another way, the raising of the pal- 
ate and the tension of the throat muscles which 
causes this action produce a still greater strain. 

The pitch of a string may be raised in three ways : 
First, by increasing its tension ; second, by shorten- 
ing the string ; third, by lessening its weight or 
thickness. In the voice all three of these factors 
may and should combine to raise the pitch, the 
entire beautiful mechanism for this work being 
contained within the larynx or " voice-box." The 
action discovered by Dr. Muckey is a rotary motion 
of the arytenoid cartilages, to which the cords are 
attached posteriorly, and by means of which the 
shortening of the cords is effected. Their weight is 
at the same time lessened by a dampening action of 
numerous tiny fibres which penetrate the substance 
of the cord transversely, both these actions being 
controlled by the vocal muscle which lies parallel to 
the cords. With the use of these two factors in 
raising the pitch, sufficient tension is then produced 
by the contraction of the crico-thyroid, another in- 
voluntary and intrinsic muscle of the larynx. If, 
however, the soft palate rises in tone-production, 
the tension thus produced interferes with the action 
of the vocal muscle, the cartilages do not rotate to 
shorten the cord, nor is its weight lessened, so that 
the pitch must be raised entirely by increased ten- 
sion of the cord. For this the crico-thjToid muscle 
is insufficient, and a tremendous strain is put on to 



the various muscles of the throat, the introduction 
of new sets of muscles as the voice ascends bringing 
about breaks and registers, the bugbear of teacher 
and pupil. With the correct and natural use of the 
voice, the throat being passive and the palate at 
rest, one mechanism suffices for the entire scale, 
these inequalities are avoided and with compara- 
tively little labor the voice becomes even through- 
out. The throat muscles are then left free to x)er- 
form their proper function, that of varying the 
form and size of the resonance cavities for purposes 
of articulation and tone-coloring. Correct breatli- 
ing now becomes a matter of utmost importance, as 
the control of the voice, so far as dynamics and the 
sustaining of tone are concerned, is thrown entirely 
upon the breath. 

As to the desirability of a method which so won- 
derfully reduces the muscular effort of voice-pro- 
duction there can hardly be any question, provided 
that the result in tone is satisfactory, and this. I 
believe, will soon be amply demonstrated by the 
singers who are learning to use the method. The 
ease with which this mechanism is acquired by 
pupils whose voices are fresh and untrained is a 
good proof of its naturalness, and the simplicity 
and definiteness of its aim make the work equally 
attractive to teacher and pupiL Compared to other 
vocal methods in use. it is like daylight to a tallow 
dip. 

The aim of all teachers worthy of the name has 
been to induce pupils to keep the throat loose and 
avoid muscular effort, but definite and positive 
directions for attaining that desideratum they had 
none. The importance of nasal resonance, too, is 
acknowledged by many of our foremost instructors 
and singers, but they have failed to realize that 
nasal resonance with the soft palate drawn up and 
back against the pharynx is a physical impossi- 
bility. 

This work is only less important to the speaker, 
the reader, and the lecturer than to the singer. 
Clergyman^s sore throat and many other diseases 
of the throat are but the result of forcing the voice, 
and a proper use of the resonance cavities in speak- 
ing, as in singing, will greatly increase the carry- 
ing-power of the voice, at the same time reducing 
the vocal effort and improving the quality of the 
voice, a point of effectiveness which most clergy- 
men and orators would do well to consider. 

In conclusion, I will say that Drs. Muckey and 
Hallock still continue their Thursday afternoon 
talks in the Physical Laboratory at Columbia Uni- 
versity, and court discussion of their work, their 
only object being to establish the truth and to pre- 
vent, if possible, the present wholesale destruction 
of good vocal material 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



A' 



WHAT SHALL BE DONE ABOUT CUBA? 

N article which has derived added importance 
since its publication from the prominence 
givt;n to its subject in President Cleveland's annual 
message was contributed to the North American 
Review for December by Mr. Mayo W. Hazeltine. 
In reply to the question. ** What shall be done about 
Cuba ? " Mr. Hazeltine declares for the prompt 
recognition of belligerency, if not for annexation. 

Mr. Hazeltine*s justification of the Cuban revolu- 
tion is perhaps hardly necessary, but it is probably 
as complete as any statement of the case that has 
jet appeared in print He first shows the baseless 
nature of the claim that native Cubans are repre- 
sented in the Spanish Parliament and hence are 
partly responsible for existing abuses. 

'* A considerable number of members are ostensi- 
bly allotted to the island, but these members are 
chosen under an electoral law deliberately framed 
ta aooompliah two objects ; first, to reduce the num- 
ber of voters, and, second, to give always a migority 
to the European Spaniards sojourning in the island, 
although the latter represent only 9.8 per centum of 
the total population of Cuba. To these ends the law 
made the right of voting dependent on the payment 
of a very high poll tax, which proved the more bur- 
densome as the ten years* war had ruined the greater 
Btmiber of the Cuban proprietors. In these ways 
tlie electoral law succeeded in restricting the right 
of 8u£frage to only 68,000 inhabitants in an island 
which has a population of 1,600,000— that is to say, 
to the derisory proportion of 8 per cent To show 
bow the law works, we may cite the municipal dis- 
trict of Guines, the population of which is made up 
of 12.500 native Cubans and only 500 Spaniards and 
Cknary Islanders ; nevertheless, on its electoral list 
ooe finds the names of 82 native Cubans and 400 
Spaniards. We can now understand why the num- 
her of native Cuban representatives in the Cortes, a 
body comprisinK 480 members, has never exceeded 
iix, and has seldom exceeded three. The great 
majority of the so-called Cuban deputation has 
always consisted of Spanish Peninsulars ; conse- 
quently, the ministers have always been able to 
command a pretended majority of Cuban votes, and 
thus to give a spurious appearance of acceptability 
to their legislative act& Farcical, therefore, is Cuba's 
participation in the work of the national legisla- 
tkm.'' 

CUBANS EXCLUDED EVEN FROM LOCAL GOVERNMENT. 

Mr. Haseltine adds that either through contriv- 
ance of the law or irregularities in its application 
the Cubans have been deprived of due representa- 
tkm in the local governments. 

'* Thus, in 1891, the Spaniards predominated in SI 



out of 87 ayuntamientoa, or town councils, in the 
province of Havana. In Guines, where, as we have 
said, there are 12,500 Cubans in its 18,000 inhab- 
itants, not a single Cuban was to be found among its 
town councillors. At the same epoch there were 
only three Cuban deputies in the Provincial Deputa- 
tion of Havana, two in that of Matanzas and three 
in that of Santa Clara.** 

Of twenty governors of the province of Matanzas 
only two, it is asserted, have been Cubans. ** One 
of these was a professional bureaucrat, and the 
other was an army officer who had fought against 
his country.** During the same time Havana has 
had only one native Cuban governor, and he had 
spent almost all his life in Spain. In the other 
provinces there has never been a native governor. 

8PAIN*8 FISCAL MANAGEMENT. 

The figures given for the Cuban budgets seem 
almost fabulous. In 1879 and 1880 they were as 
high as $46,000,000 ; but the island was unable to 
meet such enormous exactions, and the deficit 
reached $20,000,000. In 1868 Cuba*s debt was 
$25,000,000. When the present war broke out, Feb- 
ruary 24, 1895. it amounted to $190,000,000. On July 
81, 1895, it was computed to have reached $295,000,- 
000. The interest on this debt imposed a tax of $9. 79 
per capita — 50 per cent, higher than the per capita 
tax of France. Not a cent of this great sum has 
been spent in Cuba. The debt includes a debt of 
Spain to the United States ; *' it includes the ex- 
pense of Spain's occupation of San Domingo in 1861 ; 
the cost of Spain's invasion of Mexico ; the cost of 
her hostile expedition against Peru ; money ad- 
vanced to the Spanish Treasury during the recent 
Carlist wars : and, finally, all that Spain has spent 
to uphold its domination in Cuba, and to cover the 
lavish expenditures since 1868.** 

OOMMERCLLL RESTRICTIONS. 

So far form promoting, or even permitting, the 
development of Cuban wealth by Cuban industry, 
Spain has done everything possible to hamper such 
development 

** In view of the fact that Cuba produces almost 
exclusively for export, and imports almost every- 
thing she consumes, it is plain that all she asks of 
the mother country is that her output shall not be 
hampered with onerous regulations, nor her '>i- 
mercial relations obstructed, it being for the ouvi- 
ous interest of the island to buy cheap where it 
suits her, and to sell her products at a profit. Spain 
has done the very opposite of what she should have 
done. She has treated tobacco as an enemy ; she 
has loaded sugar with incessant imposts ; she has 
shackled with abusive excise duties the cattle rais- 
in:; industry : she has thrown almost insuperable 



70 



THE REyiElV OF RE^IEIVS. 



obstacles in the way of the mining industry. Nor 
is this all ; she has stranded the colony in the net- 
work of a tariff which subjects Cuba to a ruinous 
monopoly on the pait of the producers and mer- 
chants of certain regions of Spain. The duties 
which many foreign articles have to bear, when 
imported into Cuba, exceed by 2,000 — and even 2,300 
— per cent, those borne by the corresponding Span- 
ish products. For example, a hundred kilograms of 
knitted goods pay, if from Spain, $10.95 ; if from a 
foreign country, $195. A thousand kilograms of 
bags for sugar, when they are Spanish, pay $469 ; 
if they come from any other country they pay $82.50. 
A hundred kilograms of cassimere, if it is a Spanish 
product, pay $15.47 : if foreign, $300." 

In the budget of 1894-95, amounting to $26,411,000, 
only $756,925 went to interior improvements. All 
the rest was used to pay interest on the debt or the 
salaries of public officials (many of which are ex- 
cessive). Even the administration of justice in 
Cuba has been smirched. ** The very idea of a law- 
suit frightens every honest Cuban. Nobody believes 
in the integrity or the independence of the judges ; 
they are considered, and consider themselves, mere 
political tools.'' 

ARE THE REVOLUTIONISTS BELLIGERENTS ? 

Mr. Hazeltine contends that the Cubans in the 
present revolution not only have a just cause, but 
that they have met with sufficient success to entitle 
them to recognition as belligerents by the United 
States. 

** It is true that they possess no navy and no sea- 
port, but in this respect they are not much worse 
•off than were the thirteen American colonies when 
their independence was recognized by Frsuice. They 
«re quite as well off as were their Spanish- American 
kinsmen when the independence of the Peruvian 
And Colombian Bepublics was recognized by the 
United States, for at that time the mother country 
retained control of all the principal seaports on the 
Spanish Main and on the seacoast of Peru. They 
are better off than were the Greeks when England, 
France and Bussla interposed to assure their deliver- 
ance from the Ottoman yoke. From another point 
of view the claim of the Cubans to be recognized as 
belligerents is even more irresistible. How can we 
refuse to say that a state of war exists in Cuba 
when Spain herself avows the fact by assembling 
under her colors on the island upward of 200,000 
soldiers ? How can any one dascribe as a local and 
transient disturbance an upheaval, which for nearly 
two years Spain has striven in vain to suppress, 
although she has taxed to the utmost her resources 
in men and money ? Spain is forced at this moment 
to maintain in Cuba an army twice as large as the 
Ottoman Sultan and his vassal, Mehemet Ali, could 
muster in 1828 for the subjugation of Greece, and 
four times as large as the Anglo-German force 
which Great Britain was able to launch against her 
revolted American colonies during our revolutionary 



war. If it is not war which exists in Cuba, why in 
the name of common sense has Spain sent thither 
nearly the whole of her available navy and a land 
force that will presently number almost a quarter 
of a million of troops ? Indubitably war it is, and, 
as we have shown it to be a righteous one, the 
Cubans are entitled to a recognition of its existence 
at the hands of foreign powers, and especially of 
the American republics.'* 



MR. GODKIN ON MILITARISM. 

MB. E. L. GKDDKIN has a brief essay in the Jan- 
uary Century which he calls *' The Absurdity 
of War." The derivation of the institution of war 
is a very plain case. 

** War is the last remnant of man's mode of decid- 
ing disputes in the animal or savage state. As soon 
as he started on the road to civilization he set up 
judges or courts to settle conjbroversies. Before that, 
when two men differed about anjrthing they tore 
or mutilated each other's bodies, and it was tacitly 
agreed that the man who was most mutilated, if not 
killed, should give way. But he abode by the de- 
cisions of courts very reluctantly. The hardest 
battle of the reformers of the race was to get him 
to submit to the judges. He always preferred in 
his heart some kind of mutilation of his adversary's 
body, and in order to give a certain dignity to this 
mode of settling quarrels he got up the theory that 
God presided over it and always gave the victory 
to ^he man who was in the right. In England this 
notion lasted in the * trial by battle,' or * wager of 
battle,' almost down to our own time. It was held 
that the Deity was on the side of the man who gave 
most cuts and stabs." 

Mr. Godkin refers to the curious fact that whereas 
we have come to see the inhumanity and shame of 
establishing honor among individuals by shooting 
and stabbing, we have in the case of nations and 
large bodies of people not only maintained the old 
savage custom, but have invested it with a new 
sanctity. Moreover, the settlement of quarrels be- 
tween nations has some features of atrocity that 
the old system of duelling never had. Great bodies 
of men are employed to kill and maim one another 
for reasons of which they know nothing, and they 
may go on fighting for years without having the 
slightest power to come to terms. Mr. GK)dkin 
thinks it an exact analogy when he says "the 
Iroquois led two or three hundred men to the field 
because they hated the Mohicans or because the 
Mohicans had something they wanted: the modem 
Germans led a million men to the field because they 
hated the French or because the French had some- 
thing they wanted; the French do the same thing 
to the Germans." In addition, civilization has 
raised this business of killing enemies to an honor- 
able profession, even above other professions. ** The 
animal method has the ascendancy. The soldier 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



71 



who settles quarrels by stabbing, cutting and rend- 
ing stands Mgher in popular estimation than the 
judge or the advocate who sits to decide quarrels 
peaceably by reason or the human method.'' 

But Mr. Godkin thinks war is worse than a crime ; 
*t is a blunder. 

'' But the most serious charge which can be made 
against war is that either it does not decide things 
or it is waged over things which might be 
decided without it, although it is enormously 
costly. Take as examples the wars of this century 
between civilized nations. I will admit that those 
between civilized and barbarous nations have been 
just and necessary. The wars of Napoleon lasted 
twenty years; cost, it is estimated, the lives of 
three millions of men; suspended the march of civ- 
ilintion all over Europe, and caused enormous 
destruction of property. Very few of those engaged 
in them had any idea of what they were about. They 
ended in leaving France exactly as they found her. 
much impoverished in money and population, and 
with the same, or nearly the same, frontiers as 
when they began. The next war was the attempt 
of Frmce to keep a certain family on the throne of 
Spain. It failed: the family lost the throne. The 
next was the Belgian revolution. It settled what 
•Qgfat to have been settled without it. The next 
was the Crimean war. Within twenty years every- 
thing it accomplished had disappeared, and the gen- 
enl opinion of Europe was that it should never have 
been undertaken. It cost two hundred thousand 
Utcs and about one billion dollars. The next was 
iktt war for the liberation of Italy. It succeeded, 
bat ought not to have been necessary. The next 
WIS the war of the rebellion, costing about five 
biOioa dollars and two hundred thousand lives and 
enonnous destruction of property. It was of no 
use to those who began it. The next were the Prusso- 
Anstrian and the Franco-German wars. Both accom- 
plished their purpose, but were enormously destruc- 
tife.*' 

WHAT ARBITRATION WOULD HAVE DONE. 

" Now. what is noticeable in all these is that they 
were about matters capable of the submission of 
proofs and arguments by counsel and judicial 
d^rimons, and that in every case, excepting the 
seizure of Alsace and Lorraine, wise and impartial 
judges would have decided the matter exactly either 
as the war decided it, or as the war was meant to 
decide it but did not. Nearly everything in the dis- 
pute was plain, except which of the disputants had 
inoat power of destruction ; in other words, the war 
was totally unneceesary. On human plans of expe 
diency and persuasion France would never have 
been invaded after the Revolution; Napoleon would 
Bcrer have fought; Holland would have let Belgium 
go; France would never have invaded Spain; Eng- 
land would never have fought Russia ; Austria would 
have surrendered Italy, and would have concluded 
•n arrangement with Prussia; the South would have 



yielded to the North for compensated emancipation, 
and the French would never have called the German 
king to account about the throne of Spain. What 
I mean is, that in every one of these cases an impar- 
tial tribunal would have decided the matter either 
in the way the war decided it or in the way hind- 
sight decided it. About five million men who were 
killed or maimed would have continued to labor and 
enrich their countries, and the nations of Europe 
would have been saved a debt which I do not put 
into figures because they would be so large that they 
would convey nothing to the reader's mind. In every 
case the difficulty was one which could have been 
settled by the human art of persuasion — by people 
simply saying before the war what they said after 
it. or, in other words, by acting like men, not like 
animals. If cats fought in armies the only question 
they would settle which could not be settled in any 
other way would be, which set could do most biting 
and scratching. Any other question between them - 
such as which was entitled to most food, which made 
most noise at night, which was the best climber of 
backyard fences, which had the best fur— could be 
settled judicially by testimony and argument." 



A BYSTANDER AT THE ARMENIAN MASSACRES- 

IN the January Scribner's there is an article by an 
eye-witness of the Armenian massacres describ 
ing the slaughter of the Armenians in Constanti- 
nople. The article is signed Yvan Troshine, which 
we understand is a nom- de-plume. A most circum- 
stantial and detailed account is given of the con. 
dition of Constantinople just before and during the 
massacre, and in view of the heated discussions 
which have been going on among us as to the rela- 
tive merits of the Turkish and the Armenian conten- 
tions it may be worth while to give some paragraphs 
from an authoritative account of the butchery. This 
was the view presented to the bystander who gives 
the account for us on the morning of August 26, 
when the Ottoman Bank was attacked : 

** Just then a procession of four or five scavenger 
carts met us. The first one passed without notice. 
Over the second a piece of matting was thrown, and 
from under the matting protruded the hands and 
feet of dead men. The third had no covering over 
its ghastly load of four or five bodies thrown in, 
doubled and twisted as they chanced to fall. The 
uppermost body was a horrible spectacle, with only 
a broken mixture of skin, hair and blood in the 
place where the skull had been. In those carts were 
more than a score of bodies of Armenians of the 
poorer class, who had been killed, not with weapons, 
but by beating with clubs. The Turkish bludgeon - 
men had been at work on the streets, and the munic- 
ipality had placed its carts at their disposal to remove 
the evidences of their crime. The victims had been 
battered to pieces merely because they belonged to 



72 



THE REI^IEU^ OF REI^IEIVS. 



a hated race. The contempt for their fate shown by 
the government officials in thus indecently piling 
their corpses like offal in the scavenger carts, and 
in iMirading the evidence of its heartlessness before 
the eyes of club-bearers who were waiting opportu- 
nity for similar achievements, swept away every 
trace of sympathy for the Turks wronged by the 
anarchical proceedings of the Armenians at the bank. 

ACTIONS OP THE POUCE. 

** From the bridge another horrible sight could 
be seen. Men were at work gathering dead bodies 
of Armenians out of the water. Almost immedi- 
ately upon the outbreak at the bank the Eourdish 
porters employed at the Custom House on the Stam- 
boul side of the harbor, more than a mile from the 
scene of the disturbance, had killed all whom they 
could catch of their Armenian associates, and had 
thrown them into the sea. The police were now 
having the bodies dragged from the water in order 
to be taken away by the carts; and some of the 
wretches were still alive. But now there was a 
sudden rush of many feet on the square at the head 
of the bridge over which we had just come. There 
was a sort of hoarse murmur, ' Curses on the 
Giaour 1 ' there was a sudden brandishing of clubs 
in the air, and a poor fellow in the midst of a mad- 
dened crowd went down not to rise again. Mounted 
police were sitting on their horses not far away, and 
after the clubs dealt their blows they swept in. 
scattering the crowd. The question of the policy 
which the government had chosen hung upon the 
action of the police, now that the deed was done. If 
they should arrest the murderers it would show that 
the government intended to protect the innocent. 
But when they saw that the man was dead the police 
could see no duty left to them but to call the scav- 
enger cart. The bludgeon-bearers, and we too, then 
knew the meaning of the inaction of the police. 
Turkey had learned nothing from the indignation of 
the world at the massacres of the last year/' 

The Turkish papers on the 27th affirmed that there 
would be no more trouble, and that everything was 
quiet. This writer says a mere glance at the situa- 
tion after arriving in the city that morning showed 
how much the official notice in the papers left to be 
desired from the point of accuracy. The reports of 
eye-witnesses of the deeds of the night were terrible. 
At Samatia and in Balad and the region of the 
Adrianople Gate in Stamboul. attacks on Armenians 
in their houses were somewhat intelligible because 
of the revolutionist outbreaks in the immediate 
vicinity. But at Hasskeuy. on the opposite side of 
the Golden Horn, where there had been no Armenian 
outbreak, the whole Armenian quarter, containing 
some six thousand inhabitants, had been attacked 
during the night, and several hundred persons had 
been killed. The mob had crossed in boats from 
Stamboul. and had assembled from the brickyards 
beyond Hasskeuy after killing the Armenian work- 
men employed in the yards. Jews of the dij?trict 



had acted as guides to the Turks, showing which 
were the Armenian houses. The mob forced the 
doors, killing all the men whom they could find, but. 
happily. T^ot touching the women. The frightened 
people fled in the darkness, some to the open country 
behind Hasskeuy, some to throw themselves into 
wells and cisterns, where they remained standinir 
in and out of the water for forty-eight hours, and 
some succeeded in reaching the great stone church, 
where fourteen hundred found refuge. A foreigner 
who lives in that region says that the shrieks from 
Hasskeuy through all the long night were such that 
he will never recover from the impression of anguish 
within reach which he was impotent to relieve. The 
pillage of the houses went on through the night, and 
in fact continued through all the day of Thursday^ 
After the Turks had carried off all the more portable 
valuables from the houses, they actually had leisure 
allowed them to sell to the Jews the right to carry 
off the heavier furniture. During the night the fur- 
niture of a well conditioned Armenian house in 
Hasskeuy could be bought for |10. at buyer's risk. 
In some cases, after the Turks had left, the Armenian 
owner would reappear from his hiding place and try 
to drive off the Jews who were carrying away bis 
furniture. Then these thrifty merchants would 
api>eal to the mob for help against the ' rebel/ the 
bludgeon-men would come back to make good their 
sale to their clients, would kill the Armenian, and 
go on with their work in other houses. After the 
Jews had cleared the houses a horde of Gypsies came 
into the place to gather up the sweepings, and to 
lament that the capacity of the Jews had left them 
so little worth carrying off. Every one seemed free 
to the use of Armenian houses except the rightful 
owners. It is only fair to add that the Turks de- 
clare that the Hasskeuy massacre was * caused * by 
the act of one Armenian in firing a pistol Wednes- 
day evening, and thereby killing one of His Imperial 
Majesty's soldiers of the marine service. The Ar- 
menian was condemned to death for this crime. 
But at the trial it came out most clearly from the 
testimony for the prosecution that when the revolver 
was fired a mob had already surrounded the house 
in order to pillage it. and that the soldier was killed 
in the darkness simply because he formed a part of 
the mob. There was no Armenian outbreak to pro- 
voke this terrible slaughter. " 

AN INSTANCE OF TURKISH MEROY. 

This writer sasrs that in many cases the Turks 
showed considerable humanity toward Christians 
who were in danger of being Idlled While on the 
north shore of the Golden Horn the Armenian work- 
men at the brick works were nearly all killed, on the 
south side they were carefully protected by the 
soldiers guarding the Imperial Fez Factory. In one 
case an Armenian clerk in a European store in 
Galata was returning to the store ignorant of what 
had taken place, an hour or two after the attack on 
the bank commenced. The mob was in full control 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



73 



of the streets of the region which he was approach 
ing, and he would infallibly have been killed had he 
gone on. Bat a Turkish gentleman, who had often 
boagfat goods of him, met him, took him to his own 
house and kept him three days, until it was again 
safe for him to be seen on the streets. 

** Two spectacles upon this Friday and the suc- 
ceeding Saturday greatly moved the hearts of Eu- 
ropeans in Constantinople. One was the families 
of pillaged Armenians coming for shelter from 
Haaskeuy and Samatia. where the looting had in- 
claded the utmost shred of their household posses- 
moA. They came in numbers to the Oalata Bridge, 
on their way to take refuge with relatives in other 
parts of the city. Pitiful, broken-hearted groups they 
were— weeping widows huddling their orphaned 
children together, old men, feeble with the weight 
of years, yet trying to hold themselves erect as be- 
comes a man suddenly placed in the office of pro- 
tector to a younger brood, and here and there a 
yonng man who had escaped the mob by some 
mincle of agility. All were in their night clothes, 
the women and girls covered with some faded shawl 
or eome pitiful fragment of quilt, as with downcast 
eyw and flushed cheeks they hastened to the steam- 
era, where they might hide themselves from the 
curious gaze of the public.'* 

AN AWFUL SCENE. 

'* The other moving spectacle of these days was 
the spectacle of the rows of dead cast headlong into 
fte Armenian cemeteries from the scavenger carts 
of the municipality and left for the Armenians to 
bury in long trenches filled with uncoffined and 
mangled victims. The corpses lay upon the ground 
in the worn garments of poverty; they were to be 
counted by the hundred, and every one was bruised 
ind hacked and mutilated. No one who went to 
one of these cemeteries on those days came away 
without the feeling that men who will linger to beat 
and batter and mangle in this manner those whom 
they have killed have reached a depth of degrada- 
tkn such as the inhabitants of Christian lands have 
Ber^ suspected. 

" There will never be any trustworthy report of 
the number of Armenians killed during the thirty- 
six hoars of the massacre of Constantinople. Some 
(rf the ofScials seem to have two sets of records — 
hoth equally wrong. One report was prepared for 
the Saltan's eyes. In the hope of commendation for 
z«tl in repressing rebellion, actual and possible, it 
places the total of Armenian dead at more than 
eijcht thousand. The other report was made out for 
consmnption in Euroi>e, in the hope of convincing 
the world that nothing has occurred worthy of con- 
denmation. It declares the number of Armenians 
dead to be eleven hundred. The actual fact, prob- 
ably, is that between four thousand and six thousand 
pefBona were killed from sheer hate of race, besides 
any few scores of actual revolutionists who may 
hare fallen through their own folly. Of Turks. 



military and civilian, their own authorities say that 
less than one hundred and fifty were killed. Never- 
theless the official documents declare that the whole 
of these disorders were the work of Armenians. " 



\/ 



RUSSIA AND THE EASTERN QUESTION, 

MR. HENRY NORMAN, writing as recently as 
November 20, 1896, in Costnopolh, dis- 
misses the idea of any immediate Russian settle- 
ment of the Turkish troubles. 

*' There will be no European Commission of Con- 
trol for Turkey, no Russian Minister of War, no Sir 
Edgar Vincent as Finance Minister, no opening of 
the Bosphorous and Dardanelles to other fleets in 
return for the admission of the Russian fleet to the 
Mediterranean (this is the very last thing in the 
whole world that Russia would agree to : a foreign 
warship will never go into the Black Sea except by 
force), and, I fear, no coercion of the Sultan except 
in the mildest form. The English people must real- 
ize that, whatever their desires or however unselfish 
and humanitarian then* proposals, forces too great 
to overcome block the way. I discussed the reasons 
at length two months ago. The gist of them is that 
Russia is not ready, and that no combination of 
lowers strong enough to compel her to act against 
her will and against what she considers her inter- 
ests can possibly be formed. Anybody who thinks 
the contrary is either ill informed or dazzled by the 
heat of his own sympathies. At this moment M. 
Cambon is taking the lead, and M. Hanotaux is 
endeavoring that France shall se faire valoir in a 
manner which seems not quite to coincide with the 
Russian view of the Dual Alliance. This, however, 
will fall to the common level again, and, for my 
part, I am wholly unable even to hope that the 
return of M. de Nelidoff to Constantinople will have 
any other effect than that the Sultan will be bol- 
stered up on his throne and financial assistance 
afforded him, along with a species of temporary 
guarantee of the integrity of his dominions, in 
return for a distinct understanding that massacres 
shall cease and a few obvious and imperative re- 
forms be carried out. Of course, if he is really tak- 
ing leave of his senses, he may be deposed with the 
good will of the Sheikh ul Islam ; but this is improlta- 
ble. The end of the Eastern question will come 
later, but not while the Emperor of Austria lives 
and the Siberian railway is unfinished.'' 

Is the Berlin Treaty Effective? 

The New York Independent of December 3 con- 
tains a remarkable discussion of the European bal' 
ance of iK)wer, in which writers of various points of 
view and exact information x)articipate. Thus Eng- 
land's policy is presented by Henry Norman, that of 
France by M. Clemenceau, and oiermany's foreign 
r -lations by C. A. Bratter, the foreign editor of the 



74 



THE REyiEiV OF REVIEWS. 



H'ew York Staats-Zeitung, while Russians position 
is stated by Professor Mmiroe Smith, and Turkey's 
by President Washbnm of Robert CJollege. 

The Hon. Oscar L. Straus, in an historical outline 
introductory to this symposium, reviews the Berlin 
treaty, particularly the sixty-first article, which 
provides : 

The Sublime Porte undertakes to carry out without 
farther delay the improvements and reforms demanded 
by local" requirements in the provinces inhabited by 
Armenians, and to guarantee their security against the 
Circassians and Kurds. It wi 11 periodically make known 
the steps taken to this effect to the powers, who will 
superintend their application. 

•'The treaty of Berlin," says Mr. Straus, ** and 
especially the article quoted, gives the right and 
supplies the means to the powers to restore order in 
Turkey and to guarantee security for life, liberty 
«nd property. The signatory powers have the 
Tight, under this treaty, to take action ; and all that 
is required is to agree among themselves to enforce 
the stipulations of the treaty of Berlin. Bismarck's 
revelations, humiliating alike to him by reason of 
the spiteftOness of his motive and discreditable for 
his coimtry because of her duplicity, disclose under- 
ground alliances, which doubtless have checked the 
peaceful yet effective action on the part of the 
nations composing the European balance of power 
xmder and by virtue of the treaty of Berlin." 



THE LATEST BISMARCK REVELATIONS. 
The Relations Between Russia and Germany. 

DR. DILLON writes a very successful article 
upon the German Policy in the Fortnightly 
Beview. He says a great deal that is well worth 
while noting as to the way in which the Germans 
have worked for the success which they had 
achieved in many departments of life, and he 
defends the policy of Prince Bismarck against the 
strictures that have been brought against it. He 
ridicules the idea that there was any grave breach 
of good faith in the concluding of such a treaty 
with Russia which enabled Germany to isolate 
France and practically add Russia to the Triple 
Alliance for the maintenance of European peace. 

WHAT QEEMANY HAS LOST. 

Dr. Dillon thus summarizes the results of the 
adoption of the opposite policy of Count Caprivi : 

*• The * wire ' between Berlin and St. Petersburg 
is broken, and irreparably broken, for the sake of 
the Triple Alliance and England ; yet the Triple 
Alliance is certainly not stronger, and is probably 
i^eaker than ever before ; Germany's relations with 
Oreat Britain have come to depend upon passing 
accidents or popular whims rather than on State 
considerations ; France, whose isolation spelt peace, 
is become the leading power in Europe, and has 



changed Germany's staunchest friend into a pre- 
sumptive enemy ; Germany's colonial dreams are 
further from realization than ever before, and she 
has forfeited the commanding position in Europe 
which Bismarck had conferred upon her by the 
waving of his magician*s wand." 

Dr. Dillon says it cannot be seriously maintained 
that the obligations entered into absolutely with 
Russia were incompatible with those that bound 
Germany to her other allies. He concludes his arti- 
cle by saying that the sooner England goes to school 
with Germany, instead of preaching morality to 
her, the better for England. 

RUSSIA AS MBS. TANQUERAY. 

Another writer, signing himself " W.,'* writes in 
the same magazine on *' Prince Bismarck*s Secret 
Treaty." He takes a very adverse view, and says 
that whether it was or was not in consonance with 
the more honorable conditions of diplomacy, there 
can be no doubt of the demoralizing influence it 
exercised upon the course of political evidence dur- 
ing the period it remained in force. He says: 

**Indeed, the political history of Europe from 
1884 to 1890 is punctuated with mysteries, to which 
the Secret Treaty will be found an infallible clew. 
In a similar way the denunciation of the treaty by 
Count Caprivi, in 1890, explains another whole series 
of events. Now that we know that a return to a 
loyal foreign x)olicy was one of the cardinal points 
in the famous Neue Kura, the origin of the French 
visit to Cronstadt, with its fruition in the Toulon 
fitea, and in the triumphal progress of the Czar from 
Cherbourg to Chalons, is clear before us. We can 
understand the Anglo German Agreement relating 
to Africa and Heligoland, in June, 1890, the cold 
formality of the Kaiser's visit to Russia two months 
later, the festive entertainment of a British squad- 
ron at Fiume in the following year, and the cordial 
ity of the state visit of the German Emperor to 
London in July, 1891.'' 

On the whole, **W." seems to think that the 
results have justified Prince Bismarck's calculated 
indiscretion. The following observation concern- 
ing the effect of this revelation on the Franco Rus- 
sian understanding is somewhat amusing: 

'*The Republic has found a partner, and has made 
merry over the termination of a long single blessed- 
ness. But now, unfortunately, these wretched reve- 
lations have come, and La Belle Musne turns out to 
be no better than she should be, a lady with a past, 
a sort of second Mrs. Tanqueray on a very large 
scale. The facts are damning. In March, 1890, she 
was begging in vain that her irregular minaae with 
the G^erman Kaiser might not be terminated after 
six years of secret cohabitation. In July, 1891, she 
was showering caresses on her French bridegroom 
at Cronstadt, and two months later she was borrow- 
ing 800,000.000 roubles of him under the plea of nat- 
ural afi&nities which were alleged and believed to 
reach back for ages. The story is too terrible. I do 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



75 



not however* Mame Russia, and 1 will not be guilty 
of the impertinence of condoling with France; but 
the story has a warning and a moral. " 



ANGLO-AMERICAN ARBITRATION. 
The Settlement of the Venezuela Dispute. 

MR a SIDNEY LOW contributes to the Nine- 
teenth Century for December an article, in 
▼faich he states the English point of view of the 
significance of the Anglo-American treaty provid- 
ing for the arbitration of the Venezuela ques- 
tion. This treaty he regards as the most ** preg- 
nant even of all this annua mirabilia 1896. It 
is tme its importance and interest are much more 
for the people of the United States than for English- 
mnu though the latter, too, are very closely con- 
cerned in it. It is an admission of the political 
hegemony of the United States in the two Ameri- 
cas. The precedent has been established which it 
is the chief object of the Olney doctrine to set up. 
A novel attempt has been made to define the atti- 
to^ of the United States toward the other govem- 
oente of the two Americas. A fresh article has been 
added to the code which regulates the relations of 
tbedrilized powers to one another. How far the 
new ctystem extends, and what its precise meaning 
and validity may be, are questions which the recent 
tnnaactions have left in much uncertainty." 

But whatever answer there may be to those ques- 
tiooa. there is no doubt about one thing — namely, 
tint ** the United States has saddled itself with a vast 
addition to its burdens and its duties. It has as- 
acrted— successfully asserted— for itself a claim to 
be the general protector and arbiter of the American 
continent The responsibility thus assumed is a 
k«vy one. Nothing like it has existed in the world 
■ince the downfall of the Roman Empire. The 
United States is practically bound to intervene as 
protector, champion and judge in equity whenever 
tefritorifti changes on the American continent are 
contemplated or the rights of an American State 
are menaced— to intervene by diplomacy if that 
will ralfice, by fleets and armies if it will not. *' 

Mr Low points out how easily a difficulty might 
ariie which would compel the United States to face 
the alternative of tearing up the Olney doctrine or 
going to war. South America is most sparsely peo- 
ple, and both Germany and Italy are pouring thou* 
tande of emigrants into the country. 

" Let 118 suppose — not an extravagant supposition 
"that some time in the early part of the next cen- 
tury a couple of millions of Germans find them- 
•eWes Hving in Southern Brazil, and that they also 
find the government of a gang of half-caste attorneys 
»nd political adv^enturers at Rio Janeiro no longer 
tolerable. The Uitlanders revolt and are beaten ; 
they appeal to their own government for protection 
andumexation.** 

What would G^e^many do ? It is hardly in human 
utnre to think that the German government would 



not try to take a hand in such a very promising dis- 
pute. If Germany did, what would the United States 
do ? It would either have to fight or back down. 

** Whichever alternative is taken, the result would 
involve an addition to the external responsibilities, 
and an increase of the warlike resources, of the 
United States. This last result seems to be inevita- 
ble. No nation can expect to take over the political 
control of an entire continent, to make itself an- 
swerable for permanently maintaining the existing 
geographical divisions of a group of states so large 
and (in some cases) so distant as those of the two 
Americas, and to secure the integrity against coloni- 
zation, annexation, or other forcible intrusion, of 
territories at once so tempting, so weak and in such 
a condition of economic* and industrial infancy, 
without being in a position to give effect to its 
wishes. If the scramble for South America once 
begins, neither the latent resources nor the moral 
influence of the United States will avail to protect 
its clients without the display of effective material 
strength. 

**The old Monroe doctrine was one of self cen- 
tred isolation. A country which aimed as far as 
possible at having no political relations with foreign 
states could almost dispense with the luxury of 
fleets and armies. But the new Monroe doctrine 
(which in some respects is rather the antithesis 
than the legitimate development of its predecessor) 
cannot assuredly be maintained unless the citizens 
of the Republic are prepared to endure burdens and 
incur obligations from which hitherto they have 
been enviably free." 

Mr. Henry Norman on the Result. 

Mr. Henry Norman, whose brilliant work as cor- 
respondent of the London DaUy Chronicle one year 
ago attracted so much attention in the United 
States, writes in the December Cosmopolia concern- 
ing the terms of the Venezuelan settlement. His 
point of view is that of the intelligent Englishman 
who for many months had foreseen the outcome and 
had done what he could to prepare his countrymen 
for it. He says : 

** Lord Salisbury has swallowed the pill at last. 
That it was such a large and bitter one is entirely 
the fault of himself and his Foreign Office advisers. 
Events have thus absolutely justified all those who 
for eleven months have insisted, first, that the Brit- 
ish case was negligently and ignorantly prepared ; 
second, that the whole matter was one demanding 
settlement by arbitration alone, and third, that in 
the end to arbitration it must come. On November 
26, 1895, Lord Salisbury wrote : * The claim of a 
third nation, which is unaffected by the controversy, 
to impose this particular procedure (arbitration) on 
either of the two others cannot be reasonably justi- 
fied, and has no foundation in the law of nations.* 
On November 12, 1896. Sir Julian Pauncefote 
signed on Lord Salisbury's behalf the arbitration 
treaty with Venezuela * as agreed upon between the 



76 



THE RE^IEIV OF RE^IEIVS, 



United States and Great Britain.' On the former 
date he wrote : ' As regards the rest [of the Venez- 
uelan claim], that which lies within the so called 
Schombnrgk line, the Government of Great Britain 
do not consider that the rights of Great Britain are 
open to question ; ' and that * Her Majesty's Gov- 
ernment cannot, in justice to the inhabitants, offer 
to surrender to foreign rule' British settlements 
within that line. And again : Her Majesty's Gov- 
ernment * cannot consent to entertain, or to submit 
to the arbitration of another power or of foreign 
jurists, however eminent, claims based on the ex- 
travagant pretensions of Spanish officials in the last 
century, and involving the transfer of large num- 
bers of British subjects who have for many years 
enjoyed the settled rule of a British colony.' On 
the latter date the Schombnrgk line as such was 
finally abandoned ; the Britieh settlements in ques- 
tion are offered for surrender in case the arbitral 
tribunal pronounces against them, and the more or 
less imaginary * large numbers of British subjects 
who have for many years enjoyed.' etc., are to be 
transferred in the last resort at the bidding of a for- 
eign jurist— the King of Sweden— if the *many 
years' in question amounted to forty-nine and 
eleven months, but not to fifty. There is really 
nothing else to say, except a word of profound 
thankfulness that even at such a cost the sacred 
principle of arbitration between the English-sx>eak- 
ing peoples has at last been accepted. The result 
would have been reached sooner but for the fact 
that both Lord Salisbury and Mr. Olney unfortu- 
nately misinterpreted the tone and phraseology of 
each other's disptchee — a misunderstanding which 
it was my privilege, in a humble and private capac- 
ity, to do something to remove. No diplomatic 
struggle has ever been waged more skillfully from 
beginning to end than Mr. Olney has waged this 
one. And there are two men to whom England is 
under deep obligations for the result The first is 
Sir Julian Pauncefote, whose task was one of ex- 
treme difficulty and d^cacy, and whose diplomacy, 
attitude and actions, if a full account of them could 
be given, would be universally recognized as beyond 
praise. The second is Sir William Harcourt, whose 
private pressure upon the Government last July was 
the motive force which finally determined them in 
the ri ght road. 

*' From an international point of view the most 
important aspect of the Venezuelan settlement is its 
formal recognition of the Monroe doctrine. This 
doctrine in its widest application has always been 
firmly held by the American people as among the 
most sacred articles of their political faith. Hitherto, 
however, European statesmen have ignored it. This 
will no longer be possible for England; but our 
action has only caused the Continental xK>wer8 to 
add another to the already long list of grievances 
against us. ' It may have suited England,' they say 
in effect. * to recognize this theory, but we vdll have 
none of it.' " 



CANADA AND VENEZUELA. 

THE Venezuelan settlement forms the subject of 
an hysterical article by George Tate Black- 
stock, Q.C., in the Canadian Magazine, The terms 
of this settlement, we are told, are intensely hnmili 
ating to British Canadians. It does not appear that 
Canadians are disposed to regard Venezuela's oft- 
repeated requests for arbitration as unreasonable, 
but that such arbitration should result from the in- 
terference of the United States seems, from the 
Canadian point of view, a matter of the keenest 
regret. It is bad enough that England should arbi- 
trate at all with a " weak, poverty-stricken, ill-con- 
ditioned Spanish American Republic, " but ** to turn 
a deaf ear for a quarter of a century to the entreat- 
ies of Venezuela, because she was too weak to forci- 
bly oppose us. and then, in deference to the threats 
of the United States, to turn right-about-face and 
grant practically all that Venezuela had ever asked, 
was to proclaim England to the world as a swagger- 
ing bully." 

HAS TJNCLE SAM SCORED A POINT ? 

Mr. Blackstock is fully persuaded that whatever 
the United States has gained from the episode (and 
he seems to think this considerable) has been so 
much direct loss to Great Britain. 

'* I do not dwell upon these aspects of the matter 
which concern almost exclusively Venezuela and 
British Guiana. It is when one passes from these 
to larger considerations that one sees at once that 
the United States emerges from the controversy 
with everything gained, while England is certainly 
ignominiously defeated and humiliated. If we leave 
out of sight the general treaty arrangement, which 
is not at all necessarily involved in the settlement 
of the Venezuela business, and which time will 
prove is of no advantage to England, the United 
States has every reason to indulge in the wildest 
outbursts of enthusiasm. Not only is the Monroe 
doctrine firmly established and inscribed in the 
international code, but in a form so amplified and 
extended as to make the influence of the United 
States absolutely paramount upon this continent, 
and to make her the arbiter of the fortunes and des- 
tinies of every South American state. The far- 
reaching consequences of this state of affairs will 
very soon make themselves apparent Trade fol- 
lows the flag, and if you deliberately modify, if not 
annihilate, your own influence and prestige in South 
America, and at the same time solenmly acknov^rl- 
edge that the United States is to be the paramount 
authority and absolute master of the situation, you 
will very soon find that the nations of the southern 
half of this hemisphere will find it to their advan- 
tage to buy their wares of, and do their business 
with, that country which can make or mar their 
fortunes. The position of the United States in tb.e 
matter of controlling South American trade, which 
has long been the eager pursuit of her statesmen, is 
ahnost impregnable. We have delivered the prey 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



11 



to our enemy, and that without rhyme or reason, 
much leas any equivalent." 

ARE WE ENEMIES Y 

'* The truth is that if Lord Salisbury had set out 
with the avowed object of elevating the fortunes 
and status of the United States, and depressing our 
own. he could scarcely have succeeded better. No 
one win accuse the noble marquis of any indiffer- 
ence to the interests or honor of his country in its 
foreign relations. The whole difficulty arises from 
that fatal inability of Englishmen to form a true 
estimate of American character and aims. They 
will persist in believing that the United States fully 
reciprocates their idyllic and altruistic aspirations 
for the harmony and union of the two peoples, and 
diat she desires the prosperity and happiness of the 
British Empire as heartily as Englishmen wish 
these for her. No more profound error can be in- 
dulged. It cannot be too often repeated, line upon 
line, precept upon precept, until it passes into the 
carrency of a Tnaxim, that ESngland has no such 
deadly, jealous and persistent foe as the United 
States. It ought not to be so ; it may not always 
be so : but it absolutely is so.'* 

And this vehement Canadian avers that Lord 
Sslisbory would never have fallen into such a pit if 
be had been blessed with the counsel of a Canadian 
statesman '* of average patriotism and information. ** 



WAKE UP, JOHN BULLl 
Examples and Warnings from Abroad. 

INHERE seems to be good reason for believing 
that the British Cabinet has taken to heart 
the warning so clearly expressed by public opinion 
during the recess in favor of pressing forward a 
Secondary Education bill next session. Whatever 
ezaggerationB there may be in Mr. Williams' book, 
** Made in Germany,'* there is no denying that Ger- 
many is forging ahead. The Daily News, Mr. 
Ritchie and Sir Thomas Farrer havA endeavored to 
belittle the significance of the facts and figures 
brought together by Mr. Williams, but one and all 
bsTe to admit tnat there is great need for action. 
Lord Bosebery and Mr. Balfour have both borne 
ftroDg testimony to the need for improving the 
method of training the people. According to the 
Doke of Devonshire, the Secondary Education bill 
is to be one of the Ministerial proposals next year. 

WHY OERMAmr IS GAININO GROUND. 

Dr. Dillon, writing in the Fortnightly Review on 
"German Policy," incidentally calls attention to 
the fact that Oermany is undoubtedly beating Eng- 
Itnd. not because German goods are cheap, but be- 
Close German education is better than England*& 
In Great Britain the great idea is to pay for passing 
examinations, whereas, says Dr. Dillon : 

"In Germany love of knowledge for its own 
like, apart from its practical and profitable utiliza- 



tion, is studiously instilled and successfully commu- 
nicated to the rising generation, and the result is 
writ large, among other things, in the vast strides 
made by (German commerce throughout the world. 
Their country bristles with technical schools, with 
commercial training colleges, and with special edu- 
cational institutions for every kind of theoretical 
learning and practical skill, from the method of 
dairy farming to the theory of transcendental sasthet- 
ics. Their best statesmen are practical psychologists ; 
their average ambassadors not only know the lan- 
guage, history and literature of the countries to 
which they are accredited, but likewise the com- 
mercial advantages which may be obtained for Ger- 
man merchants there. System, order, thorough- 
ness, characterize everything they set their hands to, 
with the sole exception of colonial enterprise, which 
needs that clearness of eye and steadiness of hand 
that only actual experience can confer.'* 

And the result, says Dr. Dillon, is that it is the 
bitter truth, however much it may be gainsaid by 
optimistic ministers, that commercial defeat is the 
result of commercial inferiority. 

The Secret of German Success. 

Mr. B. H. Thwaite, writing in the Nineteenth 
Century for December on the ** Commercial War 
Between Germany and England,'* gives many in- 
stances and illustrations of the way in which Ger- 
man science and Gtoman thoroughness have suc- 
ceeded in beating the English out of the market 
He says : 

** The main secret of Germany's great industrial 
progress may be summed up in the words, polytech- 
nic education and philosophic training. 

** The refined precision and the advanced scientific 
attainments of the controllers of German metallur- 
gical processes have enabled the day-by-day pro- 
duction of finished metal in sheets the thinness, 
pliability and evenness of structure of which are 
admittedly impossible of attainment in Stafford- 
shire. Our easy laissezfaire policy, and reliance 
on an assumed superiority^because our fathers suc- 
ceeded we ought to succeed— will not do.'* 

But Mr. Thwaite is no alarmist, and he concludes 
his article with words of encouragement. 



MR. DILLON, MR. REDMOND, MR. PARNELL. 
Disclosures By Mr. W. O'Brien. 
*^\irAS Mr. Pamell badly treated?" is the 
V V title of the paper which Mr. W. O'Brien 
contributes to the Contemporary , and which sheds a 
strange light upon the present quarrel between Red- 
mondite and Dillonite. The writer begins by 
declaring that ** Mr. Healey's poisoned words " in 
Committee Room 15, and his subsequent writings, 
are almost the only grounds for Pamellite resent- 
ment and estrangement, and now that Mr. Healey's 
domination is at an end. one would suppose there 
might be an end to the schism among the National- 
ists. The purpose of the article is first to make 



78 



THE REI^/EIV OF RE^IEIVS. 



clear, from letters and telegrams in the Boulogne 
negotiations, that Mr. Pamell was not badly treated, * 
but was treated, and confessed that he was treated, 
with friendly and respectful consideration. But in 
doing this the much more remarkable and practi- 
cally important fact is that ** Mr. John Redmond, 
who is now the only considerable enemy of reunion, 
was, while Mr. Pamell was still alive, one of our 
most earnest auxiliaries in bringing about Mr. Par- 
nelFs retirement and substituting for him the very 
man who is at this moment chairman of the Irish 
party, Mr. John Dillon.*' 

As Mr. O'Brien says, ** The fact will astonish many 
people.-' Bat he goes on to prove it; and calmly 
predicts that " the moment earnest Pamellites mas- 
ter the facts, Mr. Redmond's power as a mischief 
maker wiU not be worth much further notice." 

MB. REDMOND AS DILLONITE. 

In the course of the negotiations following on the 
Blilkenny election. Mr. Redmond himself being 
witness, Mr. Pamell proposed to retire if Mr. 
O'Brien would accept the chairmanship of the united 
party. Mr. O'Brien urged that Mr. John Dillon 
should be the leader; and now, in answer to the 
charge of ** murdering Pamell," Mr. O'Brien offers 
•* proofs of the active exertions of Mr. Redmond and 
his friends in inducing Mr. Pamell to retire in Mr. 
Dillon's favor. " The documents he cites are appar- 
ently conclusive enough. The ** most fatal " diffi- 
culty was the personal bitterness against Mr. Pamell 
in *• a section of our own camp " — ** a small but 
active and violent minority of our colleagues " — 
which paralyzed the peace negotiations. 

"CECIL RHODES HAS STIFFENED" PARNELL. 

But there were other difficulties. In a letter dated 
Dublin, Febmary 10, 1891, Mr. Tim Harrington 
wrote to Mr. O'Brien warmly wishing his efforts 
success as the only means of saving Mr. Pamell and 
Ireland. Here is a curious glimpse the letter gives 
us: 

** However, we had no difficulty in inducing Par- 
nell to put the thing before you directly. His con- 
fidence in you is as strong as ever, but I think John 
said something to him about the funds in Paris 
which has aroused in his mind the suspicion that, if 
he retires now, the difficulties to confront him, if 
ever he attempts to return, will be rendered all the 
more formidable only by his retirement. It is very 
probable his interview with Cecil Rhodes has stif- 
fened him, and no doubt the pressure from some 
troublesome lads here in Ireland calling upon him 
on no account to give way has had some effect." 

MR. REDMOND'S ANXIETY FOR UNION. 

From a letter of Mr. J. E. Redmond, dated Dub- 
lin. February 5, when, it will be remembered, the 
project in question was Mr. Pamell' s retirement in 
favor of Mr. John Dillon, the following sentence 
may be given as typical of the correspondence which 
is quoted: 



** * I have just returned from London, where I fnlly 
discussed the situation with P. ... As I under- 
stand that the only point of dispute is as to the land 
question, I do hope that you will use all your influ- 
ence to have this difficulty removed, and I say this 
as one who is quite as anxious for the settlement as 
you are yourself. ... Of course I can qnite 
understand a feeling of impatience on the part of O. 
and his friends, and Gk)d knows you have special 
reason for impatience, but so much is at stake and 
we have approached so near an agreement that it 
would be horrible if a break came now. All the 
influence that Harrington, Clancy and I possess is 
being used in season and out of it in the right direc- 
tion, and we are all quite impressed with the belief 
in P.'s bona fides, and that the demand he is making 
comes from his natural desire to use the opportunity 
to get as good a bargain as possible — but there are 
other influences amongst his friends besides ours, as 
you must know, and I most earnestly beg of you to 
leave no stone unturned to bring about the small 
further concession which is alone needful now to 
put us all in accord. . . • . Before the final word 
is said P. will have a meeting of his supporters. ^ I 
need, I thirk, scarcely tell you that you may count 
on my continued assistance — whatever it is worth. ' " 

On February 9, when the negotiations were prac- 
tically over. Mr. Redmond wrote to Mr. O'Brien : 

'* * 1 am afraid John's interview with P. at Calais 
had a very bad effect and accounts for much of recent 
events. Ever since P. has been saying if you were 
to be the leader, as he originally strongly urged, the 
difficulties would be very small. 1 wish to Gtod this 
could be so. I well know John (Dillon) would not 
be the one to object.' " 



MR. SMALLEY ON ENGLISH SOCIETY. 

IN the January Harper's Mr. George W. Smalley 
att/Cmpts to explain to Americans the meaning 
of society in England, the social distinctions which 
• mark off the body which may come more especially 
under that name, and what these distinctions are 
based on. 

WEALTH IS NO OPEN SESAME. 

There are few truisms which are more thoroughly 
trusted than that which states that ** money will do 
anything," and it would be difficult to find an 
American who would consider that, with an unlim 
ited amoimt of money, he could not attain any of 
the social circles in London that he might desire. 
Mr. Smalley, however, denies this popular supposi- 
tion that the mere possession of riches is any pass- 
port. He says: 

** Walking one day. early in my London expe- 
riences, with Mr. Kinglake, through a well-known 
quarter of the far West End of London, 1 asked him 
who lived in a certain house. * I do not know,' he 
answered, adding, in his reflective way : * Nothing 
in London is more remarkable than such a district 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



7» 



as this. For the last half hour we have been wan- 
dering among honses the possession of which implies 
wealth. Yon conld not live in such a house for less 
than $5,000 or $10,000 a year—often more— and not a 
single person you ever saw or heard of lives in any 
one of them. ' They have a society of their own, but it 
is not society. They are important persons in the 
city or in whatever department of business or in- 
dustry they belong to And the chances are that 
London sees their names for the first time when they 
die and their wills are published in an illustrated 
weekly paper, with the amounts of their fortunes." 

KOT EVEN RANK OPENS THE DOOR. 

'' The same may be said, and will seem, perhaps, 
still more surprising, of literature, art. science. No 
ofne of these by itself and of itself is a guarantee of 
social admissibility. Nor is rank. 1 have found it 
more difficult to persuade people of this last than of 
my other negative proposition about English society. 
A notion has prevailed in America that the peerage is 
of itself the GJoldai Book in which are writ the names 
of the elect. Wealth and rank— those are the two 
trne tests or true certificates of position. But they are 
not There are scores and scores of peers and many 
hondreds of the possessors of lesser titles who are 
onknown in London society. If you read — and a 
good many i)eople do read— the lists published of 
guests at smart parties and weddings, their names 
never appear. The people themselves never ap- 
pear. They have their own place, and perhaps 
ft high place, in the scheme of things, but it is 
not this place. Sometimes they do not care for 
society; sometimes society does not care for them. 
It is no reproach to either, and it may be well to say, 
ODce for all, that in anything I have to allege on 
these often delicate matters I mean no reproach or 
criticism upon anything or anybody. I have no other 
lim than to describe things as they are. ** 

WHAT SOCIETY DOES WANT. 

Mr. Smalley informs us that what society does 
yearn after is not mere wealth nor mere artistic or 
scientific distinction, nor mere rank, but for a re- 
torn for the attention which it may bestow upon an 
mdividuaL This return may not take the form of 
reciprocity in hospitality at all. Indeed there are 
Tftst numbers of people who are invited to dine with 
great regularity without ever inviting any one to 
dine with them. But when some one out of society 
is ** taken up " for one of these reasons of wealth, 
dii^tiiiction or rank, primarily he or she inust give a 
retnm in brilliant conversation or in fine manners, 
f^r in beauty, or in a perfect adaptability to the man- 
ners of the beau monde. 

MARLAOEOUGH HOUSE AND BUCKINGHAM PALACE. 

** If it be possible to generalize on such a matter, 
what is now called society in London is made up of 
iets or separate coteries, each a society in itself, and 
ill together combining into one very loosely organ- 



ized whole. At the head of all these, from a purely 
fashionable point of view, is the Marlborough 
House set, meaning the Prince and Princeas of 
Wales and their friends and associates. It is not 
necessary to speak of the Queen, because the Queen 
withdrew from society on the death of the Prinoe 
Consort, and has never returned to it. Nor need the 
court, properly so called, be considered. Drawing* 
rooms and levees are held regularly, and it is stiU 
considered that a presentation at court is a certifi- 
cate of social admissibility. The number of presen- 
tations is, however, very large, and is regulated upon 
principles very different from those which society 
adopts as tests or standards of admission to any of 
its many cliques. To be excluded from court would 
be, as a rule, a disqualification for the best or smart- 
est society. Even to this rule there are brilliant 
exceptions. The Queen holds views on certain 
points of morals and conduct much stricter than 
those which prevail in Mayf air and Belgravia. It 
may seem a social paradox, but it is tlie fact, and a 
fact familiar to everybody in London, that exclusion 
from court does not necessarily mean exclusion from 
the Marlborough House set The Prince of Wales 
is, in the good sense, a law unto himself, and the 
laws which he enacts for his own court are much 
less Draconian than those which regulate entrances 
into Buckingham Palace, or even to the levees which 
the Prince holds at St. James's Palace by the Queem^s 
command, and subject to the regulations framed by 
her own officials— presentations at levees held by 
the Prince being considered and announced as equiv- 
alent to presentations to her Majesty 



MR. MACDOWELL: A GREAT AMERICAN 
COMPOSER. 

IN the January Century there is an appreciative 
sketch of the young American composer, K A. 
MacDowell, written by the well-known musical 
critic, Mr. Henry T. Finck. Mr. Finck thinks that 
there was a considerable shifting of the musical cen- 
tre of our country when Mr. MacDowell was only a 
few months ago brought from Boston to New York 
to accept the professorship of music in Columbia 
University. Mr. MacDowell is only thirty five years 
old, and has made the most notable triumphs as a 
composer, pianist and professor of music that have 
ever come to any American hitherto. Mr. Finck 
considers the most distinguishing characteristics of 
this young composer's work to be the originality 
and imaginativeness of his work. '' Considering 
that he obtained his musical education chiefly in 
France and Germany, his compositions are as a rule 
remarkably free from definite foreign influenoes. 
except such traits as apply to music the world over; 
some of them will doubtless mark the beginning of 
a real American school of music which, like Ameri- 
can literature, will combine the best foreign traits 
with features indigenous to our soil Cosmopolitan 



80 



THE REyiElV OF REyiEl^S. 



\9m is the essence of American life, and cosmopoli- 
tanism was the keynote of Mr. MacDowelVs musical 
training." 

MacDowell was not a mnsical prodigy as a child. 
His genins was slow in developing. He went to the 
Conservatoire at Paris at the age of 15 and studied 
with the best professors of music. He went to Ger- 
many, too, and studied there. He was the favorite 
pupil of the great composer. Raff. 

Mr. Finck boldly says that as a pianist he would 
rather hear MacDowell than any professional now in 
Europe excepting Paderewski. Though MacDowell 
is a virtuoso of the highest rank, he always plays 
like a composer, putting music and emotion above 
effect and mere brilliancy of execution. 

** He has the rare gift of bringing tears to the 
listeners' eyes with a single modulation or a few 
notes of melody— a gift that is associated, in the 
minds of educated hearers, with genius only. He 
has his moods, and is very sensitive to the quality 
of his audience, playing better in proportion to the 
sympathy manifested by the hearers. Were he to 
devote himself to the piano exclusively Paderewski 
might have to look to his laurels, but his extreme 
nervousness makes him prefer composing and 
teaching." 

MACDOWELL AS A COMPOSER. 

*' Composers who are at the same time pianists 
labor under the disadvantage that their creative 
work is apt to be ignored by those who are most 
eager to applaud their playing. Paderewski and 
MacDowell are more lucky in this respect than Liszt 
and Rubinstein were at their age; the world has 
evidently learned wisdom, having found out that a 
pianist is never quite so entrancing as when he plays 
his own pieces. Mr MacDowell*s first triumph in 
New York was won in the double capacity of com- 
poser and pianist. He had been invited to play his 
second concerto with the Philharmonic Society on 
December 17. 1894. The result was a double success 
such as no American musician had ever achieved be- 
fore an American audience. The Philharmonic audi- 
ence, the most critical in the country, can be pain- 
fully cold; but the young composer -pianist received 
an ovation such as is usually accorded only to Pade- 
rewski or to a popular prima donna at the opera. The 
three most noticeable things about the concerto itself 
were that in its style and treatment of the piano it 
was as thoroughly idiomatic as if it had been written 
by Chopin, Liszt or Paderewski; that its orchestra 
tion rivaled in richness and brilliancy that of the 
greatest living foreign masters in that field — ^Dvor4k 
and Jobann Strauss, and, most important of all, that 
it is brimful of ideas such as can come only from a 
brain bom to create new ideas. I have already re- 
ferred to the rarity of * reminiscences ' in his com 
positions. MacDowell is not an erudite musician; 
he purposely avoids studying the scores of the great 
masters. He prefers to spend his time in thinking, 
and that is one reason why he is not a mere imitator 
of Chopin, Schumann, Wagner or Liszt. )ike mi>st 



young composers of the present day. Mr. Mao* 
Dowell's concertos and orchestral pieces (amonfc 
which are the symphonic poems * Hamlet and 
Ophelia,' dedicated to Sir Henry Irving: ' Lancelot 
and Elaine,' * Lamia,' 'The Saracens and Lovely 
Alda.' * In October' and two suites) have, indeed, 
been played frequently in most of the foreig^n 
musical centres and acknowledged as the best mnsic 
that has come from across the ocean, while the 
committee that offered him the professorship at 
Columbia University justly stated that they con- 
sidered him the greatest musical genius America 
has produced. Anton Seidl has declared him a 
greater composer than Brahms, and I myself am 
convinced that, with the exception of Paderewski. 
none of the young composers now in Europe holds 
out such brilliant promises of the future as Mac* 
Do well, who seems destined to place America mnsic- 
ally on a level with Europe. 

**0n January 28, 1896, the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra paid him the probably unprecedented 
honor (in the case of an American composer) of 
placing two of his longest works on the same pro 
gramme. They were the first of his concertos, writ- 
ten when he was only nineteen, and his Indian suite, 
completed at thirty-four, t-he latest of his works. 
The difference between these pieces was not as great 
as might have been expected. Indeed, this juvenile 
concerto seemed to me so finished in style and so 
ripe in harmonic treatment and modulation that I 
suspected it must have been retouched. I found, 
hoi^ever, that with the exception of a few lines near 
the beginning of the first movement the score was 
exactly as it had been printed originally." 



THE MODERN DEPARTMENT STORE. 

THE January Scribner's opens with the first of a 
series of articles on ** The Conduct of Great 
Businesses," this one being a description of the actd v 
ities and importance of a metropolitan department 
store. Mr. Samuel H. Adams has found out an im 
mense deal of information, some of it very pictur- 
esque, in his researches among these huge bazaars. 
He says that not only have department stores taken 
the placf^ of large numbers of jobbers and retail 
dealers, but in the further concentration of indus- 
trial interests they have in some cases begun to 
manufacture for themselves. 

** Still, the department store idea is by no means a 
new one, nor has it reached in this country its high- 
est development. The gpreat establishment in Paris, 
still pre eminent of its kind, started in the smallest 
way in 1852, to-day transacts a total business of 
180,000.000, or more than twice that of any American 
retail establishment. The greatest advance has been 
made since it has become strictly cooperative. Not 
a franc's worth of its stock is held outside of the 
people in the store, and the leadership of the busi- 
ness is invested in three persons selected from the 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



81 



heftdfl of departments by the vote of the employees 
(i.e.. shareholders) throngh an election held every 
three years. The cash paid to stockholders in their 
annual dividends amonnts to about 5 per cent, of the 
total sales, setting aside suitable sums for contin- 
gencies. As the captal stock is but $4,000,000, an 
annua) dividend of a million and a half represents 
the great yearly profit of 40 per cent, on the capital*' 

THE XAOKITTTDB OP THEIR OPERATIONS. 

'* With us the department stores have advanced 
fortunately in both the quality of the goods sold and 
the amount of the sales. The business of several 
amounts annually to from $7,500,000 to $15,000,000, 
and this, roughly speaking, is as much money as 
many a prosperous railway one thousand miles long 
handles in a twelvemonth. One great store in the 
West carries a rent account of almost, if not quite. 
$400,000 a year; the mailorder business of another 
amounts to $900,000 a year ; a numoer of houses send 
to the homes of their customers more than twenty 
thousand packages in a single day, while perhaps as 
many more are carried away in the hands of the 
shoppers. In the busiest days quite one hundred 
thousand persons have visited each of the very larg- 
est stores of New York, Philadelphia, Chicago and 
Brooklyn; one firm spends more than $800,000 a 
rear advertising, and single departments in several 
fTores sell more than $2,000,000 worth of goods 
annually.'* 

THE DEPARTMENTAL SYSTEM. 

The different departments of a great retail bazaar, 
which sells everything from orchestrions to tooth 
brushes, instruction on the bicycle and the latest 
patent liniments, which takes photographs, supports 
hothouses and maintains restaurants under the same 
roof, are very distinctively marked out. and there 
is considerable rivalry between them. The head of a 
firm which owns a great department store must be 
an excellent judge of men in order to select compe- 
tent managers for the individual departments. It 
is impossible that any one head could have an inti- 
mate knowledge of all the technicalities of such a 
vast business. The buyer of an individual depart- 
ment is a very important man. Sometimes he has a 
large salary and a percentage of the profits of his 
department For instance, some of them have 
$10,000 a year and an interest which brings a total 
income up to $80,000 a year. Under the manager of 
the department is the superintendent, who may get 
^o much as $5,000 a year, and who is often a woman. 
The work inside the department in selling and tak- 
ing care of goods is conducted by a small army under 
the Buperintendent The floor walker gets from $15 
to $40 a week, and the clerks get from $8 to $15 a 
week, according to the grade of the store. Some of 
the stores employ twenty-five hundred sales people in 
the holiday season. Mr. Adams tells us that the 
mechanical carriers which shoot our cash to the desk 
of the cashier will soon do away with the cash boys 
and girls, as the automatic arrangement is much 
<-hf^peT and quicker. 



SOME FIGURES IN THE BUSINESS. 

" No other business that is conducted under one 
roof equals the department store in magnitude of 
detail. Take for instance the case of one of the 
giants of the species. It employs from thirty- five 
hundred to five thousand persons, according to the 
season. In a year it does nearly $10,000,000 of busi- 
ness. Its largest individual sale last year was an 
orchestrion for $4,500 and its smallest a patent 
clothes-pin for 1 cent During the holiday rush 
there were several days when its gross receipts ran 
over $100,000. It has more than seventy depart- 
ments To he9t it one hundred miles of steam pipe 
are required, and the electric light plant would 
adequately equip a small city. It represents a rental 
of nearly $800,000 a year, and at a conservative esti- 
mate the daily expenses of the store are $5,000. 
When it is considered that this enormous sum is 
made up from the profits of sales for the most part 
in small parcels, one gets an inkling of the infinite 
care in details and the perfection of system which 
go to make such enterprises as largely profitable as 
they are. A man who has himself conducted 
one of these businesses recently made this state- 
ment: 

** ' The profits of the department store are repre- 
sented by the cash discounts on its biUa* 

** That is, the big store, by virtue of its quick re- 
turns, is able to pay cash for purchases instead of 
buying on long time; and as it is well known that 5 
per cent is a high average discount we have an 
index as to the yearly profits if this staikement, which 
has been several times verified, is exact.'' 

One of the most valuable parts of Mr. Adams* 
article is his account of the reforms which have been 
made in the management of department stores. 

** From time to time the practices and methods of 
one or another of the gpreat stores have been made 
the subject of leg^islative inquiry, but Invariably 
with unimportant results. And now a powerful 
organization has been formed in New York by some 
thirty or forty of the big stores for mutual supi)ort 
and protection. Representing, as it does, more than 
fifty millions of capital, it is a formidable combina- 
tion; and, while its object is not definitely so stated, 
there is no doubt but that it will oppose with all its 
strength any legislation looking toward an inter- 
ference with the business. 

'* Public opinion has been brought to bear upon 
the management of the department store. The Con- 
sumers* League of New York has been organized, 
with the object of compelling the stores to treat 
their employees equitably. It fights for light airy 
rooms, seats for the salespeople, reform in the sys- 
tem of fines, vacations with pay and recompense 
for overtime. Such stores as live up to the principles 
set down by the Leaguers are put on the ' White 
List* The members of the League do their shop- 
ping in the listed stores^ This League has set forth 
what it calls a * Standard of a Fair House,* as 
follows : 



^ k. 



82 



THE REk'/ElV OF REl^/EiyS. 



'* A fair house is one in which equal pay is given 
for work of equal value irrespective of sex. In the 
departments where women only are employed in 
which the minimum wages are $6 per week for ex- 
perienced adult workers, and fall in few instances 
below $8. 

** In which wages are paid by the week. 

** In which fines, if imposed, are paid into a fund 
for the benefit of the employees. 

** In which the minimum wages of cash girls are 
|2 per week, with the same conditions regarding 
weekly payments and fines.'' 

HOURS. 

*' A fair house is one in which the hours from 8 
a.m. to 6 p.m. (with three-quarters of an hour for 
lunch) constitute the working day, and a general 
half holiday is given on one day of each week during 
at least two summer months. 

*' In which a vacation of not less than one week 
with pay during the summer season is given. 

*• In which all overtime is compensated for.'* 

PHYSICAL CONDITIONS. 

** A fair house is one in which work, lunch and 
retiring rooms are apart from each other, and con- 
form in all respects to the present sanitary laws. 

**ln which the present law regarding the provid- 
ing of seats for saleswomen is observed and the use 
of seats permitted." 

OTHER CONDITIONS. 

**A fair house is one in which humane and con- 
siderate behavior is the rule. 

** In which fidelity and length of service meet with 
the consideration which is their due. 

** In which no children under fourteen years of 
age are employed." 



POSTAL SAVINGS BANKS. 

AVERY full account of the various postal sav- 
ings bank systems of the world is presented 
by Mr. E. T. Heyn in the Annals of the American 
Academy of Political and Social Science. 

Mr. Heyn argues that the establishment of a sys- 
tem of banking in connection with our American 
postal service, by affording a place of safe deposit 
for small earnings, would stimulate the twelve 
million wage- workers of the land to habits of thrift. 

" Second, since there are seventy millions of peo- 
ple in this country, and since each one on the aver- 
age has ten dollars hoarded, there is the immense 
sum of seven hundred million dollars which is abso- 
lutely retired from circulation. The country is 
crippled thereby, through a scarcity of money, 
which might be restored to active circulation by 
means of a postal savings department. 

"Third, there would pA)bably be at least one 
thousand millions of dollars deposited by the people 
inside of two years, which, if used to retire govern- 



ment bonds, would cause the debt of the country to 
be held by its own citizens and relieve the country 
from the financial control of foreign money lenders. 

** Fourth, the moral tone of the citizens of the 
country would be elevated and their independence^ 
increased by the fact of having money on deposit, 
and the credit and stability of the government 
would be firmly defended by all having deposits- 
with the banks from the additional incentive of 
self-interest" 

Mr. Heyn cites the experiehce of England, Can- 
ada, the British colonies, Austria, Hungary, France, 
Sweden, the Netherlands, Prussia. Italy and other 
countries which are maintaining postal savings 
banks successfully. Besides the United States, Ger- 
many and Switzerland are alone among the leading 
countries in refusing to introduce such banks. 

Among the advantages which Mr. Heyn thinka 
would follow the establishment of postal savings 
banks by the United States, he dwells upon the 
resulting convenience in small towns and villages 
where private savings banks do not exist, and also 
on the necessity for greater security to depositors 
than is generally afforded by private banks. 



CAN SCIENCE DISPEL FOGS? 

IN the January Harper's Professor Alexander Mc- 
Adie has an exceedingly interesting brief paper 
on **Fog Possibilities," in which he broaches the 
question whether we can learn by scientific means to 
dispel fog. He tells us that fogs may form in three dif- 
ferent ways— first, when the air has been cooled by 
rapid radiation, second, where the cooling results 
from a mixture of different air currents, and third» 
where a cooling has been caused by an uplifting of 
the air. The sea fogs come from an emphatic 
difference between the temperatures of the water 
and air. Coast fogs are formed when inflowing 
moist air from the sea passes over a chilled land or 
are formed at sea during the prevalence of some 
great area of high pressure. Mr. McAdie tells ua 
that " in California, last year, a large amount of fruit 
was saved by foUowing certain * fog building ' meth- 
ods. Mr. W. H. Hammon of the United States- 
Weather Bureau pointed out to the fruit growera 
the five essential ways of preventing frost: First, 
by diminishing the radiation; second, by increasing 
the moisture in the air and raising the dew point:, 
third, by adding heat to the air; fourth, by remov- 
ing the cold air— actually drawing it off, and fifth, 
by mixing the air and removing the cold air from 
the ground. Smudge fires are based upon the first 
method, and are fairly effective; but the great im- 
provement consists in the introduction of large 
amounts of moisture in the vaporous state. When 
this vapor condenses, or, in other words, when the 
fog forms an enormous amount of heat is given off. 
generally at the very height at which it is most 
needed. Fog and frost both occur when the skies 
are clear and little or no air is stirring. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



85 



School ftt Pf Ota. There he spent six years, shining 
in classics, **an imbecile in mathematics," impas- 
sioned with music. Reserve, reverie, depression, 
grew npon him. At twenty, in 1864, Nietzsche 
went to Bonn University, ending his school tasks 
with a panegyric upon the tyrant Theognis, having 
already chosen "the nnpopnlar anti-Liberal and 
Napoleonic** sida He soon withdrew from the 
wild student life into solitude, began to prepare for 
a clericyman*8 lot, investigated the Christian origins, 
and. under the shock of Biblical criticism, ended by 
ceasing to be a Christian. 

A GERMAN CARLTLB. 

After two years at Bonn he studied a year at 
Leipzig, where he discovered the works of Schopen- 
hauer, who thenceforth became his master in 
thov^^ht, as Emerson, singularly enough, was chosen 
for his master in style. An accident as cavalry con- 
script next year freed him from military service, 
though he afterward served in the Franco-German 
War, and in 1868 he was appointed Professor of 
Classics at Basel His first work was published in 
187S— " The Birth of Tragedy from the Spirit of 
Music.*' In this he copied the Romantic School — 
Heine, Wagner and Schopenhauer. Dionysius was 
to him the spirit of ecstasy—" the will to live ** — 
and Apollo the lord of measure, which together 
made Greece the creative spring of highest Ufa 
His earlier essays in substance and in form remind 
the reviewer of Carlyle. He was still " a hopeful 
BouL'* He then saw in Wagner, whom he after- 
ward renounced, a return of Dionysius— of the spirit 
of exuberant life triumphant over philosophic ab- 
itracticms. 

THE OPEN-AIR ALPINE DREAMER. 

After his *' Joyful Science,*' recounting his pil- 
grimage of soul between 1876 and 1881, " Nietz8he*s 
style had gained ; but his thoughts became inco- 
hmnt He never afterward wrote a connected book 
or attempted in his compositions a logical order. 
From boyhood delighting in the sun, he would now 
hre. BO Ua as possible, 9ub divo, under the open sky, 
and by preference in the lofty Swiss vales of the 
Engadine. At Sils Maria, from which many of his 
pagee are dated, he pitched his nomad's tent during 
the years when, released from professorial duties, he 
ooold indulge without check the illusions that beset 
kinu" 

In 1881*' the first flash** of the idea of "Eternal 
Becurrence ** came to him, and led to the com- 
BflDcement of ''Thus Spake Zarathustra *' two 
yean later. He wrote on until 1888. Next year 
his reason gave way, and he is now buried without 
hope of recovery in a madhouse at Naumborg. 

"THE WILL TO POWER."— THE "OVERMAN." 

Ot^ his gospel the reviewer gives a substantial if 
somewhat decently veUed account Kant's criti- 
dmn of the pure reason Nietzsche extends to the 
practical reason. Schopenhauer's " Will to live ** 
he derelops into '* Will to power." '* Biankind has 



one supreme task —not a moral duty, but a phjrsio- 
logical necessity— to produce the ' overman.* ** 

Sympathy is ** the slave morality, the system of 
the herd, on which democracy is founded.** ** The 
will to power, the sacriOce of the multitude to some 
few sovereign spirits,** that is Nietzsche's principle. 

THE JEWISH PROPHETS AND THEIR *' SERVILE TRIBES.*' 

His tract, ** Beyond Qood and Evil," is to the 
reviewer " Darwin made consistent with himself, or. 
physiology the test of morals." Huxley's contrast 
of ethics and cosmic struggle is, says Nietzsche, 
Christian doctrine, not scienca ** Sympathy is sur- 
render, Christianity decadence." To Nietzsche the 
dominant note of ^evolution is ** conquest ; " and 
** in the long run the individual conquers for him- 
self." 

'* This enthusiast for systems discredited in our 
day would bring back an aristocracy of blood to 
withstand universal sufi^aga True, he holds a 
patent for genius, whencesoever sprung ; but genius 
will make its own way, provided that the multitude 
of hoofed animals be not allowed to trample it down. 
The * herd ' is the danger. * Equal before Gk)d,' the 
old Christian watchword, has now become ' Equal 
before the mob.' They, shrinking and cowering in 
their misery while the conqueror smote or plun- 
dered them, first found out the word * pity ; * they 
made it a god and expanded it into a religion. The 
prophets of Israel, for example— have not they lifted 
up their voices against pride, power, luxury, art and 
war, ' calumniating all these things as " the world," 
and calling them evil?' That servile tribe, the 
Jews, with their millenniums of peace and the lion 
lying down with the lamb, it was they, surely, that 
taught men to look on pain, inflicted or endured, as 
the chief curse of humanity. Their nioral law may 
be summed up in the one commandment, ' Be kind ' 
The high races of the world painted on their 
escutcheon a very unlike commandment^* Be 
noble.' ** 

Neitzsche glorifies Comte. His Zarathustra may 
be termed "the Bible of Positivism.'* This Zara- 
thustra is ** the Mohammed of Darwinism,*' prophet 
of the overman to come when religion shall have 
passed away with every bondage, such as coptract. 
law, marriage, honesty, which checks delight, and 
** Free Death *' as well as Free Love shall reign. 



Rev. F. W. Newland, writing from ten years' 
experience in East London, emphasizes the value of 
small settlements. The tendency is to grow in size 
until ** Toynbee Hall, for example, has become a 
mammoth institution." But the fundamental con- 
ception is that of men and women living quiet 
brotherly lives among their fellows^not that of a 
polytechnic. In his opinion, ** the final and most 
fruitful form of settlement work will be found in 
small communities of workers, closely associated 
with the life of the churches in the districts occu- 
pied, and in continual touch with suburban congre> 
gations." 



86 



THE REVIEW OF REI^IEU^'S, 



IS MANKIND PROGRESSING? 

THIS large question is investigated by Elis^e 
Reclus in the long and thooghtful paper 
which opens this month's Contemporary, The 
writer begins by defining what he means by prog- 
ress: 

** Whether progress brings happiness or not. it 
ought above all to be understood as a complete 
. development of the individual, comprehending the 
improvement of the physical being in strength, 
beauty, grace, longevity, material enrichment and 
increase of knowledge— in fine, the perfecting of 
character, the becoming more noble, more generous 
and more devoted. So considered, the progress of 
the individual is identified with that of society, 
united more and more intimately in a powerful 
solidarity. " 

THE BUSS OP THE SAVAGE. 

He next considers the condition of primitive or 
savage peoples, and compares it with that of civil- 
ized nations. He points out that the former is sim- 
ple and consequently readily coherent and conform- 
able to its ideal ; while the latter is, though immense 
in range and infinitely superior in the forces at 
work, yet incoherent and inconsistent. Thus the 
simple Negritos are superior to us in goodness, just 
ice, reverence, truth, and are absolutely devoted to 
the common interest The Atleutians are much 
more highly civilized, with knowledge of art and 
science, yet show similar innocence, remaining in a 
state of peace and perfect social equilibrium. 

** It is, then, established by the observation of 
facts and the study of history that many tribes, so 
far as the material satisfactions of life go, arrive at 
a state of perfect solidarity, both by the common 
enjoyment of the products of the earth and by an 
equitable distribution of resources in case of dearth. 
. . . Community of work and of life carries with 
it a sense of distributive justice, perfect mutual 
respect, a wonderful delicacy of feeling, a refined 
politeness in words and in acts, a practice of hospi- 
tality which goes as far as the complete abnegation 
of self and the abandonment of personal property. 

. . . The man in a state more nearly approach- 
ing nature than the civilized man also possesses an- 
other immense advantage. He is more intimately 
acquainted with the animals and the plants, with 
the powerful scent of the earth, and the gentle or 
terrible phenomena of the elements. ... He 
feels in perfect unity with all that which surrounds 
him, and of which, in his way, he comprehends the 
life as if all things moved with a rhythm which he 
himself obeyed." 

THE WOES OF THE CFVIUZED. 

The advance toward civilization involves the de- 
struction of the isolation which makes this social 
and natural unity easily posf^ible and the integra- 
tion of smaller into larger groups. But ** no union, 
pacific or forced, of two ethnical groups, can be 



accomplished without progress being accompanied 
by at least a partial regress. ' ' The centre of gravity 
is displaced ; a new organism replaces the old ; in- 
dustries and habits are altered, and the evolution of 
structure must recommence. Hence the worse inci- 
dents appear in our own civilization than are found 
in the savage state. 

POUR IMMENSE GAINS. 

These, then, are the losses of the human move 
ment hitherto. What are the gains? M. Reclus 
answers: Firstly, humanity has arrived at self con 
sciousness. The habitable and navigable surface of 
the earth is completely explored. Travel, coloniza- 
tion and trade have *' made man the citizen of the 
planet'* The whole world watches the human 
drama as its centre shifts year by year or period by 
period. Secondly, as geography conquers space, 
history has conquered time. The race is unifying 
itself in point of duration as of extension. Thirdly, 
we have the prodigious development of modem in- 
dustry due to science and invention ; and, fourthly, 
there is the intellectual advance seen in our analysis 
and synthesis of nature and mind ; '* psychology has 
become an exact science.** 

APPROACHma THE CAPITAL PROBLEM. 

M. Reclus now moves to his main question. 

**Thus admirably furnished with tools by its 
progress in the knowledge of space and of time, of 
the intimate nature of things and of man himself, 
is mankind at the present time prepared to approach 
the capital problem of its eidstence, the realization 
of a collective ideal ? Certainly. The work, if not 
of assimilation, At least of appropriation of the 
earth, is nearly terminated, to the profit of the 
nations called civilized, who have become by this 
very fact the nurses and educators of the world ; 
there are no longer any barbarians to conquer, and 
consequently the directing classes will soon be with- 
out the resource of employing abroad their surplus 
national energy.'* 

THE TWO FIRST DUTIES. 

The internal problems will come to the front 
The first is that of bread for all ; the second is edu- 
cation for all, or bread for the mind. These once 
solved, not in the present beggarly manner, ** the 
sense of justice being satisfied by the participation 
of all in the material and inteUectual possessions of 
humanity, there would come to every man a singu- 
lar lightening of conscience,** the sense of cruel 
inequality being a poison in the cup of all human 
joy. 

THE REDEMPTION OP THE BODY. 

** If ever— and it appears to lie in the path of evo- 
lution—if ever the great organism of mankind learns 
to do what social organisms of not very large dimen- 
sions did and are doing — that is to say, if it complies 
with these twa» duties, not to let any one die of 
hunger or stagnate in ignorance— it will then be 
possible to attempt the realization of another ideal. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



87 



inrluch also is already pnrsned by an ever-increasing 
number of indiyidoals — ^the ideal of reconquering 
from the past all that we have lost, and becoming 
again equal in force, in agility, in skill, in health 
and in beauty with the finest, strongest and most 
skillful men who have ever lived before us.*' 

M. Reclus observes that '* those of our young peo- 
ple who are brought under very good hygienic con- 
ditions and undergo physical training grow in form 
and strength equaling the most handsome savages," 
while far surpassing them in intelligence ; and con- 
cludes that man need not become ** only an enormous 
brain swathed in wraps to keep him from taking 
cold.'* 

A NEW •* RETURN TO NATURE." 

The modem man may also reconquer the real inti- 
mate comprehension of nature which the savage 
enjoys ; he can re-enter the primitive cradle, relish- 
ing more keenly the return to the kindly maternal 
earth because of the light shed over it by science. 

** Complete union of lilan with Nature can only be 
effected by the destruction of the frontiers between 
castes as well as between peoples. Forsaking old 
conventions, it is necessary that every individual 
should be able, in all brotherliness, to address him- 
self to any one of his equals and to talk freely of all 
that interests him. 

*' Has humanity made real progress in this way ? 
It would be absurd to deny it. That which one 
calls * the democratic tide ' is nothing else but this 
growing sentiment of equality between the repre- 
sentatives of the different castes, until recently hos- 
tile one to the other. Under a thousand apparent 
changes in the surface, the work is being accom- 
plished in the depths of the nations." 

So M. Reclus answers his question with a compre- 
hensive aflftrmative, ** Humanity has really pro 
gressed from crisis to crisis and from relapse to 
relapse, since the beginning of those millions of 
years which constitute the short conscious period of 
our life. " 



A TALK WITH DR. NANSEN. 

ALL Europe, and particularly England, has for 
weeks been ringing with the praises of Nan- 
sen. In the Strand Magazine for January J. 
Arthur Bain records a recent conversation with the 
interpid Norseman. 

"THIRTEEN" A LUCKY NUMBER? 

It Tvill be remembered that there were thirteen 
men in Nansen's crew. This is what the explorer 
f!ays with reference to the popular superstition con- 
cemhig that number : 

'* It certainly was a lucky number for us. None 
of my men were ill at any stage of the voyage, none 
of them gave me a moment^s anxiety ; besides, 1 
arrived home on August 13. 1896, and it was upon 
the 18th (August, *9G) that my ship escaped from 



the clutches of the ice. So, you see, thirteen has no 
perils forme." 

The thirteenth man. it seems, joined the crew at the 
very last moment, and has always shown a strong 
aversion to having his photograph taken. While 
consenting to be one of a group made up of the 
whole crew for the purpose of a photograph, this 
thirteenth man did his best to prevent the photogra- 
pher from securing his features. 

NANSEN'S BOOK. 

"In response to further questions Dr. Nansen 
said he was busily occupied in writing an account 
of the voyage, which would be issued in parts in 
Norway. The earlier numbers would be published 
before Christmas, but it would not be completed 
before the spring ('97), and an English translation 
could hardly be ready before 1897 had advanced 
some distance. The scientific results are to be pub- 
lished separately in Norwegian and English by the 
Norwegian government, but as they are to be thor- 
oughly edited by specialists, it may be two or even 
three years before they are issued from the press. I 
hinted to the doctor that his popular account of the 
journey was awaited with great interest in England, 
and would doubtless prove a financial success, to 
which he replied, with a smile : * I hope so ; yes, I 
hope so.' " 

PLANS FOR THE FUTURE. 

** * What will become of the Fram f ' I asked the 
doctor. 

** * She will probably be kept at Horten. I may 
require her again soon, and cannot possibly have a 
better ship for Arctic or Antarctic work. ' 

" * Will you again attempt to reach the North 
Pole ? ' I queried. 

** * I cannot possibly say yet.' he replied ; * I think 
so. But perhaps I shall endeavor to discover the 
South Pole first, then make a renewed attack on the 
North Pole on my return from Antarctic regions. 
I must, however, finish my work in connection with 
the records of my recent expedition before making 
definite plans for another voyage.' " 

SCIENTIFIC RESULTS. 

** ' In what did your scientific work consist ? ' I 
asked. 

'* ' That requires a little consideration.* said the 
doctor ; then, after a pause : ' It consisted of exact 
observations, and my expedition will be chiefly a 
gain to meteorology and oceanography. We had to 
take magnetic and meteorological observations on 
sea and land, when we found any land. We had to 
observe the temperature of the ocean at all depths 
and seasons of the year, to sound, trawl and dredge, 
and to study the character and distribution of ma- 
rine organism. Yes, I hope our expedition will 
enrich the records of astronomy, geology, botany 
and kindred subjects. During the whole drift I 
spent most of my time in taking a series of exact 
observations in the above subjects, but I was ably 



88 



THE REk'IEW OF REVIEWS. 



seconded in the work by Lieutenant Scott Hansen 
and Dr. Blessing, and when I left the Pram the 
former took charge of the scientific work. The 
depth of the sea along the track of the ship ranged 
between 2,000 and 2,500 fathoms. The lowest tem- 
perature observed on the Fram was 62 degrees below 
zero (Fahr.), testifying to the theory that the coldest 
spots on earth are south of the Polar circle.' 

** Dr. Nansen added that his favorite subject was 
biology, which he studied earnestly during the first 
series of Arctic voyages, for he loved science first 
and exploration second. He did not, however, have 
much chance of biological research during the 
recent voyage." 

Mr. Bain very properly calls attention to the fact 
that Dr. Nansen did not set out to discover the Pole, 
but rather to explore the Polar basin, as he shows 
by ample quotations from Nansen's addresses in 1892 
and 1898. 

'* Bearing this in mind, it is impossible to pro- 
nounce the expedition a failure, even if there were 
no other discovery than that of the deep sea in the 
Polar regions." 



THE ELECTRIC EYE. 
Going One Better Than Rontgen. 

MRS. M. GRIFFITH heads her lively paper in 
Pearson's, ** An Electric Eye ; the Marvellous 
Discovery of an Eastern Professor Which Distances 
the R6ntgen Rays as They Distance Photography." 
The Eastern professor is Jagadis' Chunder Bose, 
M.A. (Cantab) and D.Sc. (London), professor at 
the Calcutta Presidency College, from whom these 
words are quoted : 

** We hear little and see still less. Our range of 
perception of sound extends through only eleven 
octaves; there are many notes which we cannot 
hear. Our range of vision is still more limited; a 
single octave of ethereal note is all that is visible to 
us The lights we see are few, but the invisible 
lights are many. ' ' 

He has discovered that these invisible lights pene- 
trate earth, wood, pitch, brick, granite, and still 
retain their active properties. These electric waves 
have different angles of refraction for different bod- 
ies , and by discerning their refractive angle we 
have a test of the genuineness of the substance 
through which they pass. 

** The great difficulty in these investigations was 
the detection of the invisible light. It was neces- 
sary to perfect an artificial * electric eye ' that could 
see the invisible. The electrical eye is worked on 
somewhat similar principles to the real eye : there 
is a sensitive layer on which the invisible light fall 
ing gives rise to an electric impulse, which is car- 
ried by conducting wire and produces a twitching 
motion to a part corresponding to the brain. This 
movement is made manifest by the magnified mo- 
tion of a spot of light reflected from the moving 



part It is wonderful to watch the movement of 
this spot of light in response to the invisible light 
acting in the artificial eye." 

This invention has, besides its critical value, a 
practical value of a wide range. 

" Again, for signaling pmposes at sea, these ether 
waves have a tremendous future before them. At 
present there is no light which is powerful enough to 
penetrate a thick fog on a stormy sea to any dis 
tance, but rig up an electric generator on the light- 
house which can flash the ether waves through the 
fog as easily as the sun's rays can pierce a clear 
atmosphere, and we see the possibilities of electric 
waves. 

** Every ship must be provided with an electric 
eye, and as it comes within the sphere of influence 
of the ether waves from the electric lighthouse the 
* eye * will * see * the invisible light and the captain 
of the ship will realize his dangerous position." 

Such a discovery seems to come fitly enough from 
the East and from the land of the Mahatmas. 



POST-ELECTION REFLECTIONS, 

THE December reviews, both English and Ameri- 
can, give considerable space to analjrtic 
risumis of the recent election, as well as to fore- 
casts of probable results. 

The National Review, whose editor, Mr. L. J. 
Maxse, crossed the Atlantic in order to see what an 
American presidential election was like, and ^ho 
followed the fortunes of Mr. Bryan in the latter 
weeks of the campaign very closely, gives more at 
tention to the prospects of the silver jwirty than seems 
worth while to the other British reviews (The 
National Review, it will be remembered, is enthusi- 
astically devoted to the cause of bimetallism.) 

Mr. Maxse, writing from Denver ten days after 
the election, deplores the hysterical arraignment of 
Bryan Democrats as ** anarchists." 

*' Owing tc four years of terrible depression there 
are many tens of thousands of men out of work in 
Chicago, and the suffering is fearful. The city con- 
tains a great foreign population, with many unpleas- 
ant elements, and Mr. Bryan's visit could not have 
passed off without riot, as it did, had he made 
revolutionary or incendiary speeches. No fair 
minded man could read his si)eeches and call him a 
Jacobin, and he is one the greatest enemies of an 
archy in the United States, and any anarchic 
manifestation would have been the greatest enemy 
of his propoganda. His strength is due to his sin- 
cere and disinterested belief in his platform, the 
principle plank of which expresses the general 
American opinion that the gold standard is a cruel, 
unjust and ruinous burden on the nation, and de- 
clares further that the only prospect of obtaining 
bimetalism is for the United States to lead the 
way. Mr. Bryan may overrate the ability of his 
country to maintain a ratio, but Europe might be 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



89 



forced into co-operation were free coinage instituted 
in the United States. It is a difficult question, 
affording room for honest difference of opinion. 
How either party to the controversy can be fairly 
compared to French Ilevolutionaries one is at a loss 
to understand.'* 

Nevertbelees, Mr. Mazse admits that the appeal 
of the Republicans to the American love of order, 
ud their success in representing their opponents 
as the enemies of this sentiment, made thousands 
of McKinley votes. The victory was also very 
largely due, Mr. Maxse says, to another excellent 
American sentiment, namely, a love of honesty. 
'* A party boldly claiming an ethical i)osition, and 
coming a covering catchword, wins half the battle 
with Uie American public.'* 

The Case of Governor Altgeld. 
The National Review also presents an elaborate 
character sketch and defense of Governor Altgeld 
of Illinois, who has been held up to the British 
pablic. as well as to the American, as the arch 
enemy of civic peace and righteousness in the recent 
campaign. The sketch was written by the able and 
Ter»tile editor of the Chicago Dial, Mr. Francis 
F. Browne, the sanity of whose judgments is usu- 
al] j nnqestioned, and this is what gives the article 
itB importance. 

FOB FREE SILVER AND NO COMPROMISB. 

As a matter of fact GK>vemor Altgeld drew fire 
not because he was so bad, but because he'was so 
powerful. Mr. Browne says : 

*'Prom the very opening of the convention its 
leader a|id dominating spirit was John P. Altgeld, 
Governor of Illinois. He was the brain and will of 
the convention as Bryan was— very literally— its 
Toice. Bryan*s nomination was in the nature of an 
accident ; Altgeld*s leadership was inevitable from 
Ids position and his personal qualities-— from his 
abilities, his courage, and his practical political 
sagacity. Even before the convention assembled 
be had done more than any other man to forecast 
iu character, to create the situation and shape the 
i«nies which were there developed. In a speech of 
great power, delivered on one of the ojiening days 
of the convention, before the adoption of a plat- 
fonn or balloting for a candidate for the presidency, 
he bad defined the issue and sounded the keynote 
of the coming struggle. The issue was ' Free 
SOrer * and the keynote was * No compromise. * ** 

ALTQKLD*8 CAREER. 

As a Chicago lawyer Altgeld became known for 
the articles he contributed to leading reviews and 
magazines, and also attained some reputation as a 
speaker. 

'• Shortly after this he was elected a judge of one 
of our county courts, and served upon the bench 
with credit, as I understood from members of the 
bar. Daring this period he wrote and spoke much 
on topics of general public interest, and also began 
taking a practical part in politics. In 1892 he was 



nominated by the Democratic Party as Gfovemor 
of Illinois, and was elected by a substantial ma 
jority. His ofiScial and public acts since that time 
are matters of record and of history. I have under- 
stood that in the fifteen or twenty years preceding 
his election as judge he had accumulated a fortune 
of half a million or a million dollars. He had come 
to Chicago a poor boy. I think from some town or 
village in Ohio (he was bom in Germany), and 
after a hard struggle with poverty he was admitted 
to the bar. where he worked his way to a lucrative 
law practice. The most of his fortune, however, 
was made by lucky investments in real estate. His 
operations, it was said, were marked by a far seeing 
sagacity, an unsparing analysis of all the factors 
of a situation and a boldness that seemed bordering 
on recklessness in carrying his plans into execution. 
He bought outlying tracts of land and subdivided 
them for the market ; he mortgaged his land and 
erected business blocks and rows of houses, which 
he sold at a profit. He appeared to take heavy 
chances, but the results usually sustained his judg- 
ment. These personal details would scarcely well 
call for mention here were they not significant in 
illustrating the practical side of Governor Altgeld's 
character, and in showing something of the activities 
and vicissitudes of his career. He is yet. I believe, 
but about fifty years of age. In appearance he is 
rather above medium height, of well developed fig> 
ure. and hair and beard untouched with gray. His 
manners are dignified, and his face is at once strong 
and refined— in fact, he is one whose presence would 
attract attention in any comi>any of distinguished 
men. Something in his expression, and in his care- 
less manner of allowing his hair to fall over his 
forehead, marks him peculiarly as the caricaturists* 
prey.** 

HIS RECORD AS GOVERNOR. 

Of Governor Altgeld*8 r6le as Governor of Illinois 
Mr. Browne speaks well. He says : 

** The two most noteworthy events in Governor 
Altgeld's official career, and those with which 
his name is conspicuously connected, are the 
* pardon of the anarchists * and the acts in connec- 
tion with the labor riots in Chicago in 1894 The 
former made him probably the most hated man in 
America ; the latter raised an issue that stirred the 
whole country, that was carried into the national 
platform of a great party, and has been made a 
prominent feature of a great national campaign. 
Mr. Altgeld had been Governor for something ovei 
a year. and. as far as I recall, had won good opin 
ions from the people by his faithful administration 
of their affairs. He had shown zeal and energy 
and high executive ability ; progressive and scien- 
tific methods had been introduced into the manage- 
ment of public institutions , the educational inter- 
ests of the State had received careful attention ; 
measures for humane and philanthropic work — as 
the factory laws for the protection of childem— had 
found in him an earnest and efficient supj)orter.** 



9(> 



THE REI//EIV OF REI^IEIVS. 



A STRONQ MAN. 

Mr. Browne enters into detail to explain how it 
i^as his pardon of the anarchists created so much 
feeling in Chicago, and also sets forth clearly and 
lucidly what Governor Altgeld did during the Pull- 
man strike. He says : 

"The current misconception of him and of his 
acts would be grotesque were it less pernicious. 
Trained in the knowledge and practice of the law, 
with a strict regard for the observance of legal 
forms and requirements, he has yet been success- 
fully represented as the friend of lawlessness. An 
individualist in standpoint and opinion— one who, 
his mind once fixed, would hold his course indiffer- 
ent to the current of the hour— he is yet depicted 
as a demagogue, notwithstanding that his most im- 
I>ortant acts have been done in the very teeth of 
public sentiment. With that readiness to impute 
low aims and motives which is a curse of party j)oli- 
tics, it was said that he * truckled to the lower 
classes,* that his object was to * catch the labor 
vote ; ' yet when occasion arose, as it did in con 
nection with the labor contracts of the State Peni- 
tentiary, he antagonized the labor unions as un- 
hesitatingly as he had antagonized the newspapers 
and so-called * better elements ' of society. It is 
easy to see that such a man must have a rocky 
path ; and he has had it, and has held his course in 
it. The man who can do this unmoved and unde- 
terred by the disapproval and denunciation of his 
fellows must be either very strong or very dull ; 
and the bitterest enemies of Governor Altgeld have 
never called him dulL " 

Senator Chandler on Bimetallism. 

Senator Chandler of New Hampshire cautions 
European bimetallists against accepting the Bryan 
programme as an effort to secure bimetallism. The 
election of McKinley, he says, does not mean the 
permanent accession of the United States to the 
gold standard. 

** The Bryan proposition was soon seen by the 
American voters to be simply that the United States 
should risk silver monometallism, should give up 
all present attempts to keep gold and silver at a 
parity, should send gold to a premium, and thereby 
make it merchandise merely, and should base all 
American prices upon silver only. It can hardly be 
considered, upon reflection, by any true bimetallist 
that such action on our part would have helped the 
cause of bimetallism in any country in the world." 

Senator Chandler refuses to believe that the late 
decision of the United States against the immediate 
free coinage can affect the contest for bimetallism, 
of which he is an ardant advocate. 

** That the United States is opposed to the single 
gold standard, and is in favor of retracing in due 
course and with careful regard to the national 
honor the steps taken in the demonetization of 
silver, until both gold and silver shall be admitted 
to free coinage at the ratio of 16)^ to 1 and made 



the standard money of the world and the measure- 
ment of the values of the world, is a proi>osition 
which would receive the suffrages of four fifths of 
our voters, if this proi)osition alone could be fairly 
presented to them, even without further debate. 
They have sufficiently informed themselves to be 
lieve that the quantity of real money, and not the 
money which must be redeemed in some other 
money, determines the prices of the world's com- 
modities, that the demonetization of half the world*s 
real money is slowly reducing prices and crushing 
debtors, and that the use of only gold as money of 
final redemption is placing the great instrument of 
exchange in commerce upon such a narrow basis 
that the present depression in production and trade 
will continue, with occasional and temporary reac- 
tions, for an indefinite period, and with manifold 
evils to the human race the world over." 

Shall We Have Freer Trade? 

Mr. F. H. Hardy writes on the *' Lessons from 
the American Election " in the Fortnightly Review 
for December. The following are his conclusions : 

** Three lessons of deep import and wide interest 
may be drawn from the recent contest. 

** First, the * masses ' in both Europe and Amer- 
ica are less i)oisoned with class hatred than the 
anarchist or socialist would have us believe. 

*' Second, a great nation over sea has awak- 
ened to the fact that national independence must 
not blind them to the interdependence of nineteenth 
century commercial life ; that they must realize 
that hurt to one member of the family of nations 
brings in time injury to all. 

** Third, that a vote is not prized by the class of 
citizen best fitted to exercise the franchise, and, as 
a necessary consequence, good citizens must be 
driven to the polls by a political 'machine,' con- 
trolled by * prof essiomd ' politicians. 

** As touching exclusively the life of the Republic 
I think the election has done great good. It has 
started the sluggard into a new conception of his 
duties as a citizen. There is another fruit of this 
cam];>aign which works for better commercial rela- 
tions between the two English speaking nations. 
And it is simply this. We have found Engl&nd 
right, ourselves wrong, on a great economic ques- 
tion. We now see that England's repeated warn- 
ings as to the result of currency tinkering had 
sound basis in truth. A very natural sequence of 
this common view on currency matters will be a 
new disposition to give careful, open minded study 
to English views on free trade. The average 
American has no false shame to prevent a complete 
volte face, if once convinced he has misread the 
signs of the times ; consequently this new light on 
English ideas and policy is certain to play in the 
near future a very important part in shaping pub- 
lic sentiment. The McKinley-Bryan campaign 
opened under the influence of a most bitter anti- 
English feeling, to which thousands surrendered 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



91 



their judgment. That campaign has closed, 1 
firmly believe, with the American i>eople entertain- 
ing a higher regard for English opinion than was 
erer entertained before ; consequently there now 
exists a firmer basis for international friendship.*' 

Mr. Hardy somewhat paradoxically maintains 
that the election of the man whose name is a syn- 
onym for a high tariff marks a long step forward in 
the direction of a freer trade with the outside 
world. Americans, he thinks, have at last learned 
the fallacy of the idea that it is to a man*s interest 
that his customers should not be prosperous. 

The Issue for lOOO. 

Mr. G. W Steevens, writing in Blackwood on ** The 
Presidential Election as I Saw It, '' explains the result 
by saying. ** Business spoke and the nation obeyed.*' 
He predicts that the battle will have to be fought 
over again in 1900. The economic issue will not 
change as a purely political one would. The cam- 
paign of 1900 will be a '* war against the trusts." 
He advisee the United States to cleanse itself from 
corruption and greed, and to cultivate a middle 
class. For, he concludes : 

** If this memorable election means anything, it 
means the opening of the assault of povery and dis- 
content upon the dominion of riches. Masquerad- 
ing to-day behind a vain and trivial irrelevancy, it 
yet shows its black and vengeful face under the 
mask. To-morrow it will rush to the onslaught 
stark and hideous and very wicked, but with much 
wickedness to avenge.** 

Mr. Bryan*s Own Views. 

In the North American Review the Hon. W. J. 
Bryan replies to the query, '* Has the Election Set- ' 
tied the Money Question ? *' The more interesting 
portions of his article are those which reveal Mr. 
Bryan*6 estimate of the anti-silver strength in the 
Democratic i>arty. Of the disadvantages under 
which the silver campaign was fought he says : 

*• Until the Democratic National Convention 
adopted an emphatic declaration in favor of free 
coinage at 16 to 1 our side of the question had few 
defenders in the Eastern States. After the con- 
vention adjourned the Democratic party in the East 
was reorganized, new men were placed in control 
and the work of education was commenced. The 
result, instead of being discouraging, is full of en- 
couragement. When before has a great cause made 
such rapid progress in so short a time as bimetal- 
lism has made in the Eastern States? When has 
more real heroism been displayed than has been 
displayed there this year ? If any one thinks that 
the fight for bimetallism is over, let him ask him- 
self when a single defeat ever disheartened such 
men as those who have this year advocated free, 
unlimited and independent coinage. When men's 
convictions are so strong that they wiU face politi- 
cal defeat without flinching, defy financial despot- 
ism and risk social ostracism in behalf of a cause 
they do not surrender because they lose one battle. 



'* It must be remembered further that we fought 
against great odds in the Middle States also. The 
Democratic party in Wisconsin and Minnesota de- 
clared against silver in the conventions which sent 
delegates to Chicago. In Michigan the convention 
was nearly equally divided on the money question, 
and there was a bitter contest within the party in 
Iowa. Indiana and Ohio. In Illinois we were at a 
great disadvantage because the influence of the 
Chicago press was thrown almost entirely against 
free coinage, and this influence pervaded nearly all 
the States of the Upper Mississippi Valley.*' 

The gold Democrats, Mr. Bryan says, cannot do 
as much harm to the cause of silver in 1900 as they 
did in 1896. 

*' During the last three months the gold Demo- 
crats have gone up and down the land loudly declar- 
ing their affection for Democratic principles, while 
they have striven to undo all that Jefferson and 
Jackson labored to accomplish ; and in order to give 
a touch of humor to their campaign they prefixed 
the word * National * to the word ' Democrat/ al- 
though they neither expected nor desired their ticket 
to carry a single county in the entire nation. They 
used their party organization for the purpose of 
misleading others, while they themselves spared no 
effort to secure the success of the Republican ticket 
They cannot disguise themselves again." 

In conclusion Mr. Bryan says : 

" The contest for financial independence will go 
on. * An American financial policy for the Ameri- 
can people ' will still be the motto of those who 
have in this campaign advocated the free coinage 
of silver on equal terms with gold. We entered the 
contest with a disorganized army ; we emerge from 
it a united and disciplined force without the loss of 
a soldier. We are ready for another contest. We 
shall watch legislation, discuss every movement 
made by the enemy and keep before the public the 
principles for which we contend We believe that 
we are right, and believing that right will finally 
triumph, we face the future firm in the belief that 
bimetallism will be restored" 

A Suggestion from Ex-Presldent White. 

In the Forum ex-President Andrew D. White 
writes on *' Some Practical Lessons of the Recent 
Campaign." He caUs attention to the fact that the 
victory for sound money was won in those States 
in which education is best developed and most 
widely diffused 

** Never was there a time when our great univer- 
sities and colleges were exercising so strong and 
healthful an influence upon the country, and es- 
pecially upon public life, as now. In the middle 
years of this century a comparatively small propor- 
tion of the men entering public service came from 
these institutions ; now the proportion is much 
greater and is steadily increasing. In those years 
two or three hundred students constituted a very 
large institution of learning ; now several of our 



92 



THE REyiElV OF REI^IEIVS. 



universities have ten times these numbers, and each 
year sees an ever increasing body of active minded 
young men seeking their advanta^ee. In the con- 
test just ended they have done nobly. Their facul 
ties almost unanimously and their students by 
vast majorities have been on the side of right reason 
and well regulated liberty. Among hardly any 
other bodies of men has there been such an earnest 
unanimity. These, then, are fortresses to be 
strengthened. 

** Twenty years ago I urged the necessity of creat- 
ing departments of history and political and social 
science in all such institutions, in order to fit young 
men for public life in general and especially to en- 
able them to gn*applo ^^^ the more and more com- 
plicated social and political problems rising before 
us. By several of our universities this has been 
done, and every close observer must have noticed, 
during the recent struggle, that with hardly an ex- 
ception every such institution has been a centre of 
the best influences, that from each has radiated 
light ui)on the great questions at issue, and that 
from their training have gone forth men who as a 
rule have done admirable work through the press 
and upon the platform." 

SCHOOLB OP POLITICS, 

" The training of our best and brightest young 
men in political history, comparative legislation, 
and in the group of studies comprehended under 
the term ' social and political science,' promises to 
be of vast use to our country. Such training is a 
trying need, not only for the national legislature, 
but for the state, county, city and village legisla- 
tures. Studies in finance, in general administra- 
tion, in comparative legislation, in international 
law, in the best methods of public instruction and 
the most approved dealings with pauperism, in- 
sanity, inebriety, crime and the like— all these come 
within the scope of such departments as should be 
fully established and equipped in our universities 
and colleges. Let w;ealthy and patriotic men con- 
sider this. How can they better hand down an hon- 
orable name to posterity ? How can they better 
serve the country which they love ? *' 

Will Government by the People Endure ? 

Quite in contrast with President White's hopeful 
tone is the note of despondency which characterizes 
Mr. David MacGregor Means' article in the same 
number of the Forum. 

*' Unless some check can be put upon our abuse of 
government the peril through which we have just 
passed will recur. If the conservative party insists 
on the issue of money by the government the 
radical party will demand the same right If laws 
are passed for the profit of the intelligent and 
wealthy classes, the poor and ignorant will demand 
laws in their favor. If Congress can impair the 
obligation of contracts by making government paper 
a legal tender it can certainly make silver a legal 



tender. We may be able to bring a majority of the 
people at recurring presidential elections to declare 
in favor of maintaining the national credit, the in- 
violability of contracts and the preservation of 
property. But we can scarcely endure to have 
such matters as these subjected to repeated ques- 
tion. Civilization will not survive -it. They are 
not matters that should be debated by the legisla 
ture. They ought never to be disturbed. But so 
long as we encourage the idea that poverty can be 
removed by legislation, and that government is an 
omnipotent power, capable of removing inequalities 
of fortune and of enriching its subjects, the multi- 
tude will assuredly look to the government as a 
savior, and struggle to secure its control. Pen- 
sions, protective taxes, silver bounties and g^-een- 
backs may seem desirable things to * respectable * 
citizens so long as their party is in power. Are 
they prepared to have the principle of these things 
carried out by the party of Tillman and Altgeld and 
Bryan ? If not, let them seize the present oppor- 
tunity to effect reforms that, by limiting the powers 
of our present rulers, shall restrain the excesses of 
their possible successors." 

Qoldwin Smith on the Situation. 

The views expressed by Mr. Means seem to be 
shared by Prof. Gk)ldwin Smith in a sombre article 
on ** The Brewing of the Storm." 

*' It seems to be truly said also that the paternal- 
ism involved in protection has had its effect in 
breeding among populists and socialists a tendency 
to invoke state aid contrary to the fundamental idea 
of the American commonwealth. A manufacturing 
company which is receiving a 4i'ridend of 10 per 
cent, demands, and uses its influence in Congress to 
obtain state protection against free competition. 
How can its members consistently preach individual 
independence -to the populist who wants the state 
to provide him with a market for his grain, or to a 
socialist mechanic who wants the State to assure 
him a full wage for a reduced day's work Y That 
the state can create prosperity by legislation is 
the fallacy against which, when it appears in the 
guise of socialism or populism, protectionist capital 
fights, but upon which its own theory is in fact 
built. 

** In truth there has been so much of late to stir up 
just feeling among the people against the legis- 
lature, the leaders of commerce, the commercial 
system generally, and the heads of society, that had 
Mr. Bryan's movement confined itself to the attack 
of abuses, instead of assailing national credit and the 
fundamental principles of the American common- 
wealth, one who relied on the essential soundness 
and the recuperative forces of the commonwealth 
might also have looked with complacency on this 
insurrection as a tornado which would purify the 
air. Nothing less than a tornado is likely to reach 
the consciences of railway wreckers and sugar 
trusts." 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



»3 



SCHOOLS OF POLITICAL SCIENCE. 

THE editors of the Yale Review, recalling the 
fact that a generation ago advanced stndentB 
in political science almost necessarily tnmed to 
Qermany for their university courses, proceed to 
show that the situation to-day is very different 

*' Not to speak of the opportunities for such study 
in the United States, which are in some measure 
familiar to our readers, nor of the development of 
economic teaching in Austria and in Italy, we find 
a really impressive development of economic teach- 
ing in Paris, and a still more recent one in London 
which bids fair to prove equally important. 

'* The 6eol€ Libre des Sciences PoHtiques in Paris 
is just beginning its twenty- sixth year. It is 
' free * not in the sense of being gratuitous, but in 
the sense of being independent. It was organized 
by a group of men, prominent among whom have 
been Boutmy and Levasseur, who felt that the gov- 
ernment (university) instruction in political science 
was very unsatisfactory, and that a better system 
could be devised by private Initiative. So well 
groonded did this expectation prove that after the 
lapse of some years it became proverbial that candi- 
dates educated in the government schools could 
hardly hope to pass ihe government examination 
with credit enough to obtain desirable positions ; 
and that for success in entering the civil service a 
man must seek his education in the independent 
achool rather than in the regular ones. So conspic- 
uous did this fact become that the government was 
at length glad to recognize the .^2e 2>t6re as form- 
ing a part of the national system of instruction 
available for the community, and without in any 
wiie depriving the directors of that school of their 
independetnce, to allow studies pursued therein to 
be readOy combined with those preparatory to the 
doctorate of laws. 

•* The variety of opportunities for study is much 
greater than that which any German university 
offers in these subjects. We find courses on com- 
liarative Civil Legislation, on (Geography and Eth- 
nography, on Diplomatic History of Europe since 
1799 (Sorel), on Political History of the last twenty 
years (A. Leroy-Beaulieu), on European Constitu- 
tional History since 1789 (Lebon), on History of 
Political Ideas for the last two centuries, on Inter- 
national Law, public and private, on Military 
Geography, on the Eastern Question, on Colonitd 
Policy, on Aoministrative Law (two courses), on 
Finance (four distinct courses), on Political Econo- 
my (Cheysson). on Commercial G^graphy (Levas- 
•eor and de Foville), on Railroad Legislation, on 
Foreign Trade, on Banking (R. G. L6vy), on Labor 
Legislation (Poulet). on Public Hygiene and Public 
Works, and on Agricultural Questions — not to speak 
of a number of minor courses and of conferences. 

LONDON'S NEW SCHOOL. 

" The London School of Economics and Political 
Sdaiee is very much newer, not having been really 



organized until October, 1896. But under the effi- 
cient management of its director, Mr. Hewins, it 
numbered one hundred regular students, besides 
twice as many more who availed themselves of cer- 
tain of its lecture courses. The choice of studies 
would hardly be inferior to that which it oflfers for 
the coming year at Paris, were it not that the Lon- 
don courses in specific subjects are in many in- 
stances very short-— only extending through a small 
I)art of the year. 

'* In Economics, there is a regular three years* 
course in theory and history. Besides this, there 
are special lecture courses on the Mercantile System 
(Hewins), on Trades Unions (Sidney Webb), on the 
Economic History of London under the Common- 
wealth (Hewins), and on the Economic Bargain 
(Hobson). On statistics there is class instruction by 
Bowles and others, and lectures on Life Tables by 
Edgeworth. There is a class in PalsBography and 
Diplomatics (Hubert Hall) ; courses of lectures on 
Railway Legislation (Acworth), Banking and Cur- 
rency (Foxwell), Commercial Law (Barlow), Com- 
mercial Geography (Mackinder) and Commercial 
History (Hewins). In Political Science we find 
courses— either classes or lectures— on Local Gov- 
ernment, the (jK>vemment of London, Local Taxa- 
tion, the English Civil Service, Factory Legislation, 
the Growth of Political Theory (L. G. Hobhouse), 
Political Ideals of the Seveneenth Century, and the 
European Concert 

*' If opportunities like this can be given, we may 
hope that the London school has before it a career 
no lees brilliant and useful than that of its older 
rival in Paris.*' 



THE INTERNATIONAL SILVER SITUATION. 

THE opening article of the current number of 
the Quarterly Journal of Economics, by Prof. 
F. W. Taussig, begins with a significant admission 
concerning the prospects of international bimetal- 
lism, which have been often described as hopeless. 
Professor Taussig is himself a monometallist, and 
probably represents in his views on silver the senti- 
ment of most American college and university in- 
structors in economics. Contrary to the frequent 
assertions of the New York Evening Post and Na- 
tion, however, Professor Taussig acknowledges the 
existence of a strong party on the other side of the 
question. 

*' At the outset it must be readily admitted that on 
the subject of bimetallism in its international as- 
pects there is a great divergence of opinion among 
those competent to form a judgment Whether 
among the professed students and teachers of eco- 
nomics or among observant and well-informed men 
of affairs, it cannot be said that the weight of au- 
thority is all on one side. A poll of the economists 
would probably show a majority for the principle 
of international bimetallism and a very strong vote 



94 



THE REyiElV OF RE^IEiyS. 



in favor of some specific mode of patting it into 
effect. Among men of affairs in the United States 
the fears and suspicions aroused by the cry for in- 
dependent free silver have indeed caused a natural 
swing to the other extreme, and a feeling in favor 
of an unqualified and uncompromising gold stand- 
ard. Yet the advocacy of international bimetal 
lism by both political parties in this country, though 
doubtless due in good degree to the desire of polit- 
ical managers to conciliate the silver vote, indicates 
a general admission that this proposal is consistent 
with the principles of a sound currency. In Eu- 
ropean countries, and markedly in England, the 
permanent retention of the gold standard by all the 
great countries is by no means an article of uni- 
versal faith in the business world, and oertainly is 
less so now than it may have been ten or fifteen 
years ago." 



THE ETHICS OF STOCK WATERING. 

THE current number of the Annals of the 
American Academy of Political and Social 
Science contains a paper by T. C. Frenyear on the 
evils connected with the practice of watering cor- 
poration stock. 

This writer is disposed to concede the great value 
to any undertaking of certain contributions not in 
tangible property or cash, and he holds that this 
value should be recognized by capitalists, by the 
public, and in legislation. 

THK PBOJECTOR'S CLAIMS. 

The inventor, the artist, the composer, and the 
author, each receives some protection in the enjoy- 
ment of property rights in his own creations from 
the government 

*' The man who conceives and plans a great busi- 
ness undertaking is no less a creator, a genius ; but 
his rewards, though usually ample, must be secured 
in a more or less illegitimate way, even under 
existing statutes ; while his success in selling his 
capitalized creation incites a cry for more strenu 
ous, if not prohibitive, legislation. 

'* The conception, the originating, the org^anizing 
of an enterprise is the fundamental element of value 
in it. Without that element energy is misdirected 
or lies dormant ; capital is non- productive, and the 
people are without some means of employment, of 
economy, of development, of comfort, or of enjoy- 
ment, which otherwise they might possess. 

** To urge that many enterprises are conceived 
which bring no profit to those concerned in them 
nor benefit to the people, serves only to enhance the 
value of that creative element in any successful 
enterprise. If a man is so fortunate as to combine 
in himself all the necessary elements for a business 
undertaking, this paper would have only a theore.t- 
ical interest, as to what proportions of his profits 
should be credited to ingenuity, to push, to capital, 
etc. In a partnership the problem is comparatively 



simple, for the valuation of each man*s contribution 
to the firm is purely a matter of mutual agree- 
ment ; but when, on account of the nature or of the 
magnitude of the operations contemplated, or for 
any other reason, the corporate form is adopted, the 
state steps in and attempts to define the kind of 
property which may be valued in determining the 
capitalization of the enterprise. The corporation is 
a creature of the state, and the state has an unques- 
tioned legal right to place upon corporations any 
limitation whatever. But such legislation on the 
subject as now prevails in many states breeds cor- 
ruption and perjury, and would, if enforced, stifle 
many of the most widely beneficial undertakings. 
But existing legislation and the more stringent 
measures advocated in some quarters are to be 
opposed not so much for these reasons as for their 
injustice, in that such legislation attempts to de- 
prive those contributions to an enterprise which are 
in any other form than material wealth of all inter- 
est in it. 

THE "PROMOTKB'S" SHARE. 

'* Next to the fundamental creative element in 
any business undertaking is that element which 
compels the issue conceived ; energy, persistence^ 
' push.^ The most brilliant and the most workable 
plan may amount to no more than a dream, without 
push ; capital may rot, and men may starve. The 
energy that executes the brilliant and far-reaching 
conception is not justly repaid in day wages any 
more than the genius which created it. He who 
takes the ideas of a genius, worthless as ideas, clothes 
them with outward form and makes them effective ; 
he who takes the gold of the capitalist and gives to 
it a productive power ; he who takes the strong and 
willing laborer and directs his work in more health- 
ful and profitable channels, is entitled to no mean 
share in the benefits brought about through his 
efforts. 

**The industrial history of the past fifty years 
records many cases of large risks taken through 
which the world has greatly benefited, even though 
the risk takers may have fared but ilL It is safe to 
say that, if that quality of mind which is willing to 
take risks were entirely eliminated from society, 
and all the other qualities which give value to an 
undertaking, such as genius, push, labor, capital,, 
were retained, the increase of productiveness would 
be immeasurably retarded, and ere long we might 
find ourselves in an era of industrial retrogression 
instead of progress. 

THE VALUE OF RISK. 

*' It is perhaps harder to arrive at a proper valua- 
tion of this element than of the others entering into 
a business ; risk taking may be rashness, and its 
value then better represented by a minus quantity ; 
and even when coupled with the greatest shrewd- 
ness loss many result The first difficulty is elimi- 
nated by the consideration that the difference in 
value between a good risk and a bad risk is quantita 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



m 



Mit, in the same way that judgment is a quantitative 
factor in the value of genius or of push. As to the 
second difficulty, the possibility of a losing issue 
from a good risk is the very thing which enhances 
the value of the risk taking ; the value of this qual- 
ity varies directly with the chance of loss. 

" This consideration suggests the justice of safe- 
guarding the interests of investors by affording 
them information as to the exact nature of the risk 
proposed, so that the possibility of loss may not be 
shifted from the shoulders of risk-takers to inno- 
cent inveetors, intending a less risk. 

** The discussion of other elements or qualities of 
value in a business undertaking, such as experience, 
acquaintance, and many personal qualities, offers an 
inviting field ; but its bearing would be on the just 
vahiatioii of a person^s services to any one of sev 
aral businesses rather than on the proper valuation 
of one*8 contribution to a special new enterprise.'* 

These considerations suggest, then, a threefold 
division of the profits of an enterprise. One portion 
is due to the person or persons who conceive the 
imdertaking ; another portion to those who organize 
and carry out the conception, and another portion, 
over and above a legitimate rate of interest on in- 
vestments, to the men who take risk by furnishing 
the necessary capital to start the business. These 
earningB, moreover, are wholly distinct from sala- 
ries or wages. 

FAULTY LEGISLATION. 

Mr. Frenyear admits that at present there is over- 
capitalization to an enormous extent, *'so that in 
many cases the entire capital stock does not repre- 
sent any investment of tangible property, nor any 
fair valuation of other contributions to the enter- 
prise.'* Nevertheless, he contends that the theory 
on which most of the curative legislation is based^ 
that nothing but money or its equivalent in tangible 
property can properly form a basis for capitaliza- 
tion—is essentially unjust 

'* The promoter will not work for nothing ; the 
lire business genius who can plan and execute 
great enterprises and bring them to a successful 
iasoe, circtmivents the law. if necessary, in order to 
get his by no means small reward ; the capitalist 
who embarks in an undertaking involving great 
risk must see a correspondingly great reward if the 
venture prove successful" 

OORPOBATION COMMISSIONERS. 

Mr. Frenyear recommends the establishment of 
State Boards of Corporation Commissioners empow- 
ered to make an apportionment of the securities of 
anew corporation to the different interests involved, 
after a hearing of the parties, or to review and pass 
upon any apportionment made by mutual agreement 
of the parties themselves. 

*• In any event the consideration for which securi- 
ties are issued should be a matter of public record. 
Legislation, and the rulings of such a commission, 
diould (permit the issue of securities for cash at less 



than their par value, the price to be determined, or 
approved, by the commission, in inverse proportion 
to the risk involved in the purchase of the securi- 
ties." 



MR. KIPLING AS A POET. 

IT has been only six years since Mr. Eipling*a 
" Plain Tales From the Hills " brought him 
into fame and into the front rank of English story 
writers. Since then volumes of verse have come 
from his pen and have been variously commented 
upon, and this year sees the publication of his ** The 
Seven Seas." There are a great many people, and 
some very good critics, too, who, while admitting 
Mr. Kipling's brilliancy and mastery of certain 
phases of the poet's art, deny his title to a place 
among the Majores. — which makes it interesting to 
find such an emphatic opinion as is expressed in a 
careful review by Professor Charles Eliot Norton 
in the January Atlantic Monthly, In Professor Nor- 
ton's first paragraph he characterizes Mr. Kipling^ 
as " a novel i)oetic spirit, as genuine as any that has 
moulded English verse." Professor Norton can 
use the phrase ** from Chaucer to Rudyard Eip- 
Hng " without offending his conscience at alL He 
thinks that those half mystifying, wholly haunting 
scraps of verse prefixed to many of the Indian 
stories should have told all that their writer was at 
least j)otentially a poet, ** not by virtue of fantasy 
alone, but also by his mastery of lyrical versifica- 
tion." 

A NOTABLE ADDITION TO ENGLISH VEBSB. 

Prof. Norton says : *" The Seven Seas ' containa 
a notable addition to the small treasury of enduring^ 
English verse, an addition sufficient to establish 
Mr. Kipling's right to take place in the honorable 
body of those English poets who have done Eng- 
land service in strengthening the foundations of 
her infiuence and of her fame." The dominant 
tone of this verse is patriotic in its widest, noblest 
and best sense. But the patriotic principle never, 
no matter how dominant it is, obscures the tone of 
actual life seen by the imagination intensely and 
comprehensively, and seen by it also in all condi- 
tions and under all forms as a moral experience, 
with the consequences resulting from good or evil 
use of it. 

TO BE SURE. MR. KIPLING IS BROAD. 

It must be confessed that there are some of these 
rattling, tremendous verses that offend the taste 
**by coarseness insufficiently redeemed byhumor^ 
or by suggestions of virtue obscured by vulgarity. '* 

'* And yet, in condemning these few pieces, and 
in regretting th«ir association with nobler work, I 
am reminded of a sentence in the Apologie of 
Poetrie of Sir John Harington, printed in the year 
1591, which runs as foUows : * But this 1 say, and 
I think I say truly, that there are many good lee- 
sons to be learned out of these poems, many goo<) 



96 



THE REyiElV OF REyiEWS. 



uses to be had of them, and that, therefore, they 
are not. nor ought not to be, despised by the wiser 
sort; but so to be studied and employed as was in- 
tended by the writiBr and deviser thereof, which is 
to soften and polish the hard and roagh disposition 
of men. and make them capable of virtue and good 
discipline.' 

THE DULL EYED MAN VS. THE POET. 

** But the interested reader of Mr. Kipling's verse 
will not fail to note that almost from the beginning 
there were indications of his being possessed by the 
spirit which, whether it be called realist or idealist, 
sees things as they are ; delights in their aspect ; 
finds the shows of the earth good, yet recognizes 
that they are all but veils, concealments, and sug- 
gestions of the things better than themselves, of 
ideals always to be striven after, never to be at- 
tained. The dull-eyed man finds life dull and the 
earth unpoetic. He is McAndrew's * damned ij jit ' 
who asks. ' Mr. McAndews, don't you think steam 
spoils romance at sea ? ' But the poet finds today 
as entertaining as any day that ever dawned, and 
man's life as interesting and as romantic as it 
ever was in old times. Yet he is not satisfied ; he 
reveals this human life to himself as well as to his 
fellows ; he gives to it its form of beauty ; but for 
himself there is a something for which he longs, 
which he seeks for, and which always eludes hinL 

MR. KIPUNO AS IDEALIST. 

It is his beloved, it is his ideal ; it is what Mr. 
Kipling, in one of his most beautiful poems, and 
one in which he gives expression to his deepest 
self, calls the Ti*ue Romance. This poem begins : 

* Thy face is far from this our war, 
Our call and counter-cry, 
I shall not find Thee quick and kind, 

Nor know Thee tilll die : 
Enough for Ine in dreams to see 

And touch Thy garments' hem : 
Thy feet have trod so near to (Jod 
I may not follow them.' 

It is this poem which more than any other gives 
the key to the interpretation of Mr. Kipling's work 
in general, and displays its controlling aim. And 
more than this, it gives assurance of better work to 
come than any which Mr. Kipling has yet achieved. 
For as with every man who holds to a high ideal, 
pursuing it steadily, each step is a step in advance, 
so is it with the poet. The imag^ination, if it be a 
genuine faculty, and not a mere quality, is not to 
be worn out and exhausted by use. Nay, rather, 
it grows stronger .with exercise ; it is constantly 
quickened by each new exi)erience ; its insight be- 
comes deeper and more keen. It is the poets in 
whom imagination is a secondary quality who, as 
they grow old, fail to equal their youthful selves. 
But the poets whose imagination is the essence of 
their being lose nothing, but gain always with ad- 
vance of years. They are the real idealists." 



THE SO-CALLED CALIFORNIA " DIGGERS." 

AN interesting account of the Indian tribes of 
Northern California known as ** Diggers " is 
contributed to Appleton's Popular Science Monthly, 
by Mabel L. Miller. These tribes, says this writer, 
have been considered the lowest type of California 
Indians, but by force of changed environment the 
few remaining are giving up their wild ways and 
adopting civilization and even Christianity. 

** They have always been misunderstood and often 
misjudged: the very name * Digger,' by which 
these Indians are known, is a misnomer and a term 
of reproach, which they have always resented. It 
is of uncertain origin. Old settlers say that they 
did not hear the name until some time after the 
year 1841, when it was first used by an abandoned 
type of white men in allusion to the Indian custom 
of digging caniass root, for food. Immigrants be- 
came familiar with the name, and the appel- 
lation soon spread. Without doubt the name orig- 
inated in the Rocky Mountains ; there might have 
been a band or village of the Shoshones. or of 
some kindred tribe, that bore a name so closely 
resemblinf: the word ' digger ' as to be easily cor- 
rupted into if ' • 

THE TRIBE IS NAMELESS. 

In fact, no tribal name for these Indians has ever 
been found, despite the efforts of the Ethnological 
Bureau at Washington, and the sufficient reason for 
this lack of a tribal designation seems to lie in the 
fact that there was never a definite tribal organiza- 
tion, though 7.000 or 8.000 of them, between 1840 
and 1850. spoke a common dialect and lived in per- 
manent villages. 

" The average * Digger ' was of medium height 
and weight ; a few were short and heavy set. but 
none were tall and thin. They had low foreheads, 
flat noses, large ears and mouths, and high cheek 
bones. Many of them had almost black complex- 
ions, while others seemed to be sallow or copper- 
colored. A few had very thin mustaches, or a few 
hairs here and there on the chin which might have 
been called a beard ; the majority. hoWever. were 
smooth faced. Both tbe men and the mahalas, as 
the women were called, had very heavy hair ; old 
age did not thin it or turn it gray to any extent. A 
bald-headed Indian would have been looked upon as 
a phenomenon. 

** I saw two Indians last summer whose ages were 
given by their people as one hundred and twenty 
and one hundred and thirty years. Old settlers who 
have known of them for fifty years do not think the 
figures are much exaggerated. The wrinkles in 
their faces were so deep that the •^km fell in folds, 
and their bodies seemed to have 8J.'*niiken to one 
half their former size. They wnro k\ af. dumb, 
blind, bent, and helpless, yet th*'\r hai^ was barely 
streaked with gray, and so thicl that a comb of 
ordinary size could not be passed Mirough it" 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



97 



GOLF IN AMERICA TO DATE. 

MR. PRICE CX)LLIER. writing in Outing for 
December, reviews the progress of the game 
of golf in the United States, pointing ont several of 
the disadvantages nnder which American golf -play- 
ers labor. 

*' As is the case with other games, progress at the 
game of golf is made by constant practice, and by 
play against better men than one*s self. In America 
we are at a decided disadvantage in lacking, to some 
extent, both these aids to better play. Seven 
months* play in the year, at the most, is about all 
that we can expect in onr climate, and most of our 
greens are not in first rate condition for even that 
lengrtb of time. On the other hand, in Great Brit* 
ain and Ireland play is possible for ten months in 
the year, and in very many places ^very week in the 
year. Over a small inland course in Shropshire, for 
example, the writer has played golf every month in 
the year, though, of course, the green was not 
always in equally playable condition. 

'* Again, there are literally hosts of men across 
the water whose average play for eighteen holes is 
very little above ninety ; while here there are, at 
present writing—with the large army of exceptions 
of those who, having done one hole in four, consider 
that their average for the nine holes is therefore 
thirty-six — ^not more than thirty or forty men, all 
told, who can negotiate, with any degree of cer- 
tainty, the eighteen holes of the Shinnecock Hills 
coarse in ninety or under. When these thirty or 
forty men are spread all over the country, it is evi- 
dent that the opportunities at each club to play 
against even fairly good men are very small indeed. 
Odf is an imitative game, and not to see good play, 
and not to have the opportunity to play against 
good players, is a serious bar to progress beyond a 
certain point. One day's play agidn^^t a Hilton, or a 
John Ball, Jr., or a Tait, or a Hutchinson, is better 
than a cycle of days of play against indifferent 
golfers." 

OOLF AS A MORAL TEST. 

**The only rational sanction for sport is that it 
develops certain fine and needful qualities that are 
apt to be left in abeyance in a commercial country. 
To endure hardship, to control temper, to accept 
defeat cheerfully, never to take the smallest unfair 
advantage of your opponent, not to whine and 
excuse one*s self, to be modest when successful, and 
not to boast or brag of past, probable, possible, or 
potential, feats —all these are the possible teachings 
of h<me«t sport If, on the other hand, sport de- 
generates into the mouthings of the prize-fighter, 
into suspicion and accusation, foul play and jockey- 
ing, into love of victory at any cost, into childish 
anger and bad fellowship, then sport ceas^es to be of 
benefit either to individuals or to a nation's whole- 
some progress. Muscles are of no use in the world, 
without a head, and a heart, behind them. 

" Qolf, though not such a test of physical endur- 



ance as many other forms of sport, is a very pecul- 
iarly severe test of moral endurance and nerve. If 
it were not, it would not be worth plajring. To play 
the game, therefore, and to lose one's temper and 
self control, to wrangle with one's opponent, and to 
look for, and to snatch at, every small advantage, 
and far worse, to take the least unfair advantage, is 
to deprive the royal good game of golf of every 
attribute that makes it worth a moment's considera- 
tion. He must be but a jelly-spirited sportsman 
who does not love victory, but he is no longer a 
sportsman if he will accept victory by any but the 
squarest kind of fair play ; if he will do that, he 
becomes a mere * sport.' or 'sporting man.' who 
takes all his exercise with his pocketbook, and who 
poisons every sport in which he takes an interest 
It has been well said that there is no surer sign of 
good breeding than the way in which a man takes 
defeat and misfortune. No other game is so replete 
with unexpected accidents to one's self and nerve- 
shaking bits of good fortune to one's opponent as 
golf ; and happy is the man who learns to play it. 
and plays the game, the whole game, and nothing 
but the game." 



PRACTICAL CHRISTIANITY, 

FIVE writers participate in the Arena's sympo- 
sium on ** Practical Christianity as I Conceive 
It,*' and all seem to agree on the essentials of the 
thema 

The Rev. Edward A. Hortoa says : 

'' Practical Christianity is not only a worker in 
the ' slums '~it seeks to purify the high places of 
wealth, luxury and power. Once lodged in the zeal 
of leading spirits of all denominations its career will 
broaden. The need now is for an uprising in behalf 
of oppressed humanity. Burdens of a gnrievous kind 
are laid upon us because* of the partisanship and 
blindness of sectarian methods. Money is squan 
dered. animosities fostered, energies scattered, prog- 
ress held back, because the prosperity of a sect is 
placed above the welfare of the community. I have 
hope of better things. Slowly, but surely, the 
Christianity of the Sermon on the Mount begins to 
dawn. It differs somewhat from Paul's, from Au- 
gustine^s, from Calvin's, but it is the Christianity of 
Jesus, from whom Paul, Augustine and Calvin im- 
perfectly, though honestly, took their watchwords." 

The importance of the church as the prime chan 
nel of Christian influence is emphasized by the Rev. 
Rufns B. Tobey, who says than practical Christian 
work should center in the church and radiate from 
it 

" All honor to those churches that have grasped 
the full meaning of their mission ! But the so-called 
Institutional Church is still on trial, and will con- 
tinue to be until needless obstructions are removed. 
It will succeed when, in the spirit of the Master, it 
employs the most improved modem methods based 
upon primitive Christian principles." 



«8 



THE REyiElV OF REI^/EIVS. 



Mrs. Mary A. Livermore summarizes the aims of 
modem Christianity as follows : 

'' It urges that the disputes of nations shall be set- 
tled by international courts of arbitration, and not 
by a resort to war. It condemns the insane and 
vulgar greed for riches that actuates monopolies, 
corporations and other similar organizations, whose 
tendency is to make the rich richer and the poor 
poorer. It is diametrically opposed to the gigantic 
liquor interest, which is the prolific cause of crime, 
suicide, insanity, poverty, disease and wretchedness ; 
and it arraigns the government for its nefarious 
X)artner8hip in the sinful business by which it adds 
hundreds of millions of dollars to its treasury an- 
nually. In short, whatever in human institutions 
or human life antagonizes the golden rule or the 
Sermon on the Mount is at variance with the Chris- 
tian religion as taught, expounded and lived by its 
great founder, Jesus Christ** 

WHAT THE CHURCH MIGHT DO. 

The mission of the church is thus outlined by the 
Rev. Robert E. Bisbee : 

** I would not have the church dictate political 
creeds, nor enter into a scramble for spoils, but I 
would have it search out principles and pronounce 
upon them with no uncertain sound. I would have 
it show the way of life to earth^s toiling millions 
without waiting for a future heaven. When great 
crises arise I would have it first in the field with its 
declarations of righteousness and truth. I would 
have it show their duty to men of wealth, and be 
first in its demand for a just and, if necessary, new 
civilization. Practical Christianity means sacrifice, 
sometimes of property, often of numbers, and* these 
are too often the last things the church is willing to 
give. Because it feels itself more divine than 
humanity, its mission is a partial failure. When it 
finds itself willing to fail for Christ's sake, the true 
practical Christianity will once more revive.** 

THB USEFULNESS OF LEND ▲ HAND CLUBS. 

Dr. Edward Everett Hale contributes a character 
istic suggestion : 

** I see, as you do, with great satisfaction that 
churches, societies, guilds, orders, nowadays are not 
satisfied with mulling over the theories of people on 
the improvement of the world, but address them- 
selves directly to practical action in that way. I 
am myself convinced that a great deal more can be 
done than has generally been done in showing chil- 
dren what public spirit is and how they can live tor 
others. If you can make four or five boys who have 
joined together in a Lend a Hand Club teach a lame 
boy who is shut up for the winter how to use a jig- 
saw — that is to say, if you can organize them as a 
society for the help of others, instead of that very 
questionable organization, a Mutual Improvement 
Society— you have taken a definite step in practical 
Christianity.*' 



THE DATE OF CHRISTS BIRTH. 

ONE of the most eminent of living authorities 
on the life of Christ, Dr. Cunningham G^ikie, 
writes in the HomUetic Review on the various 
attempts to fix the exact date of the birth of the 
Messiah. 

It is clear that the received chronology of the 
Abbot Dionysius the Dwarf, which dates from the 
first half of the sixth century, must have begrun sev- 
eral years too late in fixing the birth of Christ as 
having taken place in the 754th year of Rome, since 
it is known that Herod died in 750. and Jesus must 
have been bom while Herod was still reigning. Dr. 
Q^ikie points out other fundamental errors in the 
calculations of the Abbot Dionysius. 

'' Dionysius had based his calculations on the 
mention by St. Luke that John the Baptist, who 
was a little older than Christ, began his public 
work in the fifteenth year of Tiberius, and that 
Jesus was * about thirty years old * when He began 
to teach (Luke iii 1, 23). This fifteenth year of 
Tiberius would be perhaps 782 or 783, and thirty 
deducted from this would give 752 or 758, to the lat- 
ter of which Dionysius added a year, on the sup- 
position that Luke*s expression, 'about thirty 
years,* required him to add a yeai^ But the vagae 
' about * was a weak ground on which to go, and« 
besides, the reign of Tiberius may be reckoned from 
his association in the government with Augustus, 
and thus from 765 instead of from 767. The texts 
I have quoted from St. Luke cannot, therefore, be 
used to fix either the birthday, or the month of the 
birth, or even the year. This is seen, indeed, in the 
varying opinions on all these points in the early 
church and from the fact that the 25th of December 
has been accepted as the birthdate only since the 
fourth century, when spread from Rome as that 
which was to be thus honored.'* 

THB MOST REASONABLE CONCLUSION. 

** The nearest approach to a sound conclusion is, 
in fact, supplied by the statement that Herod was 
alive for some time after Christ was bom. The in- 
fant Redeemer must have been six weeks old when 
presented in the Temple, and the visit of the Magi 
fell we do not know how much later. That the 
massacre of the children at Bethlehem included all 
from two years old and tmder presupposes that the 
Magi must have come to Jerusalem a long time 
after the birth of the expected king, for there would 
have been no sense in killing children of two years 
old if Christ had been bom only a few weeks or 
even months before. That there was a massacre, as 
told in the Gk)spel, is confirmed by a reference to it 
in a Satire of Macrobius (Sat. ii. 4). so that the 
crime is historically true and the higher criticism 
which treated it as a fable is convicted of error. 
But if Christ was bom two years before Herod's 
death —and He may have been bom even earlier^ 
this would make the great event fall in the year 
748, or six years before our era.'* 



THE PERIODICALS REVIEWED. 



SCRIBNER'S. 

I^HE January Seribner^s^ the first month ot a new 
decade in the life of that magazine, is an appro- 
priately handsome and readable number. The first arti- 
cle in the series on '* The Conduct of Great Businesses," 
this one describing the department store, by Mr. S. H. 
Adams, together with '^ A Bystander's Notes of a Mas* 
ncre," we have quoted from in another department. 
The meet notable piece of fiction which is annonnced to 
sQOceed Mr. Barriers " Sentimental Tonmiy " is a new 
story by Richard Harding Davis, to be illustrated by 
Mr. C. D. Oibson, the first two chapters of which are in 
this January number. Its title is " Soldiers of For- 
tone.*' Mr. Davis uses in it the experience and the 
•oenes which he met with in his recent journey tp South 
America. 

To lovers of Thackeray there will be a delightful inter- 
est in the article on '* Thackeray's EUtunts and Homes," 
by Eyre Crowe, Thackeray's intimate friend, elaborately 
iDiistrated by Harry Fenn and others. 

The editor of the department called "The Field of 
Art" discusses with great intelligence the rules which 
ahonld govern the competitions for public decorative 
and other artistic work. He suggests the following 
ndfln : First, as little work should be demanded from 
individnal artists as possible. Second, the prizes should 
be worth taking. The writer thinks that a certain Mu- 
nidptl Art Society makes a great mistake in offering for 
prixes for an important decorative work 1200 and $100, 
the society reserving the right to decide whether or not 
the first prize design should be executed. *' This clause 
isdoabtless inserted to provide against a poor competi- 
tion in which no worthy design shall be submitted, but 
it will go far to insure that the competition shall be of 
thit character. The prizes are barely sufficient to pay 
the expense of executing designs. Why should an artist 
work for them when they carry no assurance of the 
oonmiasion, even in case of success ? " Third, the com- 
mittee of awards should be thoroughly competent, and, 
if poerible, should be known in advance to every com- 
petitor. Fourth, all promises and implications should 
be rigidly adhered to and carried out in absolute good 
bith— a necesBary addition in view of the recent exam- 
ple of the Sherman monument competition. 



HARPER'S. 

THE third paper of Mr. Poultney Bigelow's account 
of ** White Man's Africa " is made particularly 
striking by some most excellent drawings of Zulu scenes 
by R. Gaton WoodvUle. Mr. Bigelow has learned that 
the ftrt of baggage smashing has not been neglected in 
that new country. He gives the following striking idea 
of • Portuguese government's effectiveness as a forward- 
ing agency. The Portuguese government owns a rail- 
way and a landing machinery. Mr. Bigelow says : '* It 
acts for commerce here as it does for the ships entering 
port ; it creates as much difficulty as is possible. When 
Handed at the government wharf where the lighters 
are nnloaded, I looked about n)e upon a scene that re- 
called Strasburg after the siege. First 1 saw masses of 
boiee containing tinned provisions from Chicago— they 



had been smashed open, and were scattered abont as by 
the effect of a well-directed shell. With them lay thou- 
sands of little rock-drills, made also in America— they 
were scattered all over the sand, and seemed to have 
here no more value than banana peelings. No doubt 
some nuners in Johannesburg were wondering what had 
become of their rock-drills. A step further I saw a bar- 
ricade of sacks, some containing rice, some lime. The 
limo was on top of the rice, and I conld readily imagine 
the pleasant taste that would result from this unholy 
alliance in this tropical temperature. Then I stumbled 
upon the complete outfit for a mine railway— little cars, 
little wheels, little rails, little iron sleepers, along with 
innumerable bolts and nuts and carefnlly fitted parts 
that had been carefully packed in Birmingham or Phila- 
delphia. Here they lay all smashed as though they had 
been wrecked in a railway collision. (Jp at Johannes- 
burg hands were idle while waiting for this important 
consignment. There was wreckage on all sides, and I 
threaded my way among Portugn^ese officials and natives 
as though 1 were being guided among the ruins of some 
great warehouse. There seemed no end of this scene of 
destruction— broken cases, whose contents were some- 
times made up of precious bottles or jars, the stuff all 
running away into the sand ; delicate machinery for an 
electrical plant ; clocks ; billiard tables ; barrels of 
molasses.'' 

In the " Editor's Study " Mr. Charles Dudley Warner 
devotes all of his month's essay to the Yellowstone 
Park. He gives a very eloquent account of his trip to 
that marvelous Rocky Mountain region, and shows us 
that not even the spectacular horrors of the geysers 
" can depress the spirits of the traveler in this glorious 
Yellowstone Park, which the government is so wisely 
protecting from vandalism. It would take more than 
these to depress him in this rare, splendid atmosphere, 
on the top of the world. The pure dry air brings life in 
all his tingling veins, and under the deepest of blue skies 
the fir and aspen forests, the swift fish-full streams, the 
lakes reflecting the blue of the high skies, and the 
shapely encircling mountains, with patches of snow 
even in August, are a heavenly vision to eyes tired of 
cities and the conventionalities of slashed and cultivated 
regions deformed by bad taste. The Yellowstone Lake, 
irregular in form, and some forty miles long by twenty 
broad, is a much finer sheet of water than I expected, 
and with its placid surface and fair shores, and noble 
ranges of purple mountains, it seems civilized and habit- 
able, and is a most restful place after the tour in the 
infernal regions." 

Mr. Warner gives a very encouraging report of the 
forests and game supply in the Park : 

" The forests of the Park are of small trees, for its 
average altitude is over seven thousand feet. These are 
mainly firs, pines, balsams and aspens— few, if any, large 
trees— but the growth is essential to the beauty of the 
Park and its use as a water-storer. Under the civil ad- 
ministration frequent and extensive fires occurred, and 
the country is literally full of fallen dead timber. If a 
fire starts, and in the dry time gets into the tree-tope, it 
will run over a vast area in spite of human efforts. The 
main anxiety of the Park guardians in the summer is on 
account of forest fires. The Park is full of game. All the 



100 



THE REyiElV OF REI//EIVS. 



streams abound in fish, mainly varieties of trout, the 
best being those transjidanted there from onr Eastern 
trout streams. Wild geese and ducks and pelicans and 
gulls abound on all the lakes and ponds. Since game 
has been preserved it has multiplied exceedingly. There 
are a few buffaloes left, but in the warm season they go 
up the mountains to the snow latches ; and so do the 
thousands and thousands of elks. Antelopes are also 
abundant. 1 saw many of these gracef al animals on the 
mountain slopes. Deer are equally numerous. There 
are many mountain sheep. There are enough of other 
wild animals, such as the coyote, the porcupine, and the 
woodchuck, many singing-birds, and everywhere hawks, 
ospreys and eagles. The air and the waters are alive 
with animal life. The bear, of course, black and cinnar 
mon. The bear is domestically inclined, and since he is 
not shot at, he has not only multiplied his kind, but be- 
come pleasantly familiar. He is a regular boarder at 
some of the hotels, and he likes to come around the 
camps for food. He is a humorous kind of beast, and 
being well treated, he seems inclined to cause little 
trouble, though sometimes he does make a mess of peo- 
ple's kitchens. I should not forget to speak of the 
prodigality and brilliancy of the wild flowers. Think of 
acres of blue gentians, bluebells, wild sunflowers, wild 
geraniums, asters, marguerites, golden rods of many 
varieties, and countless other exquisite and bright 
blooms." 



THE CENTURY. 

FROM the January Century we have selected Mr. E. 
L. Godkin»8 essay on "The Absurdity of War," 
«nd the sketch, by Mr. Henry T. Finck, of the American 
composer, E. A. MacDowell, to quote from in the " Lead- 
ing Articles of the Month. " The Century has had in the 
last few years several interesting descriptions of modem 
methods of teaching and amusing the blind and deaf. 
Sir. John Dutton Wright in this number describes 
speech and speech-reading for the deaf, and begins by 
telling us that there are to-day more than 2,500 deaf chil- 
dren in this country who are not only taught to speak 
and understand the speech of others, but are taught as 
wholly by means of speech as children of our public 
schools. Mr. Wright speaks especially of the wonderful 
blind and deaf girl, Helen Keller. She lost, both sight 
and hearing at nineteen months, and imssed the first 
seven of her years in absolute silence, darkness and 
ignorance. The sense of touch remained, and Miss A. 
M. Sullivan began the work of teaching Helen by a sys- 
tem of finger-spelling, which eventually fully developed 
a naturally fine mind. She can understand the conver- 
sation of others, although herself deaf and blind, having 
learned to read the lips by touching them with the fin- 
gers. When being spoken to she places her index finger 
lightly upon the lips, while the other fingers rest upon 
the cheek, the middle one touching the nose. Her 
thumb is upon the larynx. This position gives her the 
greatest possible information concerning the elements of 
which speech is composed. 

Mr. Julian Hawthorne has a capital description of hfe 
in his Jamaican home, which be entitles '* Summer at 
Christmastide." This is the way Jamaica looks in mid- 
December : 

" The first of next week will be Christmas Day, and I 
am writing this in a temperature of eighty two degrees, 
beside an open door which looks out on a mountain-side 
wooded with a thousand trees the name of not one of 



which, except the palms, am I familiar with ; a soft 
doud is breaking in aerial foam on the hilltop. I have 
just come in from the pasture, where I plucked and ate 
three or four wild oranges, the sweetest and juiciest in 
the world ; I could have had, had I preferred them, a 
bunch of wild bananas. This morning I took a bath in a 
swimming-tank filled with cool water from a mountain 
spring. I am dressed in the thinnest i)06sible woolen 
I>ajamas, and yet the exertion of writing produces a 
slight i>erspiration. The room is a partitioned-off comer 
of a veranda two of the walls of which are cx)mposed of 
green blinds, through which the afternoon breeze is 
faintly drawn. I hear the low murmur of the voices of 
negro women below, where yams are being peeled and 
fresh coffee (gathered in the plantation hard by) is being 
pounded. This has been a remarkably cool winter, and 
I have the certain knowledge that it never has been and 
never will be, at any time of year, colder than it is now, 
and am equally well assured that it never has been or 
never will be more than three or four degrees warmer. 
There is a big jack-buzzard perched on the top of an enor- 
mous tree out yonder, and his mate is sailing high aloft 
on lazy but unweariable pinions, a veritable queen of ef- 
fortless and inimitable fiight. At the other end of the 
ornithological scale is a hunm[iing-bird, a slender, supple, 
long-tailed, needle-beaked, gleaming jewel of iridescent 
green feathers and whirring wings, plunging himself in 
and out of the blossoms of a scarlet-fiowered tree, into 
the cups of which his slender body just fits. The sky is 
of a warmer and tenderer blue than I have ever seen in 
the North, and the mighty simshine which irradiates it 
and all things below it seems twofold as luminous as 
ours." 



McCLURE'S. 

THE January MeClure^s has no contribution of espe- 
cial timely importance, but is throughout a very 
charming and readable number. The feature of the 
issue is Hamlin Garland's i)aper on "Orant at West 
Point." Mr. Gkirland has been industrious in his re- 
searches for details of the general's cadet life, and the 
chapter is replete with picturesque anecdotes. He 
speaks especially of Grant's remarkable horsemansihip. 
When at West Point Grant rode a magnificent charger 
known as '* York," which could leap a bar 5 feet 6^4 
inches high, a mark which, according to Mr. Garland, 
has never been surpassed. General Frye teUs, too, of a 
visit to West Point when the graduating class was going 
through their final mounted exercises. When the regu- 
lar services were completed, the class, still mounted, 
was formed in line through the center of the hall. The 
riding master placed the leaping-bar more than a man's 
height, and called out : '* Cadet Grant ! " 

" A clean- faced, slender young fellow, weighing about 
120 pounds, dashed from the ranks on a powerfully built 
chestnut-sorrel horse, and galloped down the opposite 
side of the hall. As he turned at the farther end and 
came into the straight stretch across which the bar was 
placed, the horse increased his pace and measured his 
strides for the great leap before him, bounded into the 
air and cleared the bar, carrying his rider as if man and 
beast were welded together. The spectators were 
breathless." 

There is a good informational article in the account of 
" The Making and Laying of the Atlantic Cable," by 
Henry Muir. Mr. Muir first takes his readers to Wool- 
wich, and shows the making of the copper cable with its 



THE PERIODICALS REI/IEIVED, 



101 



iosalAtion of gutta-percha. He takee occasion to tell 
that the specific reeiatanoe of gutta-percha is 60,000,000,- 
000,000,000,000 timee that of copper to explain that it 
doee offer a very good insulating material, which no one 
will gainsay. Each section of the cable is made in 
about one nautical mile in length, so that there are sev- 
eral thousand sections to each line. The joining of these 
sectkms is a very difficult and delicate operation. There 
are twelve copper wires in the conductor, and each one 
must be perfectly joined to its corresponding wire. If 
there is the slightest imperfection it will probably cause 
an expense of tens of thousands of dollars to remedy 
when the trouble comes at the bottom of the sea. This 
trouble is not, however, so great as it used to be. Thirty 
years ago it was next to impossible to find the cable 
when it was once lost two miles under the water. At 
present, however, with ships that can turn around in 
their own length and with the most approved grapnels 
tor hooldng up the lost cable, it is entirely possible to 
find stray mpes even at three miles depth. 

Mr. Budyard Kipling's '* Captains Courageous " sus- 
tams its interest well, and whatever be the veracity of 
his Gloucester fishermen and of their dialects and songs, 
the picture he gives is sufficiently attractive to head off 
say suspicious inquiries as to the exact truth of the 
ooiara. 

For the New Tear McClure's has begun a series of life 
portraits of great Americans. This month is devoted to 
BftgamiTi Franklin, who is presented in some twenty or 
mate different portraits, while Professor W. P. Trent 
gives a sketch of Franklin's life. 

LIPPINCOTT'S. 

IN the January LippincoWt Miss May Hoskin writes 
about **The Western Housekeeper and the Celes- 
tial'' to give us an idea of the utility of the Heathen 
Qunee as a domestic servant. She is not wholly enthu- 
siastic or wholly condenmatory. He is a better pupil 
than the Irish cook, with a wonderfully retentive mem* 
orj. He speaks a limited and sometimes fearful and 
wonderful style of English, that is to be heard to be 
appreciated and attentively and analytically listened to 
to be understood. He is fairly clean and honest and excels 
is the culinary department, for he delights to experi- 
nbmt m new recipes. " He hates rain like a cat, and if a 
downpour comes about 6 a. ul you need not be aston- 
iihed if your servitor does not appear until after it has 
somewhat abated, your breakfast being quite immaterial 
to him. Their hearts, if they have any, are well hidden; 
obIj to children do they usually show any softness." In 
the West they act as chambermaids in the hotels, and in 
the Far Weet after they have washed up the luncheon 
dishes they put on their native blue gown and hie them 
to Chinatown. Miss Hoskin says that they do not make 
food laundrymen, though one would certainly think so, 
eqwdally not for the flimsy and frilled articles of ap- 
psreL But as gardeners they are great successes, utilias- 
ing every scrap of ground to some good purpose. 

Mr. R. O. Robinson, writing of " South Florida before 
the Freeae," says that the terrible calamity of Christ- 
mas, IMM, had made so vast a change in the resources of 
the country that it will be necessary to create very new 
cooditioDS. These conditions are beginning to come up, 
too. ^* FoodKTops must be grown, the country must be 
msde self-supporting, and all in the shortest possible 
time. Out of the old a new Florida is being evolved, 
founded on divendfled industries. Orange-groves will 



be rebuilt, but will never again be the sole, or even the 
chief, dex>endence." Besides oranges, lemons, limes, 
pineapples and other semi-tropical fruits; besides 
peaches, pears, strawberries and grapes ; besides Janu- 
ary new potatoes, beans, peas, cucumbers and egg plants 
for northern markets, a dozen of the staples of the coun- 
try will be grown in increasing quantities. Tnat New 
Fear's morning of 1895 saw three million boxes of frozen 
oranges on frozen trees that had been in fine condition 
only a day or two before. 

COSMOPOLITAN. 

THE January Cosmopolitan contains a brief sketch 
of the composer Mascagni, by Alma Dalma, who 
writes from the authoritative point of view of one who 
has been an inmate of the musician's home. Mascagni 
is just a little over 80 years of age— his picture does not 
look 25. He is full of fun, a thorough sportsman, ad- 
dicted to hardy, rough athletic exercises, an excellent 
billiard player, with all the enthusiasms of a robust and 
healthy young man. He is described as being unspoiled 
by the hearty reception of his genius—as a simple, un- 
affected young ntian. The composer and his wife have a 
lovely home in Pesaro, Italy. *^ They have an inunense 
apartment of fourteen rooms on the top fioor of the 
Rossini Conservatory that has been set aside especially 
for them— no small honor in itself. Mrs. Mascagni is a 
charming little lady of medium height, blonde, buoyant, 
impulsive and energetic, managing all of her husband's 
correspondence. ' ' This admirer has heard the music and 
libretto of Bfascagni's new opera, ^* Iris," the scene of 
which is laid in Japan, and predicts for it a tremendous 
furore in Europe. It will be interesting to see what the 
heroic standpoint in music will gain from Jai>an, which 
has furnished so fertile a field for the manufacture of 
comic opera. 

Murat Halstead tells '' The Story of the Farmers' Col- 
lege. ' ' This was an exceedingly useful institution in the 
Miami region near Cincinnati, Ohio, which was particu- 
larly i>atronized by the farmers' sons of that great agri- 
cultural district, and which gave them an education far 
more rational than any they had been able to have be- 
fore. Of the 200 students three-fourths were actually 
farmers, and the high average of muscular development 
must have been well worth seeing. " Many of the scu- 
dents came prei>ared to board themselves. Frugal ftom- 
ers drove up with cords of wood and boxes and barrels 
of provisions. One young man had a supply of boiled 
pork sufficient for the six weeks before the holidays, or 
it might have held out for a year if it had not been 
burned for fuel." 



LADIES' HOME JOURNAL. 

GENERAL A. W. GREELF of the United States 
Army makes in the January Ladies' Home Jour- 
nal some striking statements of ** What There Is at the 
South Pole." The land inside the Antarctic Circle has 
an area about that of Europe, and is now the most tre- 
mendous region left in the world that is practically un- 
known to man. It is a bold, mountainous land, almost 
entirely ice-clad, its shores inaccessible owing to the 
projecting high and unbroken ice-barrier, whose front 
extends five miles seaward. The animal life of the 
ocean is exceedingly prolific. The tow-nets of the 
" Challenger " often burst so great was the take. But 
on the continent there is no animal hfe at all to speak 



102 



THE REyiEH^ OF REVIEWS. 



of. Seals and whales in incredible nombers aboand in 
its waters, and oonntless seabirds cover with nests and 
eggs the few favored land spots which are free from 
snow during the brief, comfortless summer. It is a 
continent where abounds no land animal life, either 
mammiils, birds, insects, spiders or reptiles. It is also 
devoid of land vegetation (except the lowest forms of 
cellular tissue, lichens, which have been found in two 
places only), having neither ferns, flowering plants, 
shrubs nor trees. The great icebergs in the Antarctic 
Ocean are of a size that can scarcely be believed— two 
miles square and 1,000 feet in thickness ; sometimes oth- 
ers are thirty miles in length, while their perpendicular 
sides rise from 200 to 400 feet above the sea. 

A brief article teUs of the plan to employ children as 
street cleaners in Boston. The youngsters have been 
fbrmed into a Juvenile Street Gleaning Brigade. Every 
member is pledged to pick up stray pieces of paper which 
he may see on the street, and deposit them in recepta- 
cles provided by the city at convenient points. New 
York and Philadelphia have followed suit. The editor 
says : *' The children cannot have a better lesson en- 
forced upon them than that of cleaning and helping to 
keep dean the streets. If they are taught to have a 
regard for the appearance of the street, the lesson will 
easily extend to the rooms in which they live. The 
smallest of our communities should take up this idea— 
the formation of clubs and brigades among the children 
to keep the streets and highways clean. It is one of the 
easiest things to do and one of the most profitable.*' 



DEMOREST'S. 

THE January Demoregt^a Family Magazine is quite 
an attractive number, though there is nothing of 
very serious import in any one of its features. The size 
and shape of the magazine allows it freedom in illustra- 
tion which it uses with very striking effect, especially 
in the article describing the National Horse Show. The 
writer of this article tells us that the fashionable taste 
in horses is very much changed in past years. ** Where 
formerly a man kept a span of horses, perhaps a pair of 
saddle horses for riding in the park, and x>ossibly, if very 
fond of driving, a trotter for a road spin, he has now a 
stable full of hunters, high- stepping roadsters and hand- 
some hackneys. This would seem to prove that the 
bicycle is not really displacing the horse, but that there 
is quite enough room for both in the affections of men 
and women.*' This writer hoots at the idea that the 
bicycle or any other inanimate thing ever could take 
the place of the horse. The fashionable class to-day is 
the hackney. The Horse Show at Madison Square Gar- 
den in New lork brings people not only from New York 
and its suburbs, but from Philadelphia, Boston, Chicago, 
San Francisco, New Orleans, Louisville, Cincinnati— in 
short, from all over the CJnited States. 

J. H. W. describes a '* Winter in the Yellowstone 
Park." His description is aided by pictures of the snow- 
bound elk in the Park and of other f ligid scenes. So late 
as 1894 a St. Paul man organized a snow-shoe expedition 
into the Park, and found eight miles beyond the Grand 
Canon country a herd of seventy buffaloes. They also 
found a poacher who was busily engaged in killing these 
poor remnante of our countless buffalo herds. His tracks 
were followed for a day or two, when he was caught in 
the act of dressing one of the animals. He had come 
into the Park with a toboggan and supplies for a long 
sojourn, and had already killed seven buffaloes, which 



were found hanging on a pine tree near his camp. The 
average depth of a snowfall on the Park plateau is at 
least twenty feet, while the drifts in the mountain sides 
and ravines are one hundred feet deep and never en- 
tirely disappear. Under these circumstances a winter 
outing in the Park is a somewhat serious affair. The 
travelers use snow-shoes of the Norwegian ski variety. 
The ski is a strip of ash, pine or hickory, about twenty- 
feet long and four or live inches wide, made as thin as 
is possible without sacrificing strong^. 



THE MIDLAND MONTHLY. 

THE third installment of Colonel Emerson's series of 
papers on *^ Grant's Life in the West and his 
MissiBsippi Valley Campaigns " appears in the December 
Midland. These papers are illustrated with great care, 
and have already made an important contribution to our 
knowledge of Grant's career. 

This number also has an illustrated article on " The 
Coming * First Lady in the Land,' " by Bfrs. C. P. Mc- 
Lean, which pictures the home life of Major and Mrs. 
McKinley in a very entertaining way. Among the illus- 
trations are reproductions of two war-time photographs 
of Major McKinley. 

Considerable space is g^ven to an account of *' Fair- 
hope," a colonizing experiment of single -tazers in 
Southern Alabama, but the results thus far achieved by 
the movers in this enterprise seem to have no great soci- 
ological importance. 

The Midland has a regular department devoted to the 
Women^s Club movement. 



THE BOOKMAN 

IT is a favorite pastime of the critical world to *' ex- 
plain" Mr. Kipling. There is a fresh round of 
explanations coming forth apropos of the new book of 
poems, '^ The Seven Seas," and among them this is what 
the editor of the Bookman has to say in the Januaiy 
number : 

^* The test of the great artist is his power to deal with 
quiet life in the sober daylight. It may be unfair to say 
that Bfr. Kipling is at home only in one dirty comer of 
India ; that whenever he turns his lantern on a virtue he 
makes respectfully off, and that his only hero so tax is 
the devil. But it is true that in his hotly glowing pic- 
tures we find no deep symi)athy with humanity, no intel- 
ligence of obscure virtue and endurance, no ear for the 
clash of spiritual armies. Mr. Kipling has unbounded 
faith in dynamite, but none in leaven. He cannot work 
without the electric light ; with still life Mr. Kipling can 
do nothing. He has nothing of the calm copiousness of 
the masters. Always afraid of losing the attention of 
his readers, he never dares to be quiet ; that he sensi- 
tively appreciates the use of words is undeniable. We 
should almost say that he is as great a man in invective 
in English as Lamennais was in French. But he cannot 
tread softly the i)aths that lead up to the inner chamber 
of the mind, for he does not know them. Nor does he 
ever stand behind his effects. In the highest style of 
power the i>er8onality sinks and fades. Mr. Kipling 
signs his story top and bottom and all through. There is 
an unending sx>arkle and crackle through his pages. Sir 
Walter Scott's great passages rise from the level as 
noiselessly as a mountain." 

Mr. Andrew Lang has a pleasant little confession 
which he calls *' My Literary Heresies." Perhaps the 



THE PERIODICALS REI^IEIVED. 



103 



Hiiee drmwn in his heretical preferences among the cla&> 
sicB are s(»newhat too fine for the comfortable discrimi- 
nation iA American audiences, but we are interested in 
hearing him say that he is bored by the Restoration 
Comedy, and he mil not or cannot read Wycherley, nor 
Beamncmt and Fletcher as dramatists ; that Shakespeare 
is ** an nneqnal writer," and that '* many of his jokes are 
of a medisBval ineptitude.'' Paradise Lost is gre^tas 
the ** organ Toice of England,'' he says, but the concep- 
tion of the epic, as a whole, is not good. Mr. Lang is 
tme to his flag in maintaining that Homer is the only 
«pic poet who foreyer holds the human attention. He 
betteTee in Chaucer, Spenser, Coleridge, Scott, Words- 
worth, Keats and fcOielley, but ** as for Bjrron, if disbelief 
is a heresy, I am the chief of sinners. I believe in Field- 
ing aa, with Scott and Miss Austen, one of the three 
greatest ^wgiifth uovelists." Smollett and Richardson 
come off second best, and below Thackeray, and Fielding 
and Miss Austen he prefers to Scott. ^* And Thackeray 
does preach too much, is careless of construction (a 
mere fault of indolence), and, In spite of his unique style, 
infrequently reckless of grammar." Of Trilby, Mr. Lang 
tajB : ** Again, we read new books with little thought of 
comparison, with slight reflection. Thus Trilby amused 
ay Tulgar taste extremely when I read it, but I never 
thoo^t of seriously applying to it a literary touch-stone. 
It was enough that Mr. Du Manner, that most deeply 
regretted man and artist, gave me a happy day." 

POET-LORE. 

FOR seven years past the monthly journal called 
Poet-Lore^ under the editorship of Charlotte 
Viot/et and Helen A. Clark, has been a unique exponent 
in this country of the highest type of literary criticism. 
U has now become a quarterly, and the initial number of 
the new aeries gives promise of even more brilliant 
addevements in the future. 

ProCeasor Louis J. Block contributes a study of ** The 
Dramat&c Sentiment and Tennyson's Plays ; " Jeannette 
Bwbour Perry discusses the question, '' Is Blank Verse 
Lawless ? " Dr. W. J. Rolfe furnishes a critique of Tom 
Bood, and there is an interesting unsigned paper on 
^ Sodermann's Magda and Duse's." Professors Katlia- 
rine Lee B«tee of Wellesley, A. S. Cook of Yale and 
L. A Sherman of Nebraska participate in a discussion 
OB "New Ideas in Teaching Literature," and many 
"^•tiidy helps " are provided in the ^* School of Litera- 
ture" departiuent. 

ATLANTIC MONTHLY. 

FROM the January Atlantic Monthly we have selected 
Professor Charles Eliot Norton's estimate of Mr. 
Kiphng and his latest book of verse to review among 
t^ " Leading Articles." 

The magazine opens with a delightful short story by 
Pul Leicester Ford, which he calls " A Story of Untold 
Love," and which is quite as delicately pathetic as its 
title suggests. 

Pnrfeasor John Bach McMaster has a large subject in 
** A Century of Sodal Betterment," and the dozen pages 
of his article are taken up with a mere enumeration of 
the century's material improvements in living and in in- 
dnstry, especially in the transiwrtation facilities which 
have proved the surest basis of our progress. In his retro- 
spect be points out that when the century opened there 
were 300 newspapers in the United States, but only 17 



were dailies ; no weekly periodicals or magazines with a 
general circulation had been thought of. Ten years after 
the opening of the century it cost $40 to move a ton of 
freight from New York to Niagara, although almost the 
whole journey was by water ; and $125 to haul a ton from 
Philadelphia to Pittsburgh. To carry a bushel of salt 
200 miles by land cost $2.50 ; the charge for transport- 
ing a barrel of flour 350 miles was $5. 

Professor W. P. Trent has an able essay, entitled 
« Dominant Forces in Southern Life," in which he tries 
to show what the typical Southerner to-day stands for 
in economics and politics, letters and arts and science. 
He looks for a great beneflt to come from the political 
disintegration of the South. This disintegration will 
almost certainly come, in Professor Trent's opinion. The 
fusion of the Democrats with the Populists is likely, he 
thinks, to result in a permanent alienation of a majority 
of the influential supporters of the former party. He 
regards as a broad basis for such a cleavage the different 
needs of the urban conmiunities from the ruraL The 
former are far in advance of the latter in education, and 
their political ideals must therefore vary sooner or later. 

Mary Caroline Bobbins contributes a long article on 
** Park Making as a National Art," in which she de- 
scribes briefly a score or more of the beautiful parks 
which have done so much to increase the opportunities 
for decent living in our great cities. This recent prog- 
ress in park-making is very recent indeed. In 1860 there 
were but two well-advanoed rural parks in the United 
States, in 1886 there were twenty, and there are now 
many times that number. She makes the point that we 
are too apt to consider the business done whan the land 
is purchased for parks. ^* They must be planted with care 
and maintained with taste, and to keep them in condition 
renewed expenditure is necessary. They cannot merely 
be purchased and left to nature and the public. They 
must be cultivated, pruned, policed, and the expense of 
preserving their beauty and usefulness must not bs 
grudged by taxpayers who reap such great advantages 
from them." 

THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 

WE have quoted elsewhere from Mr. Bryan's article 
on the election and the silver question and from 
Mr. Hazeltine's i>resentation of the Cuban case. 

Rear- Admiral Walker, Captain Mahan, Captain Evans 
and Lieutenant Staunton take part in a second symi>o- 
slum on ** The Engineer in Naval Warfare," supplement- 
ing the discussion in the May number of the North 
American ; but the treatment is rather too technipal for 
popular comprehension. 

Ex Senator Wil^n of Iowa recounts *^ Some Memo- 
ries of Lincoln," illustrating especially President Lin- 
coln's watchfulness over the welfare of the private 
soldier. 

Major Arthur Grifflths, British Inspector of Prisons, 
contributes an interesting account of modem penal col- 
onies as conducted in different countries. He says : 

" There is surely enough in these various experiments 
to encourage imitation on a wider scale. Countries 
seeking to reform, or, at least, to alter their i>enitentiary 
system, might adopt the principle of the penal colony 
with advantage on account of its greater utility, econ- 
omy and humanity, and more esjiecially with regard to 
the substantial results it would attain both in protecting 
society and reforming offenders." 

The United States Consnl at Birmingham, Mr. Oeorge 



104 



THE REyiElV OF REI^IEIVS. 



F. Parker, writes on *» American Bicycles in England. '* 
The fact that American wheels have had a large sale in 
Great Britain ha<) been widely commented on ; it has not 
been so generally known that a very large amount of 
American machinery and tools is already in nse in Brit- 
ish cycle factories, and Mr. Parker states that the admis- 
sion is made everywhere, in the smaller as well as in the 
larger shops, that onr machinery is better fitted for its 
work, and that its nse insures a great saving of labor, as 
well as an improvement of the product in both quality 
and appearance. 

"It is certainly creditable to the genius and adapta- 
bility of our people," says Mr. Parker, " that they have 
taken up a new industry with such energy and success 
as to cut off all foreign trade in the completed product, 
and then in one of the principal articles entering into it, 
and that, within a few years, they should engage in 
comi>etition with the foreigner in his OMm market and 
sell more machines in England, in the face of the sever- 
est competition from every quarter, than the English 
makers, with the whole supply in their hands, ever sold 
in the American market within the same length of 
time." 

Comptrofler Eckels defines " The Duty of the Republi- 
can Administration. '* He says : 

" The pa3rment, gradual retirement and cancellation 
of the legal tenders and the authorizing of the banks, 
under governmental 8ui>ervision, to issue the coimtry's 
credit currency and redeem the same in fi^ld, would be 
the crystallizing into a fact of the phrase 'sound 
money.* " 

' Mr. Charles M. Harger of Kansas depicts the desper- 
ate condition of many western farmers who have staked 
their all on the productive qualities of lands which are 
now in great i>art arid. 

" The western third of Kansas lost thirteen thousand 
people last year ; Nebraska's western third nearly as 
many, and thousands had gone before that. Those who 
remain recognise that there is before them a serious 
question. That is : Shall we try it again, or go ? If we 
try it again, upon what basis shall the trial be made f 
The old one of nndiversified farming has failed. Debts 
have been assumed. Payment is due. How shall the 
new beginning be made ? This is the problem of the 
West to-day." 

Mrs. John D. Townsend, in advocating *• The Curfew 
for City Children,'* states that two hundred cities in 
this country have adopted the curfew system, and that 
city officials, parents, school teachers, employers of 
youthful labor, and especially chiefs of police, are em- 
phatic in praise of its efficacy. 

Articles by the presidents of the Indianapolis, New 
Orleans and San Francisco trade and commercial organi- 
zations discuss the reform of the currency. One of these 
gentlemen suggests new reciprocity and bounty laws as 
a remedy for commercial distress, rather than a change 
in the currency system ; the others favor retirement of 
the greenbacks. 

In " Notes and Comments," Mr. George Henry Bassett 
calls attention to the curious fact that Ireland is being 
repeopled by Britons. 

** With a greater number of Celtic Irishmen out of Ire- 
land than in Ireland, the tendency must ever be to draw 
the flower of each generation to other lands. It would 
be a heart-breaking termination of the struggle of the 
agitators if the Home Rule flag should float at last over 
a thoroughly Anglicized Ireland." 

Mr. William Kinnear writes on " Women as Centena- 



rians," and Mr. Clinton Rogers Woodruff describes cer- 
tain " Obstacles to Business Methods in Public Affairs.*' 



THE FORUM. 

IN our department of '^Leading Articles** we have 
quoted from the articles by the Hon. A. D. White, 
D. MacGregor Means and Goldwin Smith on the lessons 
of the election, and also from Professor Woodrow Wil- 
son's address on ** Princeton in the Nation's Service.** 

Dr. J. M. Rice begins in the December number another 
important series of articles on American educational 
problems, dwelling in his introductory i)aper on " Obsta- 
cles to Rational Educational Reform.** Dr. Rice states 
that he has devoted the i>ast two years to examining 
children taught by every conceivable method in schools 
representing a very large section of this country. 

** By means of examination in a number of school 
branches— spelling, penmanship, English composition 
and arithmetic — I hoped to be able, first, to establish 
certain goals, through the discovery of what our chil- 
dren might reasonably be expected to accomplish ; and, 
second, by a comparison of results, to arrive at some 
definite conclusions concerning the comparative econo- 
my of different methods of teaching. The number of 
children examined has, thus far, reached nearly one 
hundred thousand ; and care was exercised to secure 
exact information, not only in regard to the methods 
employed, but also in regard to the age, nationality and 
environment of the children, in order that the influence 
of conditions might be duly taken into consideration. 
These examinations have brought some things to light 
which, in my opinion, are destined to destroy many of 
our preconceived notions.*' 

Dr. Bice promises to give the results of these exami- 
nations in future articles. 

The Rev. William Bayard Hale writes on *' Another 
Tear cf Church Entertainments.** Previous articles 
have made Bfr. Hale known as the implacable foe of 
these institutions as at present conducted in this coun- 
try. He has kept a record of entertainments given by 
religious societies in the CJnited States from June 1, 1895, 
to June 1, 1896, including more than five hundred of 
these occasions. 

** It is with a feeling of wonder touched with awe that 
a student turns the pages of this chronicle of a year's 
activity by the churches; that he discovers how instant 
and keen is their appreciation of the wants of the amnse- 
ment-loving, how tireless their devotion to the interests 
of the box-office. It is with a sense of amazement tinged 
with admiration that he discovers with what increasing 
ardor the institution, founded not to be ministered unto 
but to minister, is giving itself to the duty of providing 
fun at a minimum cost ; with what unexampled philan- 
thropy it is placing within reach of the humblest and 
poorest of Christian people the Female Mmstrel, the 
Dog Show, the Dance of the Wood Nymphs, the Brownie 
Drill and kindred joys.** 

Mr. Hale then proceeds to give samples from his five 
hundred announcements, and finds no difficulty in minis- 
tering to the love of the sensational on the part of his 
readers. 

Mr. Montgomery Schuyler contributes a timely study 
of Rudyard Kipling as a poet, concluding with the opin- 
ion that ** The Seven Seas '* has made its author " the 
unchallenged laureate of Greater Britain.** 

President Charles F. Thwing sets forth certain ** Draw- 
backs of a College Education "ma forcible and candid 



THE PERIODICALS REyiEH^ED. 



105 



HMUUMT. He expreflses the opinion that the college may 
injure men through fixing the habit of loving and doing 
oily that which is agreeable. The rich student, in these 
days, spends too much money. Then, too, the college 
fisUs to insist on the students doing a proper amount of 
work. The second drawback mentioned by President 
Thwixig is the college training of the student's judgment 
at the expense of his energy. It is also urged that the 
time spent in getting a college education takes a man 
away from opportunities for acquiring business habits 
at just the age when such habits can be most easily ao- 
qnired, and further that college fills the mind with use- 
less knowledge— it trains individuality rather than social 
efficiency. President Th wing states these various objec- 
tions with fullness and candor, and then proceeds to 
ibow that while they are real and should be heeded by 
college officers they have been generally overstated. As 
to the disadvantages of the college graduate in entering 
bsanees President Thwing says : 

'' The simple fact is, that if the graduate begins at the 
age of twenty-three to learn a business at that very 
pdnt where he would have beg^m at eighteen he stays 
at this point only about one-tenth as long as he would 
have stayed had he begun at eighteen. The rate at 
whidi he attains skill and power in business is many 
times greater. When he has reached the age ot twenty- 
Severn he has not infrequently overtaken and passed the 
boy who has b€>en in business since the age of eighteen. 
For the sake of gaining ability sufficient for managing 
great undertakings every boy who is to enter business 
ihoiild give to himself the best and widest training. 
Sodi a training is usually found in the college. If it is 
at aU noteworthy that many of the very rich men of the 
United States, who have made their riches by their own 
energy and foresight, are not college-bred, it is certainly 
most significant that the sons of these men are receiving 
a college education.** 

Dr. Thomas Dwight of the Harvard Medical School 
writes oonoeming the supply of human bodies for ana- 
tomkal diasection, suggesting 'certain changes in the 
kwB in the interest of medical science on the one hand 
and of humanity on the other. 

The HoEi. Hugh H. Lusk discusses the Infiuence of 
American "women on literature, repljring to the recent 
OmtampoTOTy Review article on the same subject. 



THE ARENA. 

QUOTATIONS from the articles on ''Practical 
Christianity *' appear elsewhere in this magazine. 
Mr. William Ordway Partridge, the sculptor, writes 
on '* The Relation of Art to Religion.'' ''Let us take 
tbiB question of art more seriously," he says. " It is not 
a thing to be put on and off like a garment ; it is an 
atBosphere. Men and nations are known by their pre- 
Tiiling intention and thought." 

Hn. Marie C. Remick contributes an optimistic paper 
on "The Relation of Industrialism to Morality." She 
looks for moral and intellectual improvement in some 
sense commensurate with the expected material im- 
provement of the next few years. 

Tlie editor, Mr. B. O. Flower, writes appreciatively 
and S3rmpathetically of William Morris and some of his 
hter works. 

" In later years Morris' life underwent a transforma- 
tioiL Though he x>ertiaps knew it not, he received the 
holism of the spirit. In considering this wonderful 
cfaaoga, I am reminded of Victor Hugo's references to 



Paul's experience on his way to Damascus, in which the 
great Frenchman observes : ' The road to Damascus is 
essential to the march of progress. To fall into the truth 
and to rise a just man— a transfiguring fall— that is sub- 
lime.' And so in the later works of Morris, in which we 
find a lofty mysticism on the one hand and on the other 
the spirit of * social democracy ' overmastering the popu- 
lar conventional poet of other days, we are reminded of 
Paul's being blinded by the light, although perhaps Wil- 
liam Morris himself did not recog^nize the spiritual infiu- 
ences which were wrought upon his humanity-loving 
brain." 

Dr. C. P. Taylor, in an article entitled " An Inheri- 
tance for the Waifs," argues that the state should be a 
first and preferred heir to a portion of every excessively 
large estate, after which the remainder may be divided 
as at present, and that the state's inheritance should not 
be put into the general fund for ordinary expenses, but 
be devoted to the establishment of institutions for the 
sustenance and training of children from the slums of 
the cities, whose natural protectors have either died or 
are incompetent. 

Mr. Eltweed Pomeroy discusses the causes and reme- 
dies of the abnormal wealth concentration of recent 
years. He says : 

** Its causes are class legislation, inequitable taxation, 
monopolies, and commercial fraud. Its remedies lie in a 
complete control over legislation by the whole people 
through the initiative and the referendum, a juster ad 
ministration of our tax systems, and the introduction of 
rapid progression into all our forms of taxation, but in 
particular into the inheritance tax, the income tax, and 
the land tax, the taking over by the government of all 
monopolies, that they may be run in the interests of the 
people instead of the interests of a few." 

Mr. Max Bennett Thrasher writes on " The Last Year 
of Gail Hamilton's Life,'* Mrs. Henrotin on ^* State Fed- 
erations of the General Federation of Women's Clubs, '^ 
and Helen M. Winslow on *^ Some Newspaper Women.'* 



THE CONTEMPORARY REVIEW. 

THIS month's issue contains two articles of eminent 
value. Professor Caird's "Characteristics of 
Shakespeare" is alone su(Bcient to make any number 
distinguished, and the same may be said of Elis6e 
Beclus' ** Progress of Mankind," both of which claim 
separate notice. 

WHY THE POPS CONDKHNED ANGLICAN ORDERS. 

Eev. Thomas Lacey investigates the sources of the 
Bull. He was in Rome while the commission was sit- 
ting, and was led to expect that the result would have 
been favorable. He points out what he describes as 
blunders in fact, and from these, along with other pecul- 
iarities in the Bull, infers that it was not drawn up 
with due care. The question is now declared to be set- 
tled by a decision of 1704, in the case of John Gordon, an 
Anglican bishop, who was expressly required to be 
reordained. Mr. Lacey wants to know why, if this case 
was so decisive, did the Pope appoint a commission to 
consider the matter ? He finds, however, that the Gor- 
don decree was given on a Thursday— a day on which 
only extraordinary sessions of the Sacred Congregation 
are held under the personal presidency of the Pope. A 
decree issued on such a day is peculiarly binding, and 
may not be reversed, perhaps not even by the Pope. 
Mr. Lacey is informed that the Pope felt himself de- 



106 



THE RE^IEIV OF REI/IEiVS. 



tMured from reversing the decree. The qaeetion of 
Anglican orders can only be reopened in one of three 
ways : By abandoning the definition of infallibility ; or 
reprobating the opinion which holds the Gk>rdon decree 
to belong to faith or morals ; or proving the decree de- 
fective in matter of fact. There is nothing m the Boll 
to prevent this reopening. 

HOW CABOINAL VAUGHAN WON OVER THE POPB. 

'' Catholicns," writing on the policy of the Bull, 
roundly avers, '* There is not the smallest doubt that 
the Pope gave way before the violent pressure of the 
English Catholic bishops and the Roman congrega- 
tions.'' Cardinal Vaughan did everything he could to 
get the unfavorable decision. **Hi8 last and perhaps 
most telling stroke was a collective letter from the 
whole of the Catholic Episcopate of the United King- 
dom," a letter the existence of which ^^is absolutely 
certain." The staple argument was, " to allow it to be 
believed that Anglican orders are valid would be to dry 
up the source of individual conversions." ** Catholicus " 
holds the decision to be now final and incapable of revi- 
sion. But he shrewdly indicates a theological conse- 
quence of the Pope's argument. 

*^ In order to condenm Anglican orders the Pope has 
had to lay down the principle that a form of consecra- 
tion which would be sufficient in the case of an orthodox 
rite is insufficient in the Anglican Church, because in 
the orthodox rite the formula is imderstood with an 
implicit meaning which the Anglicans chose to exclude. 
The sacrament can therefore no longer be regarded as a 
sort of magic' formula working in virtue of its own force 
independently of the sense attached to it by those who 
use it," 

THE sultan's DOMESTICrriES. 

Diran K616kian gives a great deal of information 
about " life at Yildiz." The personnel of the palace num- 
bers about 13,000 individuals, including 8,000 ladies of 
the hareuL The Sultan is only allowed seven lawful 
wives. 

" There is one day of the year on which the Sultan- 
MQther, and even the wives of the sovereign, are 
required to present him with a beautiful Circassian 
virgin. These girls are brought up with much care, and 
they are taught ceri;ain little accomplishments, among 
them singing and plajing on the lute. The market 
value of a young Circassian, fit to be offered to the Sul- 
tan, is from £1,000 to £2,000. In the choice of young 
girls much attention is i)ald to the marked preference of 
the present Sultan for blondes." 

The Sultan often presents one of his Ministers with a 
wife from his harem, and ladies who have not become 
mothers he provides with husbands and dowries. To 
the rest, not thus freed, the palace is a prison, and con- 
Biimption is excessively prevalent in the harem. It ap- 
pears that *^ it is a family tradition among the heirs of 
Osman to speak in a loud voice. Abdul Hamid's utter- 
ance is strident and imperious." 

ARMENIAN REFUGEES IN CYPRUS. 

Miss Ehnma Cons reports favorably on the work done 
by Mrs. Sheldon Amos in planting Armenian refugees in 
Cyprus. Miss Cons thinks the Armenian peasant more 
open to assimilate now ideas than the Cypriote and also 
a good leader of the natives in agriculture. 

*^ As far as we could judge, given English capital and 
English energy in the first start, Cyprus would be able 
to absorb a not inconsiderable number of Armenians, 
and be all the better for doing so. Would it not be sim- 



ple justice that the island, so far as not utilised by the 
present inhabitants, should be ai>plied by England, so 
far as possible, for the benefit of the exiles f Cyprus 
does not i>ay its way. With its present small and igno- 
rant population and its backward industries, it cannot 
do so. Is it not folly not to bring in an industrious, 
energetic and progressive Armenian population ? '' 

OTHER ARTICLES. 

An amusing, if somewhat savage skit is contributed 
anonymously, purporting to be a report of what took 
place in Lord Bosebery's Cabinet after the *< cordite " 
vote. The indirect duel kept up between the Premier 
and the Chancellor of the Exchequer is the principal feat- 
ure. Bir. H. W. Wolff combats the impression that the 
savings banks cost the taxpayer somewhat, and shows 
that so far they have only brought gain to the ex- 
chequer. He regards trustee banks as doomed, and 
looks to the development of people's banks, along with 
the extension of post office banks, as the chief agencies 
of popular thrift. Mr. Vernon Lee writes a delightful 
homily on the duty of cultivating leisure as a means of 
acquiring charm. Mr. E. H. Parker discourses on Chi- 
nese humbug, and gives many instances of his humbug- 
ging the Chinese as well as of their little tricks of bluff 
and sham. Yet he testifies that mercantile operations 
are carried on as methodically and honorably in China 
as in any country. 



w 



THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

/IE notice elsewhere Mr. Sidney Low's article on 
the »*Olney Doctrine," and Mr. Thwaite's 
'* Commercial War Between Germany and England." 
Mr. Macnamara's '* Local Support of Education " also 
requires special mention. 

WANTED— A NAVAL RESERVE. 

The Hon. T. A. Brassey, writing on ** Manning the 
Navy in Time of War," insists upon the importance of 
paying more attention te the reserve. He says : 

^* The policy of maintaining the per9(mneil of the navy 
in peace at war strength is too costly and too wasteful 
of our national resources. Rather we should address 
ourselves to the task of building up a powerful reeerve. 
As a first step, and before adding to the numbers, the 
conditions of enrollment must be altered so as to secure 
greater efficiency. Of the three sources of supply the 
fishing population alone can be relied upon to yield at 
once a substantial body of recruits. The colonies, which 
are not at present in a position to make a serious money 
contribution to the naval defense of the empire, could 
furnish good men for a naval reserve. No remedy is 
Xx>s8ible without substantial assistance from the state." 

AN EMPIRE ROTTEN AT THE HEAD. 

Professor R. K. Douglas, writing of " Some Peking 
Politicians," begins his article by giving the following 
illustrations of political blackmail which prevail in the 
Chinese capital : 

^* It is a matter of common knowledge in China that Li 
Hung Chang, when deprived of his viceroyalty and 
ordered to Peking, was compelled to distribute among 
the Court officials and others no less a sum than eight 
million taels, equivalent to about one million sterling, in 
order to protect himself against the attacks of his poUti- 
cal enemies." 

In such a hotbed of corruption it is only natural that 
conservatism should fiourish. 

^' At the present moment the anti-foreign element is 



THE PERIODICALS REVIEWED. 



107 



) than usually rampant at the capital. The man who 
has the main direction of affairs is a certain Weng, the 
qnondam tutor of the Emperor and a Confucianist of the 
Confncianists. For some years he has exercised consid- 
erable influence over the Emperor, and has been a con- 
sistent opponent of Li Hung Chang and all his works." 

Mr. Douglas despairs of any improvement. 

'* Such being the condition of affairs in China, we may 
^rell despair of the future of the Empire. The whole 
sy s t em of administration is rotten to the core, and there 
is no sign or B3rmptom of any effort toward progressive 
reforms. Ninety-nine out of every hundred mandarins 
are wedded by long habit and by personal interest to the 
existing sysf em. " 

ON THS 8ELLINO OF BOOKS. 

Mr. Shaylor of Simpkin, BCarshall A; Co. writes an 
article which will be read with interest by all concerned 
in the TWAiHng and disposing of books. It is not an arti- 
cle which can be summarized, but there are one or two 
tacts which stick in the memory after we have laid the 
xnagazine down. 

" In addition to the trade at the counter, 1.500 letters 
were received from country customers in one day, result- 
ing in the dispatch of seven hundred or eight hundred 
parcels. It will thus be readily understood that the 
labor involved in grappling with the details of the work 
must be prodigious. During the busy autumn season as 
many as seventy new books are sometimes submitted 
for * subscription ' in one day." 

Mr. Shaylor recalls another fact which is worth re- 
membering. He quotes the authority of Mr. Macmillan 
and Mr. Chatto. 

** The former, at a recent dinner, stated that his firm 
accepted only 23 out of 815 M8S. submitted to them in 
one year, and the latter In a press interview asserted 
that his firm retained on an average about 18 out of 500." 

WHO IB THE 8LEBPINO BMPEROR? 

Mr. Karl Blind devotes some pages to an attempt, and 
apparently a successful attempt, to prove that the Em- 
peror of Germany whom Germany represents as sitting 
asleep in the Kjrff hauser Mountains was not the famous 
Barbarossa, but a very different emperor, indeed. Mr. 
Blind says : 

" Taking all in all, it is manifest that the ' Barbarossa * 
myth is quite a late graft upon the stem of the original 
tale about Kaiser Friedrich the Second, an enlightened 
adversary of priestcraft, the antagonist of the Papacy, 
the expected reformer of the Church and disestablisher 
of monkhood. Many of the sayings attributed to him, 
which show him in the light of a man who would readily 
have assented, had he lived in our days, to the doctrines 
of Darwin, Huxley and Hi&ckel, would find little counte- 
nance, at present, in high quarters at Berlin." 

HOW BNOLAKD HAS BOBBBO IRELAND. 

Mr. J. Clancy, writing on " The Financial Grievance 
of Ireland," holds out a pretty prospect for the English 
taxpayer. He says in a postscript : 

»* Since the foregoing pages were written another 
Parliamentary return has been issued on the motion of 
Mr. Joseph A. Pease,. M. P., an examniation of which 
wiB show that the overtaxation of Ireland which the 
Royal Commission found to exist has been considerably 
aggravated by that great effort of Liberal statesman- 
ship, the Finance act of 18W. On the lowest estimate 
the overtaxation of Ireland now amounts to more than 
three millions sterling a year." 



Even if this be an exaggeration, and the amount be 
under instead of over £8,000,000 a year, it is not surpris- 
ing to learn that ** for the present it would appear as if 
the i>olitical campaign on the one side and on the other in 
Ireland were about to be suspended in favor of psk agita- 
tion, particiiNited in by all parties, in support of the de- 
mand that the robbery referred to should cease. One great 
result of the work of the Financial Relations Commis- 
sion is, as has been said, that the controversy as to the 
facts of the financial grievance of Ireland may be said to 
be ended." 

Mr. Clancy deals with the various answers that are 
made to rescue this wholesale plunder of the weaker 
country by the richer. He says, for instance : 

*' The taxes which Great Britain pays, and which Ire- 
land does not pay, amount to just £4,188,800 ; and if 
Ireland paid her share of those taxes the total result 
would scarcely be altered to the extent of a decimal." 

Then replying to the assertion that excessive taxation 
is balanced by excessive expenditure, he reminds us 
that ** the excessive expenditure in Ireland is the direct 
result of British pohcy. Why, for instance, does the 
Irish constabulary cost a million and a half annually in- 
stead of half a million, which would be the cost if that 
force were organized on the same scale as the police in 
England and Scotland ? Because Great Britain is gov- 
erning Ireland against her will.!' 

OTHBR ABTI0LS8. 

The Rev. Harry Jones preaches a sermon in favor of 
temperance against total abstinence. Mr. Cuthbert 
Hadden discusses the authorship of *' Rule Britannia," 
but comes to no conclusive result, for he says : 

*' The question of the authorship of * Rule Britannia ' 
will probably, however, never be definitely settled. 
Thomson left it in doubt ; so did liallet." 

The Hon. Sidney Peel describes " A Seventeenth Ches- 
terfield," and the only other article is an interesting de- 
scription of the burial of the Japanese Minister, Prince 
Taruhito Arisugawa. 



THE NEW REVIEW. 

THE New Review is notable for its fiction, and also 
an article about the "Tyburn Tree," for every- 
thing relating to the gallows seems to have a strange 
fascination for the editor and his staff. 

A GOOD WORD FOR SEBVIA. 

fifr. Herbert Vivian, who has been traveling in the 
Balkans, writes an article upon his impressions of Ser- 
via which is in many respects a surprise. It is chiefiy 
surprising because it shows that Mr. Herbert Vivian caa 
write without extravagance and state facts as sensibly 
as if he were a commonplace, ordinary citizen. He has 
for once, at least, resolutely abandoned his favorite fan- 
tastical and paradoxical pose. Speaking of Servia. he 
says : 

'* As an ally in the solution of the perennial Eastern 
question her loyalty, her sturdy common-sense and her 
jealousy ot Russia may be invaluable to us. As a market 
for our cottons, iron, steel and machinery, and also as a 
granary more trustworthy and more accessible than 
those of the New Word, she may easily affect our com- 
mercial destiny. In any case she is a dainty miniature 
and cannot fail to please the eye of every artist. Beau- 
tiful Servia I My soul will always linger amid the rap- 
ture of thy purple hills." 



108 



THE REI^IEW OF RE^IEIVS. 



OTHKR ABTICLB& 

Mr. F. Boyle has a carious paper upon ^^ Sitting 
Down," a process which appears so natural to us that 
most readers would imagine that it was universal. But, 
says Mif Boyle : 

^* Reviewing, in fact, the population of the globe, it 
seems likely that the men and women who sit are less 
than 10 per cent. When we look closely it appears that 
only Europeans, their descendants and those whom they 
have instructed sit. The custom is not universal even 
in Europe." 

Mr. T. A. Archer, in an article entitled ^^ The Italians in 
Tunis," describes how the Sicilians conquered Sfax in 
the twelfth century. His point of view is stated in the 
following paragraph : 

'* It may be permitted to an Englishman to hope that, 
when the final break up of the Turkish Empire is accom- 
plished, Italy, though she has now lost Sfax and Mahdia, 
Tunis and Bona, and all the other African conquests of 
her great King Roger, may succeed in saving Tripoli from 
the jaws of France." 



THE NATIONAL REVIEW. 

THE article on Qovemor Altgeld, of Illinois, is the 
chief feature in the December number of the 
Naiiohal^ and is reviewed elsewhere. 

SAIBXY QAICP SEGUNDA. 

Sairey Gamp, as Dickens portrayed her, is dead. In 
her place we have the modem nurse of to-day, of whom 
none can speak too highly ; but according to Miss Emma 
L. Watson, who is responsible for the article entitled 
"Some Remarks on Modem Nurses," by "One of 
Them," Sairey G^amp Seounda is even more objection- 
able than her mother. Miss Watson, although she calls 
herself a modem xmrse, admits that she is an old-fash- 
ioned nurse with old-fashioned notions, and, therefore, 
she lifts up her voice on high to proclaim how much she 
has been shocked about the unseemly behavior in public 
of certain young women in nurses' dress. These dread- 
ful young females, the Misses Sairey Gkunp, are thus 
flagellated by their old-fashioned sister : 

" No profession was ever started with higher aims, 
fairer hopes or brighter prospects ; and now, through 
the thoughtless misbehavior of a lot of light-minded, 
silly women, who ought never to have been allowed to 
enter a hospital for work at all, the whole thing will 
come to grief unless some change takes place, for there 
is no gainsaying the fact that there is a growing dislike 
to nurses, especially among quiet people. I know many 
who will put up with anything rather than run the risk 
of having one of these undesirable young women in their 
homes, for fear they may intrigue with the servants, 
upset the harmony and general arrangements of the 
house, carry on desperate flirtations with unblushing 
effrontery with the male members of the family, and tell 
improbable and outrageous stories to the women. It is 
a great pity that these objectionable persons cannot be 
weeded out of the nursing world altogether, but I don't 
see well how that can be done while the public continue 
to i>atronize the private institutions which make large 
incomes out of the earnings of nurses, and which care so 
little about the character of the women they employ so 
long as they bring grist to the mill." 

Probably in the last sentence the real gist of the arti- 



cle lies. It is an attack not so much upon the modem 
nurse as the modem nursing institution. 

FRIENDLY SOCIETIES FOR WOMEN. 

Miss ELaldane writes a paper under this title, in which 
she sets forth what has been done in the direction of 
forming associations for the promotion of thrift among 
the female members of the working class. She says : 

" It signifies a movement in which much may be done 
by those who wish to share in it ; it represents an at- 
tractive method of inculcating thrift. But thrift in itself 
is a somewhat negative and barren virtue, and it repre- 
sents, what is more important, a new educational factor 
in the lives of the greater half of the population of our 
islands. Its work is practically before it, and it is work 
which presents large possibilities of future attainment. 
It helps those who i>articipate in it to help themselves, 
and it is only when men and women put forth an effort 
on their own account that any real benefit is attained." 

THE FUTURE OF SOUTH AFRICA. 

Mr. W. F. Bailey writes an article on the " Native 
Problem in South Africa." He sums up as follows : 

'*The general conclusion may be drawn that South 
Africa, as a whole, will never be a white man's country 
in the same sense as are the United States of America, 
Canada, Australia or New Zealand. The bulk ot the 
labor of the community will not fall on the European in- 
habitants. The country will afford no outlet for the 
teeming, laboring populations of England or the Conti- 
nent. Skilled laborers and artisans will doubtless find 
employment there, but the pick-and-shovel man had 
best keep out of the country. It will rather resemble 
India and Oeylon than Australia and New Zealand. 
Europeans will always find in it an outlet for their ener- 
gies, an opening for the employment of their capital 
and an opportunity for adding to their wealth. Its cli- 
mate is far more suitable for them than that of Indu^ 
and were South Africa without its native races it might 
have a career like unto that of Victoria or New South 
Wales, Colorado or California. But we must judge of 
the future of the country by the tendencies that environ 
it, and its destiny is limited and controlled by racial 
conditions from which there is no escape." 

A GOOD WORD FOR LORD ABERDEEN. 

The Agent-General for New Zealand, writing on the 
" Functions of a CJoveraor Gteneral," defends Lord Aber- 
deen from the attack made on him by Sir Charles Tup- 
per, who complained bitterly that Lord Aberdeen had 
refused to act upon his recommendations when some of 
Sir Charles Tupper's nominees, who were nominated 
after the constituencies had returned a majority against 
Sir Charles Tupper. Mr. Beeves says : 

" Is it desirable that governors should be made instru- 
ments for exasperating colonial democracies against both 
Second Chambers and the Imperial Connection ? If that 
be desirable, then the more often governors take such 
advice as Lord Aberdeen declined to take from the Tup- 
per Ministry the better. But surely it is preferable that 
the vexed que^^tion of the existence and form of Colonial 
Second Chambers should be settled on its own merits 
rather than that these bodies should be brought into dis- 
credit with the mass of the electors by being made— 
from the democratic point of view— worse than they 
already are, and made so by unfair interference. The 
approval which I am convinced' that Lord Aberdeen'^ 
firmness will receive from colonists everywhere need 
not be and should not be confined to a section or a party." 



THE PERIODICALS REVIEWED, 



109 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW. 

THE Fortnightly Review for December, notwith- 
standing that it contains some useful articles^ and 
one or two that are brilliant enough, leaves a heavy im- 
pression. Dr. Dillon's article on " Germany's Foreign 
Policy/' although as instructive as a professor's lecture, 
is almost entirely historicaL So is Mr. Wilson's paper 
on " Arbitration," and the worst of that paper is that 
its history is misleading and inaccurate. For instance, 
what can be thought of an historian of the working of 
arbitration who is either ignorant of or willfully sup- 
presses the facts concemiug the arrangements for the 
settlement of the claims under the Behring Sea award ? 
Mr. Karl Blind's account of ** Young Turkey " is also old 
history, and even the paper on the *' Impending Famine 
in India " is seven-eighths history ; in fact, the Fort- 
nif^ly Review is almost an historical handbook this 
month. We notice among the leading articles the two 
papers on German foreign policy and Prince Bismarck's 
rev^ations and Mr. Hardy's " Lessons from the Ameri- 
can Election." 

THE NEW FRENCH ACADEMICIAN. 

Madame Blaze de Bury writes a very appreciative 
notice oi M. le Due d' Aumale, the writer who, at the age 
of forty, has been elected to succeed M. de Lisle in the 
French Academy. She says : 

" If one may say of Brunetidre that he is the Bona- 
pirte of onr criticism, of Lemaitre that he is its Mazarin 
for penetration and subtlety, one may say of Anatole 
France, neglecting examples of statesmen in the com- 
pariaofn, that he is the Voltaire of his epoch— a Voltaire 
whose philosophy is felt in his fanciful writings, a Vol- 
taire whose verve brealcs out in his Nouvelles and criti- 
atma, a Voltaire without a Frederick. And yet who 
knows f Perhaps we would not have to seek far among 
the co r respondents of onr author in order to find the in- 
teQectaal small-change of the King of Prussia." 

AN OLD NONCONFOBMI8T INDEED I 

Mr. H. H. Bompas, Q.C., writes a paper on the ** Edn- 
cstioB bill" from the old Nonconformist standpoint. 
Then is not much snap in it, bnt the chief points which 
Mr. Bompas makes may be found in the following ez- 

** There was in some of the provisions and in some of 
tlie omissions of the government bill good reason for 
ot^^ection by Nonconformists even of the old school. But 
the Bill was, as a whole, however, largely in favor of the 
very principles for which Nonconformists have always 
oootended, and ft is to be feared that it was opposed by 
many merely out of hostility to the party by whom it 
was introdaced. From whichever source the money is 
to be fonind, there cannot be, consistently with the prin- 
ciples held by the older Nonconformists, any control by 
the state or local authority of the voluntary schools, but 
only sach inspection as shall be sufficient to secure that 
the money is properly expended and the secular educa- 
tion duly given.'* 

OTHER ARTICLES. 

Mr. J. A. Murray writes enthusiastically upon a favor- 
ite sabject of many es8a3rist8, the Persian poet, Omar 
Kbayjram. Mr. H. H. Statham criticises adversely the 
decudon of the Select Committee on the proposed new 
government offices. He says : 

" The first thing that has to be recognized is that no 



War Office architecturally worthy of the nation can 
possibly be built on the site as recommended by the 
Select Committee of this year." 

There is a brief paper by the author of " Dodo," which 
but for the signature might have been mistaken for the 
work of a woman. Professor Ray Lankester contributes 
a letter defending his statements and judgments con- 
cerning Mr. Rhodes' book. 



THE WESTMINSTER REVIEW. 

THERE are a number of interesting discussions on a 
variety of subjects in the December Westminster, 
bnt none belonging in the front rank of importance. 
Bfr. R. Seymour Long writes on Socialism and militarism, 
and argues that it is in the widespread of the Socialist 
movement in modem Europe, and in the international 
and cosmopolitan character which it has assumed, that 
the most reasonable hopes are afforded of the over- 
throw of the military system everywhere and the disap* 
pearance of war from the civilized world. He therefore 
asks lovers of peace whether they ought not to throw in 
their lot with the Socialist movement. 

ARBITRATION VS. WAR. 

J. B. W. C argues in favor of Lord Salisbury's 

restriction of arbitration as a substitute for war, and 
insists that in the instances he would except it would be 
an evil thing for the arbitral court either to decline to 
decide or to give a dedsion that will not be accepted. 
The non-accei»tance of a decision would so prejudice the 
public opinion of the world against a nation that no 
nation would readily incur such a risk. Bnt conciliation 
might effect what the writer thinks arbitration could 
not touch. 

H J writing on the situation in Ireland, considers 

that Mr. Healy is now almost completely isolated, with 
no sui>porters in Ireland, and that the recent Dublin 
Convention will speedily bring about the xmification and 
solidarity of the Irish party. The baneful tendency to 
resort to secret societies which Pamell first nearly 
crushed and after his fall carefully revived may now 
soon be as nearly repressed again. 

Mr. G. A. B. Dewar compares the old M. P. and the 
new, and concludes that the average legislator of the 
second half of the century is well in advance of the legis- 
lator in the first half in incorruptness, in keenness for 
politics, in devotion to work and in grip of public ques- 
tions, but not in ^' tact, courage, good temper, courtesy," 
and in respect of independence is considerably behind. 

COTTAGE HOMES FOR CHILDREN. 

Miss Joanna M. Hill contrasts cottage homes with 
" boarding out " for pauper children, and strongly urges 
the superiority of the latter system. It is not only less 
costly : it offers a real home and not a pseudo home to 
the little ones. 

Mr. W. N. Shansfleld, in a rejoinder to Mr. Wilson's 
depreciation of modem journalism, denies that culture 
and literary ability are less sought after now than be- 
fore. Newspapers depend, not merely on number of sub- 
scribers, but on their quality ; for quality of constitu 
ency affects the income from advertisements, a commer- 
cial condition which no new8pai)er can neglect. The 
superior writer attracts the readers whom advertisers 
wish to reach. 



110 



THE REVIEIV OF REf^/ElVS. 



T 



CORNHILL. 

HE December number of Comhill is predominantly 
historical. 

MATTHEW ARNOLD'S 0HKI8TIAKITT. 

It opens with a paper on ♦* The Greatest of Anniversa- 
ries,'* by Eev. H. C. Beeching. This is a statement of 
the Christian religion which is well written, bnt which 
owes its distinction to the fact that it is a criticism of 
Biatthew Arnold's version of Christianity as set forth in 
the i>ages of Comhill many years ago. He argnes against 
the idea that Christianity is Stoicism touched with emo- 
tion, contending that the revelation given by Jesus was 
theological and dynamic rather than moraL 

'' The Christian religion, unlike Stoicism, centres in a 
)>er8on. Its precepts of morality are excellent, its law 
of love to all mankind is such that it makes it possible 
and easy to keep them all— but how will it be found pos- 
sible to keep the law of love f The answer is, through 
love to Christ. This, and not 'inwardness,' not 'self* 
renouncement,' was Christ*s method and secret. We 
love Him because He first loved us, and in Him we love 
our brethren." 

OOLDWIN SMITH ON OEOROK ni. 

Mr. Gh>ldwin Smith writes a character sketch of 
George m. He thus sums up the moral of his story : 

** To what the world will advance or revert from this 
system of government by party, the caucus, the plat- 
form and those moral civil wars which we call general 
elections, nobody yet foresees ; but it may safely be said 
that personal government — ^by a sovereign without re- 
sponsibility—has been tried at sufficient cost and has 
most decisively failed." 

A POET IN STONE. 

The Bishop of Peterborough's address on St. Edward 
the Confessor, which was deUvered on the festival of the 
saint's translation, is now given in full. 

" Edward was a poet, whose poem was written in 
stone. * He sang of what the world would be when the 
ages had passed away. ' He set up the palace and monas- 
tery of Westminster as a symbol of that Divine order 
which must bring harmony into the world's affairs. 
. . . Rulers and statesmen have nothing to learn 
from his achievements. But his gracious spirit, his fine 
feeling, his love of righteousness, his care for justice— 
these are qualities which can never be out of date." 

OTHER ARTICLES. 

A vivacious account of the marvelous life and adven- 
tures of Beau Brummell, by Mr. A. H. Shand, and a chatty 
paper on " Duelling in France," by Mr. J. Pemberton* 
Grund, are articles worthy of special attention. The 
Private Diarist tries to gibbet the Temple, but not suc- 
ceeding to his desire, wishes Matthew Arnold back again 
to play censor. 

THE PROGRESSIVE REVIEW. 

THE Progressive Review for December contains a 
poem by Mr. Alfred Hayes, which is distinctly 
above the average, addressed to the expiring century. 

THE DTINO AOB. 

After describing the age, Mr. ELayes asks questions 
which will ever obtrude themselves in the midst of our 
constant jubilation over peace, profirress and prosperity. 



" Of what avail to tame the lightning's speed. 
To quell the waves and hold the winds in leash. 
If health no more be labor's meed. 
If love be smothered, honor spumed. 
And beauty crushed in Mammon^s blind stampede t 

What boots it to have turned 
The soil's dull sons to nervous factory-slaves, 
If pain that stunts, if pleasure that depraves 
Hurry the haggard millions to their graves t 
What gain to have been orphaned of our God« 

To know, when worms destroy 
Man's frame, his spirit lies beneath the sod. 
If soul thereby be sacrificed to fiesh. 
If Christ be crudfled each day afresh f 

What profits it to heap 
Hoard upon hoard in hideous towns, and miss 
The pure sky and the sweet air's kiss, 

To weigh the stars and lack the gift of joy. 
Outstrip the storm and lose the boon of sleep ? " 

PARISH COUNCILS AND THE HOUSES OF THE POOR. 

One of the writers in the Review, discussing the ques- 
tion of " The Housing of the Poor in Their Own Dis- 
tricts," makes a practical proxK>8al which is worth not- 
ing. His idea is to " suggest that parish councils should 
have powers for providing cottages similar to those they 
now possess for providing allotments. A parish council 
can provide allotments without reference to or consent 
from any other public authority, provided that it can 
carry the business through by voluntary local agree- 
ments. But if it is unable to do that, and desires to use 
its comxmlsory powers, then the consent of the county 
council must be obtained." 

MR. KEIR HARDIB AND HIS PARTY. 

Mr. Keir Hardie and Mr. Herbert Samuel cross swords 
over the right policy of the Independent Labor party. 
Mr. Hardie, as usual, thinks that the stars in their 
courses are fighting for him, and that the Liberal party 
is so dead that nothing remains to be done than to estab- 
lish the Independent Labor party in its place. 

♦* Public opinion is swinging roimd to our point of 
view. Temperance people, land restorers and others 
are feeling more and more S3rmpathy with the fighting 
spirit shown by the Independent Labor party. It may 
take a quarter of a century before the Independent 
Labor party becomes the dominant factor in politics in 
Great Britain ; but when the end has been acccom- 
plished the common people will Indeed be established in 
the seat of power. The alternative to being independ- 
ent is to trust to Liberalism, and, as I have shown. Lib- 
eralism is impotent. It has served its day ; and mo man 
in his senses would dream of uniting the acting living 
present with the dead or dying past." 

He might, says Mr. Hardie, have made a bargain with 
the Liberal Party by which he could have secured a seat 
in East Bradford, but ** anything savoring of an alliance, 
or a fusion, or a compromise, with either the Liberal or 
the Tory parties would destroy the faith of these men 
and shatter the Independent Labor party movement. 
It is probable that had I cared to meet the Liberals half- 
way in East Bradford no Liberal candidate would have 
been brought forward, and I might have won the seat, 
X)artly on the strength of Liberal support. But it would 
have been a costly victory." 

THE GERMAN SOCIAL DCMOCRATS. 

There is rather an interesting article about the Qer- 
man Social Democratic movement, which gives a glimpse 



THE PERIODICALS RE^IEU^'ED. 



J 11 



of its Ldebknecht and bis paper, the Varwwrrts, which he 
edits for a salary of £860 a year. 

**Tho VoncaerU is a halfpenny paper with a daily 
dmdation of 50,000, audits profits are large/' 

It is dii&cnlt to carry on the work of social agitation 
in Qemumy. 

** For every German Socialist meeting (even the small- 
est local gathering) twenty-four hours' notice has to be 
given to the police in the district. At the commence- 
ment of the meeting the police officer marches in, with 
sword by his side, and seats himself by the chairman. 
He takes copious notes of the proceedings, and has the 
power to dissolve the meeting at a minute's notice." 

The writer of the article entitled *^ Modem Oxford " 
shakes his head over the university. He describes it as 
be sees it, and then says : 

*' Soch being the sodal conditions and intellectual bias 
of Oxford, it is little wonder that there is no study of 
political or social science at the university in any positive 
or realist sense." 



COSMOPOLIS. 

PROFESSOR MAX MILLER'S <^ Musical RecoUec- 
• tSons " in the October number are followed in 
December by " Literary Recollections," of which more 
■n to come in succeeding numbers. 

Henry W. Wolff reviews the history and prospects of 
practical co-operation in those countries where it has 
been most successful, and concludes as follows: 



*^ There is a great deal of work which in its own peace- 
able way it may do in all countries to improve the lot of 
the working classes, to spread education along with 
comfort and better economic conditions. In the settle- 
ment of the great social problem which is now before 
the world it looks as if it were destined to play no mean 
part. In performing that office one may well hope that 
it may succeed in realizing the high Ideals with which 
the originators of the movement, impelled by simple but 
powerful faith in their remedy, at a time when their 
method appeared like no more than a shepherd's stone 
to fling at the GK>liath of abuse, set out upon their course, 
which has already led to tolerably material results, giv- 
ing good promise of even better things in the future." 

Mr. Edward Dicey undertakes to show ^' Why England 
is Unpopular," but as an Englishmen he does not seem 
greatly concerned over the matter, for he asserts re- 
peatedly that ** insularity of mind " is an essential con- 
dition of England's moral success, just as insularity of 
I)Ofdtion is an essential condition of her material success. 
" If this insularity is incomi)atible with popularity, all 
we can do is to make the best of what for us, at any 
rate, is not on the whole a bad bargain." 

From Mr. Henry Norman's comment on international 
affairs we have quoted elsewhere at some length. 

In the French dei>artment the publication of Napoleon- 
Wellington papers is brought to a conclusion. 

Max Lenz contributes to the German section a study 
of '' Old and New Russian-French Alliances," and Her* 
man Helferich furnishes a sketch of E J. Poynter, the 
new president of the Royal Academy. 



THE FRENCH AND ITALIAN REVIEWS. 



THE REVUE DES DEUX MONDES. 

IT must be admitted that neither number of the Remne 
des Dttex Mondes for November is of surpassing in- 
terest or importance ; indeed, an ill-natured reviewer 
would probably call them both dull. 

THE T7NSKLFI8HNX88 OF FRANCS. 

To the first November number M. Fouill^ contributes 
a very charming and well-informed study of the genius 
of the French nation, both in other ages and to-day. 
The most typical quality of the French of to-day is, he 
thinks, a certain ideal of generosity, and he adds, truly 
— i'^g**^ that it is not from an excess of love and devo- 
tion for ideals that nations go wrong nowadays. On the 
oontrary, skepticism, prosaic utilitarianism, financial 
oorrnptton, the narrow politics ot partiea and interests, 
the selfish struggle of cl a ss e s such are the evils which 
most everywhere be combated in the name of ideals. If 
Fnuoe should renounce her worship of the ideal, of the 
■pirit of unselfishness, she would lose without any possi- 
ble oompensation that which has always formed her true 
moral strength. This kind of declaration is too vague, 
but if M. Foaill6e means that France sorely needs the 
creatiofn of a healthy public opinion, he is unquestiona- 
bly riglit. The average Englishman judges France by 
the novels of the boulevards, by Panama and by the 
•oenee In the Chamber whi<di the newspapers report 
with gnsto, and he has not the faintest notion of the 
real Franoe, energetic, frugal, prudent, highly moralized, 
Uglily cultivated, which lies below the surface scum. 
oermakt's burden. 

Coimt Benedetti concludes his interesting observations 
OB Gavoar and Bismarck, which he began in the second 



October number of the Remie. He attributes the crush- 
ing growth of German armaments to Prince Bismarck, 
who inconsiderately broke up the. good understanding 
which subsisted between the Courts of Berlin and St. 
Petersburg, and drove Russia into the arms of France, a 
providential agreement which, Count Benedetti thinks, 
is the sole pledge, at the present hour, of the peace and 
security of Europe. These views are x>articularly inter- 
esting in view of Bismarck's recent ** revelations '' in the 
Hamburger NachricMen and elsewhere and the signifi- 
cant debate in the Reichstag which followed. Count 
Benedetti is evidently eTpectant — i>erhaps it would not 
be doing him an injustice to say hopeful— of disaster for 
^3^«nnAny, staggering under the weight of her enormous 
military budgets, honeycombed with socialism, and split 
up by a widespread spirit of particularsim which not all 
the Emperor's fiamboyant appeals to the memory of his 
grandfather can crush. 

SHOULD THKRB BE AN AOE LIMIT FOB STATESMEN f 

With Count Benedetti's paper may be bracketed an 
able article by M. Valbert on the Prince de Mettemich 
and Bismarck. M. Valbert thinkfi that if some modem 
Plutarch were to arise and write full biographies of the 
two men, Mettemich and Bismarck, whose careers he 
has delicately sketched within the limits of an article, 
he would come to the conclusion that the greatest states- 
men are wrong to remain too long in power ; that the 
years of prosperity and triumph are followed with fatal 
certainty by the period of difficulties and mistakes. 
Mettemich made serious mistakes because he ended by 
believing himself inf alHble ; Bismarck has made serious 
mistakes because his personal hatreds have had an exces- 



112 



THE RE^IEIV OF REI^IEH^S. 



sive influence on his public actions. It is, as Count Pro- 
kesch von Osten said, the faculty which Bismarck lacks— 
the power of distinguishing things from persons. 



LA REVUE DE PAKIb. 

THE first number of the Revue de Paris is as literary 
and persona! in character as the second is social 
and political. Perhaps the most notable paper is the 
curious medical analysis of the genius and character of 
Emile Zola. 

A WARNING TO TURKEY. 

Of special interest at the present moment is a long let- 
ter, which bears every sign of being authentic, addressed 
by Fuad Pacha, a one-time Minister of Turkey, to the 
Sultan the day before his death, which occurred on Feb- 
ruary 11, 1869. In it the famous Turkish statesman 
seemed to have a prevision of all the misfortunes which 
lay in wait for the Ottoman Empire. Those who are 
now absorbed in the Armenian question must be re- 
ferred to the letter, which occupies many pages itself ; 
but one or two i)assages of this striking einstle may be 
quoted. 

" The voice which comes from the tomb is always sin- 
cere. Tour Empire is in danger. Our neighbors are not 
what they were two centuries ago ; they have all gone 
forward, we alone have gone back. Your Majesty's 
Emigre will be condemned to extinction unless within 
the next few years you can acquire as much monetary 
infiuence as has been acquired by Great Britain, as much 
knowledge as is possessed by France, and as many sol- 
diers as the Emperor of Russia can command. Our splen- 
did Empire contains all the elements necessary to surpass 
every other European power, but in order to accomplish 
this object one thing is absolutely necessary— we shall 
have to change all our pohtical and civil institutions.'' 

And then, soinewhat later : 

" Among our foreign allies you will always find Great 
Britain the most powerful and the most to be consid- 
ered ; her friendship is as faithful and solid as are her 
institutions ; she has bestowed on us iuunense assist- 
ance, and we cannot and we shall not be able to do with- 
out her help in the future. . . . I would prefer to 
lose many provinces rather than to see the Sublime 
Porte abandoned by England." 

And then, toward the end of this very curious and— if 
autnentic— valuable document : 

" The Sublime Porte must never tolerate any intrigues 
having for object that of preaching an alliance between 
the Armenians and the Orthodox Church. Still, our 
best policy will always be that of placing the state above 
all religious questions. In future our great Empire 
should belong neither to the Greeks nor to the Slaves, 
nor should one religion or one race necessarily predomi- 
nate. The Empii'e of the East will only keep itself up- 
right by the fusion and union of many peoples." 

This letter, which was written by Fuad Pacha at Nice, 
was sent to the then Sultan, but a copy was kept by his 
descendants, who have now judged it advisable to pub- 
lish it. 

In the second number of the Revus a considerable space 
is devoted to a long series of letters addressed by George 
Sand to Sainte-Beuve. 



FRENCH PRAISE OF TRADE UNIONIBM. 

Of more immediate value is M. de Bousier's very im- 
partial discussion of British trades unions. He seems 
to have studied the subject not only carefully, but with 
the utmost thoroughness, and on the whole his report is 
entirely in favor of trade unionism. Indeed, he evi- 
dently ascribes to it and to the efforts of those who have 
practically organized the great trades unions all the 
bettering of the condition of English workers during the 
last thirty-eight to forty years, although he admits that 
other thhigs have contributed to the present shorter- 
hours and higher wages. He was also very much struck 
by the fact that on the whole the unions and the princi- 
ples of trade unionism are popular in the country, and 
he i)ays a very high tribute not only to those men who 
have built up the unions, but also to most of the labor 
leaders. 



THE ITALIAN REVIEWS. 

IN the Civiltd Cattolica (November 7 and 21) the most 
noteworthy articles are two on the recent condem- 
nation of Anglican orders, well-informed and well- 
argued, which may be taken as summing up the most 
rigid Catholic point of view. But it was perhaps indis- 
creet of the Jesuit author to dwell at the outset on '* the 
unanimous applause and the sincere expressions of satis- 
faction and gratitude" with which the English Catholics 
received the dedsion. 

To the Nuova Antologia Edmondo de Amids contrib- 
utes in a symi)athetic and gossiping strain personal im- 
pressions of both Jules Verne and Victorien Sardou. 
The former, whom the Italian author appears to hold in 
somewhat extravagant literary estimation, he describes 
as possessed of a kindly face, without any artistic vivac- 
ity, and a simple, imaffected manner, and as living the 
life of a bon bourgeois at Amiens, going to bed every 
night at eight o'clock and rising at four o'clock to write 
his tales of adventure, and being apparently more proud 
of the fact that he is a municipal councillor than the 
author of eighty volumes of romance. What struck hiim 
most in Sardou was "his strange, jMle, clean-shaven 
face, with his long nose and pointed chin, strongly 
marked and irregular features, lit up by a pair of pale 
gray eyes, at once sparkling and thoughtful, whose 
eager glances seemed to be in harmony with the rapid 
movements of his thin, sinuous lii>s, subtle yet benevo- 
lent, on which hovered the vivacious and gently jocular 
smile of youth. To look at he might be sixty— to listen 
to he is far younger." 

Continuing his articles on " The Kingdom of Minos," 
Sgr. Mariani declares the Christian population, accord- 
ing to the only recent census, to be over 206,000, whereas 
the Moslems only number 78,000. He protests strongly 
against any European suzerainty, whether of England or 
of France, over the island, and declares emphatically 
that autonomy is the only alternative to annexation to 
Greece, which is what the Cretan C*hristians would 
prefer. 

The Rassegna Nazionale contains, among other arti- 
cles, one on the Catholic rural banks of Northern Italy, 
which have produced much controversy of late, and a 
long and solid article on ** Empirical Finance," in which 
the writer. F. Bervaldo, takes a very unfavorable view 
of Italy's financial condition. 



THE NEW BOOKS. 



RECENT AMERICAN PUBLICATIONS. 



HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY. 

Andent Ideals, by Henry Osborn Taylor (Putnam's), 
is a learned work in two volmnes dealing with the moral 
&nd intellectual progress of the race from the begin- 
nings of history to the Christian era The author truly 
aays that our judgment of the i>a8t is modified, not merely 
by increasing knowledge, but by our own changing 
point of view as well. A fresh study such as this of the 
great civilizationB of antiquity is both stimulating and 
helpful to a fuller appreciation of bur complex modem 
life. 

Dr. Mahatfy's Survey of Greek Civilization (Chautau- 
qua-Century Press) is another book of this class. This 
anther's previous studies of Greek life have made him a 
Tf^cognixed authority on the subject. The present work, 
like several of its predecessors, is included in the Chau- 
tauqua Beading Circle literature. 

Kor should we omit mention here of a book entitled 
Ancient CivUizcUians, by George Shelley Hughs, a prin- 
ter, of Des Moines, Iowa, who himself set the t3ri>e from 
which the volume was printed. We should not recom- 
mend this work as an authority, but as a i^ychological 
study it has interest, and the mere fact that a toiler at 
the case should take the pains to write it is not without 
significance. 

In Aubrey's Rise and Ortnoih of the English Nation 
(Appleton) we have a three-volume history of England 
brought down to 1885, written with special reference to 
great crises and epochs, and very thoroughly equipped 
with bibliographical and other aids to the student. 

Professor George Burton Adams' Orototh of the French 
Naticn (CluMitauqua-Century Press) is a remarkably 
dear and compact review of the really essential features 
in French history, though of course many important 
topics are necessarily omitted. The volume is well illus- 
trated and supplied with majw. 

Albert D. Vandam's Undercurrents of the Second Em- 
pire (Putnam's) is a republication of the papers which 
appeared daring 1805 in the North American Review. 
One may get from this volume the results of an observ- 
ant EngliHhman's studies concerning Louis Napoleon's 
rise to power and the subsequent excesses of Ms dynasty, 
with their woeful consequences to France. 

The Revolution of 1848 forms the chief subject of 
Alexis de Tocqueville's Recollections^ edited by the 
Comte de Tocqneville, and now first translated into 
English (Macmillan). This narrative has the marked 
advantage of having been written by a prominent par- 
ticipant in the acts which it describes, and as it was not 
intended by the author to be read by his contemporaries 
no motive for untruthfulness can be assigned to it. 

The Memoirs of Mgr. de Saiamon (Little, Brown & 
Co.) take us back still further in French history. Their 
author was the Papal Internuncio at Paris in the event- 
tul years 1709^1801. He was imprisoned at the Abbaye 

with many other Catholic priests, suffered proscription 

under Robespierre, escaped pursuit, was arrested under 

the Directory, tried and finally acquitted. 



The *• Story of the Nations " series (Putnam's) has 
been made richer by the addition of a volume on Canada 
from the pen of Dr. J. G. Bourinot, Clerk of the Cana- 
dian House of ConmiOQs, and the author of several works 
on the constitutional history of the Dominion. Dr. 
Bourinot's book is both scholarly and readable. It is 
supphed with numerous portraits and other illustrations 
and several maps and plans important to the narrative. 

Professor David F. Houston's Critical Study of Nulli- 
fication in South Carolirui, forming the third volume in 
the Harvard Historical Studies (Longmans), is signifi- 
cant because of the method of treatment which the 
author has adopted. His aim has been to look at the 
nullification movement from within, and to avoid read- 
ing history backward. In other words, he considers the 
South Carolina bent in the direction of nullification as a 
I>opular tendency, and he proceeds to analyze that tend- 
ency, irrespective of the views of individual leaders. 




DR. W. H. S. AUBREY, 

Author of ** Rise and Growth of the EngUsh Nation." 

In Curious Punishments of Bygone Days (Herbert S. 
Stone & Co.) Mrs. Alice Morse Elarle has collected a 
fund of information regarding the methods of punish- 
ment employed by our ancestors. Several quaint illus- 
trations accompany the text. 

The True Oeorge Washington, by Paul Leicester Ford 
(Lippincott), is an attempt to make known to us those 
sides of Washing^n's character which have been most 
neglected by earlier biographers. The bulk of the book 
is devoted to such topics as ** Family Relations," ** Rela- 
tions with the Fair Sex," *' Farmer and Proprietor," 
*' Master and Employer," "Social Life," ** Tastes and 
Amusements," ** Friends and Enemies," and it must be 



114 



THE REyiEU^ OF RE^IEiVS. 



conceded that these subjects are treated with a fullness 
and candor that leave nothing to be desired. Washing- 
ton's military career, on the other hand, is dismissed in 
a single chapter of twenty-five pages, while for Wash- 
ington as "Citizen and Oflftce-Holder " a concluding 
chapter of eighteen pages is deemed sufScient. Mr. 
Ford's work throughout is based on a study of the orig- 
inal sources, and much of the material embodied in the 
volume is now published for the first time. The illustra- 
tions are pertinent and interesting. Mr. Ford has made 
a laudable endeavor to *^ humanize "his hero, but this 
object has not been attained without a certain sacrifice 
of proiKjrtion. 

It is seldom that a man finds> himself at thirty-five 
the subject of a four-hundred-page biography published 
in two languages and read in every civilized land. That 
is the unusual experience of Fridtiof Nansen, an account 
of whose life has just been translated from the Scandi- 
navian by William Archer (Longmans). Appearing so 
soon after the announcement of Nansen's remarkable 
achievements in Arctic exploration, the book has a 
timeliness possessed by no other biography of the year, 
and everything points to its immediate success. The 
illustrations include nearly a score of portraits of Nan- 
sen himself, several of Mrs. Nansen and of members of 
the exx>editions, and various Arctic scenes. There are 
also maps and pictures of the Fram. 

Two studies of Walt Whitman have apx)eared during 
the past few weeks. That by John Bmroughs (Hough- 
ton, Mifflin & Ck).) is essentially an appreciation of 
Whitman's relation to the controlling forces of his time. 
It is only slightly concerned with biographical details. 
The volume by Thomas Donaldson (Francis P. Harper), 
on the other hand, is almost exclusively devoted to 
Whitman's life in Camden from 1873 to 18d3. Several 
facsimiles of Whitman manascripts are presented, and 
there is much other material, now published for the first 
time, which will interest the friends of the ** good gray, 
poet." 




DR. FRIDTIOF NANSEN. 



TRAVEL AND DESCRIPTION. 

Several entertaining books of travel have appeared 
since our December number went to press. Noteworthy 
among these is In and Beyond the Himalayas, by S. J. 
Stone (Edwai*d Arnold) . This is an account of a more 
adventurous form of si)ort^han falls to the lot of most 
moderns. Indeed, it introduces a group of animals such 
as few Caucasians ever encounter outside the menagerie 
or zoo. The illustrations, by Charles Whymper, are 
spirited and clever. 

Timbuctoo the Mysterious^ by Felix Dabois, has been 
translated from the French by Diana White and brought 
out in a richly illustrated volume by Ix>ngman8, Green 
& Co. No less than one hundred and fifty photographs 
and drawings " made on the spot " are reproduced, to- 
gether with many maps and plans. 

A GirVs Wanderings in Hungary, by H. Ellen Brown- 
ing (Longmans), is a delightful series of travel-sketches 
which charms by its very unpretentiousness. It is, in 
fact, a study of the people rather than of the country. 
The volume is well illustrated. 

Dragons and Cherry- Blossoms, by Mrs. Robert C. Mor- 
ris (Dodd, Mead & Co.), is another of those fascinating 
descriptions of Japanese life in which the last few years 
have been so prolific. We welcome them all, for each 
new volume has a fresh point of view, and for those of 
us who must see the Orient through others' eyes the 



field is in no danger of being overworked. The pictures 
which adorn Mrs. Morris' pages are as dainty and grace- 
ful in their way as any that the books of this season 
have to show. 

In a volume entitled On the Broads (Macmillan) Anna 
Bowman Dodd gives the reader a taste of cruising exi>e- 
riences in the little English rivers of the district lying 
*' between the sea-beaches of Yarmouth and Lowestoft, 
the grain-fields of Wroxham and the crowded river- 
wharves of Norwich." Yachting in this region has long 
been a favorite summer pastime in England. Mr. Joseph 
Pennell supplies the illustrations of the book, which are 
decidedly helpful to an appreciation of the text. 

Another book which is full of bits of Mr. Pennell's 
artistic handiwork is a new edition of Irving's Alhcan- 
bi'u (Macmillan), with an appreciative introduction by 
Mrs. Pennell. All of the principal places mentioned by 
Irving are represented in Mr. Pennell's drawings. 

A Mountain Town in France, by Robert Louis Steven- 
son, with fine illustrations by the author (John Lane : 
the Bodley Head) is one of the surprises of the season. 
This account of btevenson's stay at Le Monastier in the 
autumn ot 1878 was intended to serve as the opening 
chapter of his Travels with a Donkey in the Cevennes ; 
but the intention was abandoned in favor of a more 
abrupt beginning, and the fragment is now printed for 
the first time. 

Clifton Johnson's Bnok of Country Clouds and Swu' 



THE NEIV BOOKS. 



115 



dUM (L«e ft Sbepard) is not, as the preface explains, 
deioted wholly to the ** Cionds and Sunshine " of exter- 
Bil oatnre. The anthor directs his attention rather to 
the ligiita and shades of New England farm life Mr. 
Johnson^s work, both with pen and camera, is fall of 
haman interest. Nnmerous half-tones from pboto- 
gnpbs made by the anthor illustrate the text. Alto- 
gether, the book makes a most appropriate companion 
vohtme to Mr. Johnson's New England Country, 

niat indnstrions and judicious compiler, Mr. Charles 
Morria, has essayed a new task in gathering into a four- 
vohime series of Half Hours of Travel (Ldppincott) ex- 
tncts from the accounts of travelers over every portion 
of the inhabited globe. Bfr. Morris has fully succeeded 
is giving variety to his selections, and at the same time 
bis maintained high literary and scientific standards. 
T^ Mt is illustrated. 

POLITICS AND SOCIOLOGY. 

hi the fiood of attractively printed publications pecul- 
iar to this season of the year we must not overlook 
tboie more serious literary efforts which have claims to 
coosidenition because of intrinsic and permanent merits. 
Maoysnch works are making their first app4;arance even 
in these weeks of the customary holiday distraction. 
One of the most imi>ortant of these is Mr. A. Lawrence 
Laiwell*8 Oovemments and Parties in Continental 
E^ropt, in two volumes (Houghton, Mifflin 9r Co.l. The 
isfonnation embodied in these volumes is truly encyclo- 
pedic, but the author's treatment of the subject differs 
frao the ordinary encyclopeedia's treatment of it in 
that SB attempt is made to show how the various 
govemmente actually work, not merely how they are 
pfeimed to work, and especially to examine the activi- 
ties of those dynamos in politics, the parties. Mr. 
Lowell*s book is the fruit of long and exhaustive study, 
aadillomines the whole subject of European govern- 
ment. 

The one-volume abridgment of Bryce's American 
(^mmonweoUth (Macmillan) for the use of students 
meeti a general demand in schools and colleges for a 
oooTenient text-book of American institutions. In the 
work of practically remaking his book for this purpose 
Mr. Bryoe has had the assistance of Professor Macy of 
Iowa College. It is fortunate that this enlarged use of 
the standard treatise of its class has been made possible, 
sad that the author's own labors have contributed to 
thattesult. 

Mr. Herbert Wolcott Bowen, United States Consul at 
Btfoelona, Spain, has prepared a brief treatise on Inter- 
nationuil Law : a Simple Statement of Its Principles (Put- 
Dsm'sj, based chiefiy on the works of Wheaton, Woolsey 
sad Wharton. We note also the publication of the pro- 
Oicdings of the Washington conference on international 
artntration held in Apnl last (Baker & Taylor Com- 

In A General Freight and Passenger Post (Putnam's) 
Mr. James Lewis Cowles offers *' a practical solution of 
the railrotid problem " in the form of a proposition to 
apply the principles of the postal service to the whole 
bnsinesB of transportation, the general government tak- 
ing to itself the control of that business. Mr. Cowles 
makes a very effective presentation of his case. 

The American Economic Association has recently 
ivoed several important publications, the most elabo- 
rate of which is Mr. Frederick L. Hoffman's survey of 
the Race TraiU and Tendencies of the American Negro. 



This writer's conclusions in respect to the colored race 
in the United States and its prospects are, we regret to 
say, most dismal and disheartening. 

Professor Irving Fisher's pamphlet on Appreciation 
and Interest deals with a phase of the bimetallic contro- 
versy which has received comparatively little attention 
from economists in the past. The point of view is that 
of the monometallist. 

Mr. Albert Griffin's Key Note is a forcible statement 
of the views of those who oppose our present banking 
system and the extensive use of credit substitutes for 
money, which in Mr. Griffin's opinion has been 'Hhe 
cause of every commercial i>anic ever known." 

Mr. Thomas C. DevKn has written a little book on 
Municipal Reform in the United States (Putnam's ** Ques- 
tions of the Day " series), which ought to be helpful in 
awakening an interest in the subject of which it treats. 
The author's special aim has been to make his studies of 
the problem applicable to American conditions. 

Professor Lindley M. Keasbey's Nicaragua CaiuU and 
the Monroe Doctrine (Putnam's) is the first complete 
political history of Isthmus transit schemes, though 
written with special reference to the Nicaragua project. 
The writer makes no effort to conceal his national bias 
or his belief in the Monroe doctrine. We think it will 
be generally admitted, however, that Dr. Keasbey's 
treatment of his subject is both fair and clear. He 
makes plain the reasonable and proper attitude of the 
United States in the presence of the Clayton-Bulwer 
treaty, and he concedes all due weight to the claims of 
Great Britain. 

Armenians Ordeal^ by Armayis P. Vartooguian, con- 
tains several attacks on the work of Christian mission- 
aries in Turkey, with which, of course, the Review has 
no sympathy. As an ^* inside " view of the present situ- 
ation the book is not without its value, and m the main 
it is evidently based on intimate knowledge. 

Mr. Everett P. Wheeler*s address before the American 
Board at Toledo on The Duty of the United States of 
America to American Citizens in Turkey has been pub- 
lished in pamphlet foiTu (Re veil). We ccmmend it to 
our readers as an intelligent and impartial lawyer's 
statement of our nation's duty in the present crisis. It 
should be pondered at Washington. 

RELIGIOUS AND BfTHICAL BOOKS. 

The Prophets of the Christian Faith (Macmillan) is the 
title of a series of studies by noted leaders of modem 
Christian thought which has appeared during the past 
year in the Outlook^ and is now published in book form. 
The significance of the volume lies, to a great extent, in 
the exposition which it offers of the present-day concep- 
tion of prophecy, and in the somewhat varying points of 
view of the difterent contributors, all of whom are men 
of great eminence in one or another branch of the church 
visible. It is something to have the views of Dean 
Farrar on John Wesley, of Principal Fatrbaim on Jona- 
than Eki wards, of Protessor Adolf Hamack on Martin 
Luther, and of Dr. Francis Brown on " Isaiah as a 
Preacher," and Dr. Lyman Abbott's introductory chap- 
ter, written in answer to the question, " What is a 
Prophet ? " gives expression to the essential message of 
ail the prophets from Isaiah to Horace Busiinell. 

The Yale Lectures on Preaching for 1896 were deliv- 
ered by the Rev. Dr. John Watson, and have been pub- 
lished in a neat volume entitled The Cure of Souls (Dodd, 
Mead & Co.). These modest and unpretentious lectures, 



116 



THE REI^/Eiy OF REVIEWS. 



intended by Dr. Watson to remove some difficalties 
from the path of the humble ** theologue," can be prop- 
erly appreciated only by his brethren of the cloth, but 
they are likely to have a more general reading than 
usually falls to the lot of the Lyman Beecher Lectures, 
if for no other reason than that *' Ian Maclaren " wrote 
them. 

Dr. Lyman Abbott's Christianity and Social Problems 
(Houghton, Mifflin & Co.) in its literary form is an evo- 
lution from the lecture, the Plymouth sermon, the Out- 
look editorial, and the magazine or review article in 
which from time to time during many years Dr. Abbott's 
views on the social teachings of Christianity and their 
application to modem life have found expression. The 
book simply gathers up and enforces what the author 
has taught by other means for years, but it often em- 
ploys new illustrations to impress old truths, and it dis- 
closes the author's alert sense of the crying social needs 
of this new day. 

Like Dr. Abbott's book. Professor Richard T Ely's 
volume of essays on Tfie Social Law of Service (E^ton & 
Mains) deals, as he himself says, with topics belonging 
to that border land in which theology, ethics and eco- 
nomics meet. The author's point of view is so well 
known to our readers that it need<4 no exposition from 
us. His present work is devoted more generally than 
any of its predecessors to the consideration of the relig- 
ious life, both personal and social 

Of quite similar tenor is a little volume of sermons by 
the Rev. George T. Lemmon, entitled Better Things for 
Sons of Ood (Eaton & Mains). 

Jesus Christ Before His Ministry, by Edmund Stapfer, 
translated from the French by Louise Seymour Hough- 
ton (Scnbner's), is an Important addition to the litera- 
ture of the Christian faith. Professor Stapfer says of 
his undertaking : '* I would fain say what must have 
been the life of Jesus until His thirtieth year, by 
deducing from known facts some facts unknown, and 
X)ennitting myself only to observe and to relate.'* 
In other words, the author has set himself the task of the 
conscientious historian, and refrains from dogmatics. 

Professor A. W. Anthony, in An Introduction to the 
Life of Jesus (Silver, Burdett & (3o.), performs the very 
uf^ful service of placing at the reader's disposal the lat- 
est and most reliable information about the various his- 
torical sources relating to jthe facts of Christ's life and 
ministry. The book is well adapted for Sunday-school 
use. 

In T?ie Bible as Literature (T. Y. Crowell & Ck).) we 
have a valuable series of essays by competent scholars 
treating typical books of both Old and New Testaments 
in their literary asx>ectB, together with an illuminating 
chapter on the general theme by Professor Richard Q. 
Moulton and a discussion of ' The Influence of Biblical 
Upon Modem English Literature," by Professor Albert 
S. Cook of Yale. Dr. Lyman Abbott's introduction to 
this symposium is a remarkably clear and well-consid- 
ered exposition of the advantage of the literary method 
of Biblical study, and at the same time a sufficient an- 
swer to the objections raised by the partisan of the 
theological method. 

A little book that is acquiring a deserving prominence 
in connection with Bishop Vincent's ** New Education of 
the Church " movement, to which reference was made 
in President Hervey's article on Sunday-schools last 
month, is Heroes of Faith, by Burris A, Jenkins, D.B. 
(Funk & Wagnalls). This is really a study of the elev- 
enth chapter of the Epistle to the Hebrews in the origi- 



nal Greek, with an introduction by Professor Joseph H. 
Thayer, and many notes, references to authorities and 
other helps for beginners in New Testament Greek. 
There are twenty lesson-outlines for study and a literal 
interlinear translation of the whole chapter, with the 
two accepted versions in parallel columns on the oppo- 
site pages. 

A pamphlet issued by the Jewish Chautauqua Society 
(P. O. Box 825, Philadelphia), entitled The Open Bible, 
by Henry Berkowitz, contains thirty-two lessons in Old 
Testament history, arranged with special reference to 
the needs of readers enrolled in the Deitartment of Jew- 
ish Studies of the (Dhautauqua Literary and Scientific 
Circle. 

The Gospel in Brief by Count Tolstoi (T. Y. Crowell 
& Co.) is a hannony of the four Gospels , omitting all 
passages relating to the life of John the Baptist, Christ's 
birth and genealogy. His miracles. His resurrection, and 
the references to prophecies fulfilled in His life. It is 
meant to constitute an epitome of Christ's teachings, 
from which (Dount Tolstoi himself has derived the in- 
spiration of his own ethical and social creed. 

The Rev. Newell Dwight Hillis, Professor Swinfc's 
brilliant successor in the pulpit of (Jentral Church, Chi> 
cago, has just published an attractive volume of essays 
under the title, A Man's Value to Society (Revell). 
There is both practical and spiritual uplift in these 
studies. The sane and wholesome motive which under- 
lies them, even more than the grace of their verbal 
adornment, assures their popnlanty and usefulness. 

The elaborate disquisition on *' Aristotle and the 
Christian Church " in the volume of Essays Philosoph- 
ical^ by Brother Azarias (D. H. McBnde & Co.), is well 
worthy of the attention of students and thinkers gen- 
erally. There are other important papers in the volume 
—notably one on ** The Ethical Aspects of the Papal 
Encyclical on Labor.*' A preface is furnished by Bishop 
Keane. 

One of the few important contributions of the past 
year to dogmatic theology is the volume of Princeton 
lectures on The Nicene Theology, by Dr. Hugh M. Scott 
(Cliicago Theological Seminary Press). Students will 
find Dr. Scott's exposition of Ritschl and other great 
German critics of the present day especially suggestive. 

SCIBNTIFIC WORKS. 

Genius and Degeneration, by Dr. William Hirsch, has 
been translated from the German, and appears in a hand- 
some American edition (Appleton). This work, whidi 
has been generally accepted as a scientific reply to Nor- 
dau's famous Degeneration, was really begun before the 
latter was published. It opposes Nordau's conclusions 
in almost every i)articular. The author's discussion of 
art and insanity is especially luminous. 

Several recent books in the department of biology 
merit notice. Among these perhaps first place should 
be accorded to Professor Richard Hertwig's General 
Principles of Zoology, which has been translated by Pro- 
fessor G. W. Field of Brown University (Henry Holt & 
Ck).). The volume comprises the first piart of Professor 
Hertwig's Lehi'buch, and the translation has been made 
with the active co-operation of the author. 

An extremely important contribution to biological 
knowledge is Professor Edmund B. Wilson's treatise on 
The Cell in Development and Inheritance, the fourth vol- 
ume in the Columbia University Biological Series (Mao- 
millan). 



THE NEW BOOKS. 



117 



The Biological Lectures delivered at the Wood's Holl 
Marine Laboratory in the snmmer session of 1895 (Qinn 
ik Co. ) comprise a volome of great interest to natural- 
ists and of somewhat wider range than previous volumes 
of the series. 

President David Starr Jordan's Science Sketches (A. G. 




DR. WILLIAM HIRSCH, 

Author of " Gr«nla8 and Degeneration/^ 

McQurg A Co.) is in part a reprint of the series of arti* 
det which appeared under the same title in 1887, but 
much of that work has been entirely rewritten. Most 
of the articles deal with marine zoology, and several 
have appeared in popular periodicals. 

Life in Fbnds and StreamSy by W. Fumeaux (Long- 
mans) , makes no scientific pretensions at all, but is a 
practical naturalist's handbook and guide for collecting 
i^edmens of fresh-water life. The book is illustrated 
OD a moett elaborate plan. There are more than three 
kondred cate interspersed in the text, besides eight col- 
ored plates. 

THB FINE ARTS. 

The Story of Architecture^ by Charles Thompson Math- 
ews (Appleton), outlines the architectural styles of all 
countries, not neglecting America, or even Asia and the 
Orient. The writer describes most of the great master- 
pieces of which he specifically treats from personal 
knowledge. Naturally and justly, the most minute and 
eomprehensive treatment is accorded to European archi- 
tecture. Besides numerous full-page plates, there are 
nearly two hundred illustrations in the text. 

Ev,rapean Architecture^ by Russell Sturgis (Macmil- 
bn), is more distinctly an historical study. This volume 
ateo contains a great number of text-illustrations and a 
■enes of ten full-page plates of great beauty. Mr. Stur- 
f» has loQ^ held a commanding position as a student 
and writer in this i>articular field. 

Professor F. B. Tarbell's History of Greek Art (Chau- 
tanqua-Century Press), which forms a part of the Chau- 
tanqua '* required reading " for the current year, is so 
attractive io every way that the '* requirements," so far 
ai this book is concerned, must rest lightly on the 
dmutaoqua students. Professor Tarbell has really 
made a comprehensive and sufficiently detailed study of 
thetubject. without becoming in the slightest degree 
tsdioQs. The publishers have done their part well in 
pruriding effective illustrations. 



Professors Marquand and Frothingham of Princeton 
have prepared a convenient Text-Book of the History of 
Sculpture (Longmans), which api>ear8 in the series of 
"College Histories of Ait." The work includes a dis- 
cussion of modem sculpture. There are more than a 
hundred excellent lllufitrations. 

BOOKS FOR THB HOME. 

A single chapter-heading in the last of the three little 
volumes written by Kate Douglas Wiggin and Nora 
Archibald Smith and entitled The Republic of Childhood 
(Houghton, Miffiin & Co.) inclined us to classify these 
helpful books with the literature of home life rather 
than with that of pedagogical science. " The Kinder- 
garten as a School of Life for Women " is surely a sug- 
gestive phrase, and we are glad to see that in the last 
book of this excellent eerier— Kindergarten Principles 
and Practice— the relation of the subject to the mothers 
of the land is fully recognized, as indeed it is in the pre* 
ceding volumes. 

Mother, Baby and Nursery (Roberts Brothers), by 
Gtenevieve Tucker, M.D., is intended to serve as a com- 
pl<»te manual for the use of mothers in the care of cbil 
dren. A somewhat similar manual, devoted to dietetics 
exclusively, has been prepared by Mrs. Louise E. Hogan, 
and is entitled How to Feed Children (Lippincott) . 
These books anticiimte many of the perplexities and 
worries common to all mothers. 

The National Cook Book (Scribner*sS a new manual 
prepared by Marion Harland and (Christine Terhuue 
Herrick, is meeting with a kind reception at the hands 
of American housewives. The book contains a thousand 
recipes adapted to the American kitchen and thoroughly 
tested by the compilers. 

The Boston Cooking- School Cook Book (Little, Brown 
ft Co.), by Fannie Merritt Farmer, not only furnishes 
detailed practical directions for the preparation of 
dishes, but attempts a scientific classification of food 
values and offers many helpful suggestions. It is one of 
the fruits of the wi^ly conducted work of the Boston 
Cooking School, a model institution of its class. 

Miss Katharine B. Wood has compiled a unique volume 
of QuotcUions for Occasions (Century Company), de- 
signed to facilitate the practice of using appropriate 
quotations on dinner menus, invitations, etc. About 
twenty-five hundred such quotations are given, includ- 
ing special selections for various kinds of dinners, bicycle 
meets, teas, etc. 

Mrs. A. D. T. Whitney's charming series of Friendly 
Letters to Girl Friends (Houghton, Mifflin & Ck).) origi- 
nally appeared in the columns of the Ladies^ Home 
Journal, where they undoubtedly exerted a healthful 
infiuence on the lives of thousands of girl readers, who 
will welcome them in this new and revised form. 

Mrs. Monachesi's Manual for China Painters (Lee ft 
Shepard) is a most helpful and comprehensive treatise 
on that exquisite art. It is designed for beginners, and 
embodies the results of years of experience. An appen- 
dix contains colored plates showing one hundred and 
thirty-eight of the Lacroix mineral colors. 

Rough Notes on Pottery, by W. P. Jervis (published by 
the author at Newark, N. J.), is full of information 
about rare and fine earthenware of every description. 
Mr. Jervis is a practical man, whose every-day knowl- 
edge of the English and Continental potteries is very 
extensive, and whose ** Bough Notes "—a very inexpen- 
sive little volume— will supply many a woman with just 
the information she wants in filling her china-closet. 



118 



THE REl^IEIV OF RE^IEIVS^ 
THE NEW BOOKS: CLASSIFIED LIST OF TITLES. 



HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY. 

History of the German Struggle for Liberty. By Ponltney 
Bigelow, B.A. Two voIb., octavo, pp. 264-863. New 
York : Harper Ss Brothers. $6. 

Naval Actions of the War of 1812. By James Barnes. Oc- 
tavo, pp. 868. New York : Harper St Brothers. |4.fiO. 

Reminiscences of an Octogenarian of the City of New York 
(1816 to 1860). By Charles H. Haswell. Octavo, pp. 581. 
New York : UArp&r A Brothers. |3. 

The Beginners of a Nation : A History of the Sonrce and Rise 
of the Earliest English Settlements in America. By 
Ekiward Eggleston. Octavo, pp. 390. New York : D. Ap- 
pleton&Co. $1.60. 

Curious Punishments of Bygone Days. By Alice Morse 
Earle. 12mo, pp. 149. Chicago : Herbert S. Stone & Co. 
IL60. 

Ancient Civilizations. By G«orge Shelley Hughs. Octavo. 
Des Moines, Iowa : Published by the Author. |2. 

A Critical Study of Nullification in South Carolina. By 
David Franklin Houston, A.M. Octavo, pp. 169. New 
York : Longmans, Green St Co. $1.26. 

The Story of Canada. By J. G. Bourinot, LL.D. 12mo, pp. 
488. New York : O. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.60. 

The Seminoles of Florida. By Minnie Moore-Willson. 12mo, 
pp 126. Philadelphia : American Printing House. 

The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. 
By Edward Gibbon. In seven vols.. Vol. n. 12mo, pp. 
584. New York : The Macmillan Co. $L 

Undercurrents of the Second Empire (Notes and Recollec- 
tions). By Albert D. Van Dam. Octavo* pp. 432. New 
York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. |2.50. 

The Recollections of Alexis de Tocqueville. Edited by the 
(Domte de Tocqueville. Translated by Alexander Teixeira 
de Mattos. Octavo, pp. 424. New York: The Mac- 
millan Co. 14.50. 

The True George Washington. By Paul Leicester Ford. 
12mo, pp. 819. Philadelphia : J. B. Lippincott <3o. $1.25. 

Walt Whitman the Man. By Thomas Donaldson. 12mo, pp. 
278. New York: Francis P. Harper. $1.75. 

Whitman : A IStudy. By John Burroughs. 12mo, pp. 268. 
Boston: Houghton, Mi Cin & <>>. $1.25. 

FHdtiof Nansen, 1861-1898. By W. C. BrOgger and Nordahl 
Rolfson. Translated by William Archer. Octavo, pp. 
412. New York : Longmans, Green & Ck>. $4. 

Mercy Warren. By Alice Brown. 12mo, pp. 812. New York : 
Charles Scribner*s Sons. $1J35. 

TRAVEL AND DESCRIPTION. 

In and Beyond the Himalayas : A Record of Sport and Travel 
in the Abode of Snow. By S. J. Stone. Octavo, pp. 880. 
New York : Edward Arnold. 

Timbuctoo the Mysterious. By Felix Dubois. Translated 
by Diana White. Octavo, pp. 877. New York : Long- 
mans, Green & Co. $8.50. 

Half Hours of Travel at Home and Abroad. Selected and 
Arranged by Charles Morris. Five vols., 12mo, pp. 2069. 
Philadelphia : J. B. LippincoU Co. $6. 

On the Broads. By Anna Bowman Dodd. Octavo, pp. 331. 
New York : The Macmillan <3o. $8. 

A Girl's Wanderings in Hungary. By H. Ellen Browning. 
12mo, pp. 348. New York : Longmans, Green & Co. $2. 

The Alhambra. By Washington Irving. With an Introduc- 
tion by Elisabeth Robins PennelL 12mo, pp. 456. New 
York : The Macmillan Ca $2. 



Dragons and Cherry Blossoms. By Mrs. Robert C. Morria 
Octavo, pp 266. New York : Dodd, Mead A Co. $1.50. 

A Book of Country Clouds and Sunshine. Text and Illustra- 
tions by Clifton Johnson. . Quarto, pp. 213. Boston : Lee 
ftShepard. $2.60. 

POLITICS AND SOCIOLOGY. 



The Principles of Sociology. By Herbert Spencer. In three 
vols.. Vol. m., 12mo, pp. 665. New York : D. Appleton A 
Ck). $2. 

The Nicaragua Canal and the Monroe Doctrine. By Lindley 
Miller Keasbey, Ph.D. Octavo, pp. 687. New York : G. 
P. Putnam's Sons. $3.50. 

Joint-Metal] ism. By Anson Phelps Stokes. Fifth Edition. 
12mo, pp. 277. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1. 

Municipal Reforms In the United States. By Thomas C. 

Devlin. 12mo, pp. 174. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

$1. 
The Key-Note : Substitute Honest Money for Fictitious 

Credit By Albert Griffin. i2mo, pp. 448. Philadelphia: 

S. L. Griffin & Ck>. $1.50. 

RELIGIOUS AND THEOLOGICAL WORKS. 

The Prophets of the Christian Faith. By Rev. Lyman 
Abbott, and Others. 12mo, pp. 241. New York : The 
Macmillan Co. $1.25. 

Prophecy ; or. Speaking for CK>d. By Rev. Everett S. Stack- 
pole. 16mo, pp. 167. New York : T. Y. Crowell A C3o. 
75 cents. 

The Cure of Souls : Lyman Beecher Lectures on Preaching 
at Yale University, 1896. By John Watson, M.A., D-D. 
12mo, pp. 801. New York : Dodd, Mead & Co. $1.60. 

Bible Characters : Adam to Achan. By Alexander Whyte, 
D.D. 12mo, pp. 801. New York: Fleming H. Revell 
Co. $1.25. 

The Search-Light of St. Hippolytus : The Papacy and the 
New Testament in the Light of Discovery. By Parke P. 
Floumoy. With Introduction by Prof. Walter W. 
Moore, D.D. 12mo, pp. 260. New York: Fleming H. 
Revell Co. $1. 

Ancient Ideals: A Study of Intellectual and Spiritual Growth 
from Early Times to the Establishment of Christianity. 
By Henry Osbom Taylor. Two vols., octavo, pp. 461- 
430. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. $5. 

The Principles of Ecclesiastical Unity. Four Lectures. By 
Arthur James Mason, D.D. 12mo, pp. 160. New York : 
Longmans, Green & Co. $1. 

New Education in the Church Series : '' The Bible as Litera- 
ture,*' by W. Fiddian Moulton ; '' The Golden Rule in 
Business," by Charles F. Dole. Paper, 16mo. MeadviUe, 
Pa.: Flood & Vincent. Each 15 cents. 

Grace Abounding in the Forgiveness of Sins : Five Sermons 
preached by the Rev. G«orge F. Pentecost, D.D. 16mo, 
pp. 184. New York : Bonnell, Silver A Co. $1. 

Noble Living : A Series of Studies as to the Development of 
the Deeper Life in Men. Edited by Charles Sumner 
Nickerson. 12mo, pp. 288. Boston: Universalist Pub- 
lishing House. 

Bible Selections for Daily Devotion. Selected and Arranged 
by Sylvanus StalL 12mo, pp. 666. New York : Funk A 
WagnallsCo. $1. 



THE NEW BOOKS. 



119 



BnchAristic Conferenoee. The Papers Presented at the First 
American Encharistic Congress. lOmo, pp. 281. New 
York : Catholic Book Exchange. fiO cents. 

Eaays Philosophical. By Brother Azarias. ^ith Preface by 
the Bt. Bev. John J. Keane« D.D. 12mo, pp. 250. 
Chicago : D. H. itcBride A Co. $1.50. 

imoM Christ Before His Ministry. By Edmond Stapf er. 
Tranalated by Lonise Seymour Houghton. 12mo, pp. 182. 
New York : Charles Scrlbner's Sons. $1.25. 

The Religion of Science. By Dr. Paul Cams. Second Edi- 
tion. 12mo, pp 125. Chicago : Open Court Publishing 
Ca 50 cents. 

Christ^ Idea of the Supernatural. By John H. Denison. 
Umo, pp. 423L Boston : Houghton, Mifflin is Co. $2. 

Origin and Development of the Nicene Theology. Lectures 
DeliTered by Hugh M. Scott. D.D. Octavo, pp. 309. 
Chicago : Chicago Theological Seminary Press. {1.50. 

Heroes of Faith : A Study of a Chapter from the Greek New 
Testament. By Burris A. Jenkins, D.B. With an Intro* 
doctlon by Prof. Joseph Henry Thayer. Octavo, pp. 64. 
New York : Punk A Wagnalls Co. 75 cents. 

The Sanctuary of Suffering. By Eleanor Tee. WithaPref- 
kce by Bev. J. P. F. Davidson. M.A. 12mo, pp. 387. New 
York : Longmans, Oreen & Co. $2. 

Bible Boys and Girls: How They Looked, Where They 
Lived, and What They Did. By Calvin Dill Wilson and 
James Knapp Reeve. 12mo, pp 802. Boston: Lothrop 
Pnblishlng Co. $L 

Ab Introduction to the Life of Jesus : An Investigation of 
the Historical Sources. By Alfred Williams Anthony. 
ISmo, pp. 206. Boston : Silver, Burdett & Co. 

Stvea Times Around Jericho : A Series of Temperance Re- 
viml Discourses. By Rev. Louis Albert Banks. D.D. 
]2mo, pp. 134. New York : Funk A Wagnalls Co. 75 cents. 

Jssoa and Jonah. By J. W. McGarvey. 12mo, pp. 72. Cin- 
cinnati: The Standard Publishing Co. 50 cents. 

Tke Religion of Manhood. By John Owen Coit. 12mo, pp. 
». New York : G. P. Putnam^s Sons. 75 cents. 

Better Things for Sons of Gk>d. By George T. Lemmon. 
12mo, pp. 184. New York : Eaton & Mains. 75 cents. 

The Conditions of Our Lord's Life on Earth. By Arthur 
James Mason. D.D. 12mo, pp. 216. New York . Long- 
. Green St Co. %\J^, 



The Knowledge of Life : Being a Contribution to the Study 
of Religions. By H. J. Harald. 12mo, pp. 333. New 
York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.60. 

The Gospel in Brief. By Count Lyof H. Tolstoi. Author- 
ised Edition. ]2mo, pp. 221. New York : T. Y. Crowell 
*Co. $1.25. 



The Bible as Literature. By Prof. Richard G. Moulton, 
Ph.D., and Others. 12mo, pp. 875. New York : Thomas 
Y. CroweU&Oo. $1.50. 

Primitive Buddhism : Its Origin and Teachings. By Eliza« 
beth A. Reed, A.M. 12mo, pp. 218. Chicago: Scott, 
Foresman is Co. $L 

English Secularism: A Confession of Belief. By George 
Jacob Holyoake. 12mo, pp. 146. Chicago: Open Court 
Publishing Co. 50 oents. 

A Bian's Value to Society : Studies in Self -Culture and 
Character. By NeweU Dwight Hillis. 12mo, pp. 337. 
New York : Fleming H. Revell Co. $1J». 

SCIENTIFIC WORKS. 

Genius and Degeneration : A Psychological Study. By Dr. 
William Hirsch. Octavo, pp. 888. New York : D. Apple- 
ton is Co. $8.50. 

General Principles of Zoology. By Richard Hertwig. Trans- 
lated by (George A. Field. Octavo, pp. 238. New York : 
Henry Holt A Co. $L60. 

The Cell in Development and Inheritance. By Edmund B. 
Wilson, Ph.D. Octavo, pp. 387. New York : The Mac- 
millan Co. $8. 

Biological Lectures Delivered at the Marine Biological Lab- 
oratory of Wood's Holl in the Summer of 1885. Octavo, 
pp. 188. Boston : Ginn A Co. $2.15. 

Science Sketches. By David Starr Jordan. New Edition. 
12mo, pp. 287. Chicago : A. C. McClurg A Co. $1.50. 

Life in Ponds and Streams. By W. Fumeaux. Octavo, pp. 
425. New York : Longmans, Green & Co. $3.50. 

Parakites : A Treatise on the Making and Flying of Tailless 
Kites for Scientific Purposes and for Recreation. By 
GKlbert Totten Woglom. Quarto, pp. OL New York : G. 
P. Putnam's Sons. $L75. 

THE PINE ARTS. 

The Story of Architecture : An Outline of the Styles in all 
Countries. By Charles Thompson Mathews, M.A. 
Octavo, pp. 484. New York : D. Appleton A Co. $8. 

European Architecture : A Historical Study. By Russell 
Sturgls, A.M. Octavo, pp. 606. New York : The Mac- 
millanCo. $4. 

A Text-Book of the History of Sculpture. By Allan Mar- 
quand, Ph.D., and Arthur L. Frothingham, Jr., Ph.D. 
12mo, pp. 313. New York: Longmans, Green A Co. 
$1.50. 

A History of Greek Art. With an Introductory Chapter on 
Art in Egypt and Mesapotamia. By F. B. Tarbell, Pro- 
fessor of Classical Archeology in the University of 
Chicago. 12mo, pp. 296. Meadville, Pa.: Chautauqua- 
Century Press. $L 




CONTENTS OF REVIEWS AND MAGAZINES. 



LEADING ARTICLES IN THE JANUARY MAGAZINES. 



Annala of the American Academy.— Philadelphia. (Bi- 
monthly.) January. 

The First Appointment of Federal Representatives in the 

United States. E. J. James.- 
Crime and the Census. Roland P. Falkner. 
Values, Positive and Relative. W. G. L. Taylor. 

Atlantic Monthly.— Boston. January. 

A Century of Social Betterment. J. B. McMaster. 
Emerson, Sixty Years After. John J. Chapnum. 
Dominant Forces in Southern Life. W. P. Trent. 
Cheerful Yesterdays. Thomas W. Higginson. 
Memorials of American Authors. Joseph E. Chamberhn. 
Park-Making as a National Art. Mary C. Bobbins. 
Mr. James Lane Allen. Edith B. Brown. 
The Poetry of Rudyard Kiplmg. Charles E. Norton. 

The Bookman.— New York. January. 

Frederick Saunders of the Astor Library. G. J. Manson. 
On the Naturalisation of Foreign Words. Brander Mat- 

My Literary Heresies. Andrew Lang. 

Century Magaxine.— New York. January. 

Lenbach : The Painter of Bismarck. Edith Cones. 
Speech and Speech-Reading for the Deaf. John D. Wright. 

CamDaigning with Grant. G^en. Horace Porter. 

Napoleoxi's Interest in the Battle of New Orleans. W. H. 

Robarts. 
Public Spirit in Modem Athens. D. Bik^las. 
The Ladies of Llangollen. Helen M. North. 
Summer at ChriBtmas>Tide. Julian Hawthorne. 
Nelson in the Battle of the Nile. A. T. Mahan. 
An American Composer : Edward A. Macdowell. Henry T. 

Finck. 

The Chautauquan.— Meadville, Pa. January. 

The French Academy. Jeannette L. Gilder. 

French Literature of To-day. Henry Houssaye. 

The Newspaper and Periodical PresB of France. T. B. 

Preston. 
Superstition and Sorcery in French Society Eugen von 

Jagow. 
Races and Labor Problems in California. G. H. Fitch. 
How the Gothenburg System Works. F. C. Bray. 
The Actual John Brown. A. M. Courtenay. 
The Age of Poster. Maurice Tallnoyer. 

The Cosmopolitan.— Irvingtoo, N Y. January. 

German Students and Their Absurd Duels. K. F. Reighard. 

Some Types in Dixieland. Mrs. D. B. Dyer. 

The Famous F6te at Vaux. Elizabeth W. Champney. 

The Story of the Farmers' College. Murat Halsteaa. 

Fin de Siecle Stage Costumes. Max Freeman. 

Mascagni and His New Opera. Alma Dalma. 

Demoreat*a Family Magaxina.— New York. January. 

The National Horse Show. , , 

Chinatown In New York. J. H. Welch. 
Winter in the Yellowstone Park. 
Chinese Superstitions. Henry Llddell. 
Is Chivalry Dead t A Symposium. 



Frank Leslie's Popular Monthly.— New York. January. 

Order of the King's Daughters and Sons. Louise S. Houghtozi. 

Personal Traits of G^eneral Lee. Thomas L. Roeser. 

Bryn Biawr College. Madeline V. Abbott. 

Canoeing Down the Rhine.— II. 

The Egyptian Army. Henry H. B. Pearse. 

The Philippine Islands. R. Buenamar. 

Among the Waikato Maoris. Arthur Inkersley. 

Godey'a Magaxine.— New York. January. 

Winter in the American Snow-Lands. Edgar M. Smith. 
Modes and Manners of Seventy Years.— I. Grace E. Drew. 
The German Sappho, Johanna Ambrosius. 
Music in America.— XX. Rupert Hughes. 

Harper's Monthly Magazine.— New York. January. 

White Man's Africa.— IIL Poultney Bigelow. 

A Century's Struggle for the Franchise in America. F. N. 

Thorpe. 
Science at the Beginning of the Century. H. S. Williams. 
Fog Possibilities. Alexander McAdie. 
English Society. George W. Smalley. 
Literary Landmarks of Rome. Laurence Hutton. 
John Murrell and His Clan. Bfartha McCuUoch- Williams. 

Ladies* Home Journal.— Philadelphia. January. 

What There is at the South Pole. Qen. A. W. Greely. 
When the Prince of Wales Was in America. Stephen Flake. 
The Personal Side of Bismarck. George W. Smalley. 
This Country of Ours.— XHI. Benjamin Harrison. 

Lippincott's Magaiine.— Philadelphia. January. 

Are American Institutions of Dutch Origin f S. G. Fisher. 
South Florida Before the Freeze. R. G. Robinson. 
Marrying in the Fifteenth Century. Emily B. Stone. 
The Western Housekeeper and the Celestial. May Hoskin. 
Theatre-Going in St. Petersburg. Isabel F. Hapgood. 

McClure's Magaiine.— New York. January. 

Grant at West Point. Hamlin Garland. 

The " Martha Washington " Case. Lida Rose McCabe. 

Making and Laying of an Atlantic Cable. Henry Muir. 

Life Portraits of Benjamin Franklin. C. H. Hart. 

The Makers of the Union : Benjamin Franklin. W. P. Trent. 

New England Magazine.— Boston. January. 

Viollet-le-Duc. W. H. Winslow. 

Mount Holyoke College. Henrietta E. Hooker. 

Thoughts on the Transcendental Movement in New England. 

L. J. Block. 
The Bay Psalm Book. Edmund J Carpenter. 
An English Heroine in the American Revolution. Frances 

B. Troup. 
Types of State Education. Lucy M. Salmon. 
Greenfield. Herbert C. Parsons. 

Scribner's Magazine.— New York. January. 

The Department Store. Samuel Hopkins Adams. 
The Slaughter of Armenians in Constantinople. 

Troshlne. 
Thackeray's Haunts and Home. Ejrre Crowe. 
Victor Hugo's Home at Guernsey. G. Jeanniot. 



Yvan 



THE OTHER AMERICAN AND ENGLISH PERIODICALS. 

(From the latest numbers received.) 



American Amateur Photographer.— New York. November. 

Commercial Orthochromatic Plates. „ . _ 

The "Royal " and Salon Exhibitions. H. L. Cameron. 

Beginners' Column.— XXX. John NicoL 

Three-Color Negatives. 

American Historical Register.- Boston. October-November. 

A Carolina House and Its History. John Hawkins. 
The Mohawk River in History. Robert Earl. 
Personal Recollections of an Early Philadelphlan. 
The De Fronsacs, Past and Present. J. M. Forsyth. 

American Magazine of Civics.- New York. December. 

How Shall We Elect the President ? S. M. Davis. 
An Unfeigned Issue. George Bryan. 
The Fundamental Reform. W. H. T. Wakefield. 
Bribery and the Law. Bfargherita A. Hamm. 



The Problem of the City. Clinton Rogers Woodruff. 
Influence of the Legal Profession. Chauncey M. Depew. 
Centralization the Cure for Political Corruption.— II. 
Obligations of Citizenship. W. H. Goodale. 
Woman's Part in Political Sins. Florence A. Burleigh. 

American Monthly Magazine.— Washington. December. 

The Washingtons in the Revolution. Susan R. HetseL 

The Battle of York town. Eugenia Washington. 

Origin of the American Constitution. Josepha N. Whitney. 

Appleton'z Popular Science Monthly.— New York. Decern 
ber. 

Principles of Taxation.— IV. David A. Wells, 

Relations of Biology, Psychology, and Sociology. Herbert 

Spencer. 
Botanic Gardens. D. T. MacdougaL 



CONTENTS OF RE^IEIVS AND MAGAZINES. 



121 



AainuU Symbolism in Ecclesiastical Architecture. A. D. 

WUte. 
Two ScleDtiflc Congr e ss e s. J. BCark Baldwin. 
The 8o4JkUed California " Diggers.'* Mabel L. MUler. 
Indiridaalism vs. Collectivism. Leonard Coartney. 
Possession and Mediomship. W. R. Newbold. 
IdioCs Savants. Frederick Peterson. 
Iraeoos Intrnsions and Volcanoes. Israel C. RnsselL 
Natnral History in the Primary Schools of France. Fanny 

Bignon. 
Tbs Border of Trampdom. C. W. Noble. 

The Arena.— Boston. December. 

filiation of Art to Religion. William O. PaHHdge. 
The Telegraph Monopoly.— X. Frank Parsons. 
Relation of Indnstrialism to Morality. Marie C. Remick. 
William Morris and Some of His Later Works. B. O. Flower 
The Life of the Spirit. Lilian Whiting. 
An Inheritance for the Waifs. C. F. Taylor. 
Pmctioal Christianitv as I Conceive It A Symposium. 
The Coooentration of Wealth. EL Pomeroy. 
International Arbitration. E. P. Powell. 
Tbs Last Tear of GaU Hamilton's Life. M. B. Thrasher. 
Fedsration of Women's Clnbs. Ellen M. Henrotin. 
Some Newspaper Women. Helen M. Winslow. 

Art Amateur.— New York. December. 

flower Analvais— m. J. Marion ShuU. 
Flowers in Their Season. 
Flowers. Fmit and Still Life.— V. 
Teaching the Child to Draw.— V. S. Nonrse. 

Art Interchange. - New York. December. 

An Afternoon in Nnrembnrg. Snsanna H. Reese. 
Designing for Embroidery. 
The Christ Child in Modem Art. J. C. P. Jones. 
Leather Work for Amateurs. 

Bachelor of Arts.— New York. December. 

Bobert Browning.— IL John J. Chapman. 
Football as the Coachers See It. J. L. Williams. 

Badminton Magaxins.— London. December.* 

Skraatt Covert ; or« Hnnting in South Yorkshire. Harold 

On Elephant Back. Gustav Spinka. 

OoH Hunting in the New Forest. Lord Arthur Cecil. 

Games at Eton. F. B. Elliot. 

Bsdng in 1806. Alfred E. T. Watson. 

In the Orey Morning. Edwin L. Arnold. 

Betting. Norwood Young. 

Wmter Sports in Friesland. Julia Scott-Moncrieff. 

Bankers' Magaxine.— London. December. 

Tknking Questions to Be Borne in Mind. 
Austrafiau Banking. Svdney J. Murray. 
The Monetary Issue in the United States. 
Life Assarance, Finance as Affected by Rate of Interest and 
Bate of Expense. 

Banker's Msgssine.— New York. November. 

The Inflow of Oold from England. 
Loans of the United States. 
The Bank of EngUnd's Discount Rato. 
FcM^lgn Banking and Commerce. 
Ranking and Commerce in Canada. 

Biblical World.— Chicago. December. 

The Child Prophecies of Isaiah. W. R. Harper. 

The Story of the Birth. George T. Purvee. 

The Home of Our Lord's Childhood. George A. Smith. 

Jewish Family Life. Ernest T. Burton. 

Tbs Child Jesus in Painting. William C. Wilkinson, 

Christianity and C*hildren. Charles R. Henderson. 

The Foreshadowings of the Christ George S. Gkx)dspeed. 

Bibliotheca Sacra.— Oberlin, Ohio. (Quarterly.) January. 

Brohition and the FaQ of Man. David W. Simon. 
The Religious Life : Its Nature and Claims. J. H. Fairchild. 
Srmjpathy with the Lower Animals. Mattoon M. Curtis. 
Predictive Element in Old Testament Prophecy. W. R. 

BetteHdge. 
An Eighteenth Century Club. R. T. Stevenson. 
ITb^Master Passion.''^ WiUlam I. Fletcher. 
The New Theology. Jacob A. Riddle. 
Tbs Reconstruction of Theology. David N. Beach. 
The Social Law of Service. l^weU D. Hillis. 

Blackwood's Magasine.— London. December. 

Tbs Army Medical Department. 

The Qnnpowder Plot. 

8er<Tet Societies in CThina. 

J. M. Barrie's " Sentimental Tommy ; " A New Boy in Fiction. 

A Raid Among Books. 

Ttirkey and Armenia : the Eastern Question. 

Tbs Presidf^ntial Election as I Saw It. G. W. Steevens. 



Board of Trade Journal.— London. October 16. 

G^erman Competition in India and the MerohandiBe Marks 

Act. 
The French Silk Industry. 
The Wool Industry of Argentina. 
The Wool Industry of British India. 
Customs Tariff of Victoria. Continued. 

The Bookman.— New York. December. 

William Crary Brownell. G. M. Hyde. 

Some Notes on Political Oratory.— II. H. T. Peck. 

Present State of Literature in America. W. R. Nicoll. 

Canadian Magaxine.— Toronto. December. 

Canadian Poetry. Gordon Waldron. 

Cabot and Other Western Explorers. C. H. Mackintosh. 

The Cabot Celebration. Joseph Pope. 

Sunday Rest a Civil Right. John Cliarlton. 

Canada and the Veneeuelan Settlement. G. T. Blackstock 

Csssell's Family Magaxine.— London. December. 

The Sultan of Turkey : At Other Courts. Q. B. Burgin. 

The Evolution of Wonuin. Gleeson White. 

The Horses of the Princess of Wales. £. M. Jessop. 

Blondin : An Interview. W. B. Robertson. 

A Day in the Life of a Society Leader. 

The Pirate in Fact and Fiction. Clark RusselL 

Looking Down on London. F. M. Holmes. 

Cassier's Magazine.— New York. December. 

The Modem Saw Mill. W. H Trout. 

Hydraulic Power in London. E. B. Ellington. 

Power from Alternating Currents. Louis Duncan. 

American Blowing Machinerv. John Birkbine. 

Economy of Combustion in Marine Boilers. J. R. Fothergill. 

American Machine and Engine Building. Eugene Francois. 

The Catholic World.— New York. December. 

The Great Assassin and the Christians of Armenia. Q. 

McDermot. 
The Schafflertanz and Metzgersprung in Munich. 
Relation of Crime to Education. 
New England and the Formation of America. P. O'Cal- 

laghan. 

Where Southern Lilies are Trained. Eliza A. Starr. 
Labor Statistics of Russian Factories. H. Schoenfeld. 

Chambers' Journal.— Edinburgh. December. 

Our Iron Industry. W. T. Jeans. 

La GranJa : The Balmoral of Spain. 

ArtisticGlasswork. 

Bible Printing and Distributing. 

The District Messenger System of London. 

John Gibson Lockhart, the Biographer of Sir Walter Scott 

The Yaqui Indians of Mexico. 

Journalistic Remuneration. 

Gold Mining in New ZeaUnd. 

Charities Review.— Galesburg, 111. June. 

Our Duty to Nature's Stepchildren. Alice J. Mott. 
The Effect of Institution Life on Childhood W. Delafleld. 
Methods of Dealing with Mothers and Infants. Annette J. 

Shaw. 
Analysis of the Social Structure of a Western Town. A. W. 

Dunn 

The Chautauquan.— Meadville, Pa. December. 

A Century of French Costume. Alice M. Earle. 
The French Character m Politica C. F. A. Currier. 
Cardinal Mazarin. James B. Perkins. 
The French Revolution. M. H. Stephens. 
A Prejudice Against Memory. Camille M^linand. 
The Social Life of Ancient Greece. Edward C^pps. 
The Rise and Fall of New France.— H. F. J. Turner. 
Socialism in England. Giovanni Boglietti. 

Contemporary Review.— London. December. 

The Pr^rress of Biankind Elis6e Reclus. 
Life at Yildiz. Diran K61^kian. 
The Pope and the Anglicans: 

(I.) The Sources of the Bull. T. Lacey. 
(IL) The PoUcy of the Bull. " Cathoficus." 
Some Characteristics of Shakespeare. Professor Caird 
The Unemployed. W. R. Bousfleld. 
A Patron of Leisure. Vernon Lee. 
Our Savings Banks. H. W. Wolff. 
Chinese Humbug. E. H. Parker. 
Armenian Exiles in Cyprus. Emma Cons. 
Money and Investments. 

Cornhill Magasine.— London. December. 

December 25th; the Greatest of Anniversaries. H. C 

Beeching. 
Saint Edward the Confessor. Bishop Crelghton. 



122 



THE REyiEli^ OF REVIEWS. 



George III. Gk>ldwin Smith. 

Beau Bruminel. A. I. Shand. 

Daela of all Nations. Jamee Pemberton-Grund. 

Paf^es from a Private Diary. Continued. 

Cotmopolis.— London. December. 

Literary Recollections. P. Max Mttller. 

Co-operation. Henry H. Wolff. 

Why England is Unpopular. Edward Dicey. 

The Globe and the Island. Henry Norman 

Shakespeare in France Under the Ancient Regime. (In 

French.) J. J. Jusserand. 
Unpublished Papers of Napoleon and Wellington. (In 

French.) P. J. Proudhon. 
Old and New Franco-Russian Alliances. (In (^rman. ) Max 

Lenz. 
The Literary Italian. (In German.) Ladv Blennerhasset. 
Ernst and Henriette Renan. (In Ctorman.) Karl Frenzel. 
The Reigning Italians. (In German.) Sigmund MILnx. 
E. J. Pounter. (In German.) Herman Helferich. 

Demoreat'a Family Magaxine.— New York. December. 

The Cradle of Christianity. Thomas P. Hughes. 
A Poet of Many Friends. Edwin C. Martin. 
Old Time Christmas in Dixie. Mary A. Fanton. 
Smelt Fishing in Northern Waters. J. Herbert Welsh. 
Christmas in Several Lands. 

The Dial.—Chicago. 
November 16. 
The Future of English Spelling. 
English Literature in Germany. Frederic I. Carpenter. 

December 1. 
The Great American Novel. 

*" Insanity of Genius *' in C*haracters of Fiction. C. L. Moore. 
A German Lecture on Literature. Calvin S. Brown. 
Education.— Boston. December. 

The Higher Life of the OUege. John E. Bradley. 
The New American Academy. A. D. Mayo. 
Educational Fads and Reforms. E. L. (jowdrick. 
Normal Schools in the United States C. C. Ramsey. 

Educational Review.— New York. December. 

The University of Virginia. William Baird. 

Attempted Improvements in the Course of Study. P. H. 

Hanus. 
Some Characteristics of Prussian Schools. E. J. Goodwm. 
The National Educational Association. Aaron Gove. 
Preparatory and Non-Preparatory Pupils. W. R. Butler. 
History of English Grammar Teaching. F. A. Barbour. 
The Breviarium of Eutropius. J. W. Redway. 

Engineering Magazine.— New York. December. 

Government by Injunction. Leonard E. (Turtis. 

Examples of Sucessful Shop Management. — III. Henry 

Roland. 
High Speed Standards of Men, Machinery and Track. H. G. 

Prout. 
The Cost of Iron as Related to Industrial Enterprises. G. H. 

Hall. 
Railroad Building in Colombia. E^duardo J. Chibas. 
Economy of the Modem Engine Room. E. J. Armstrong. 
Examination of Corporation Accounts by Auditors. T. L. 

Greene. 
Are Electric Central Stations Doomed ? Max Osterburg. 
Fireproof CJonstruction and Recent Tests. A. L A. Himmel- 

wright. 
English Practice in Transmitting Power in Mines. 

English Illustrated Magasine.— London. December. 

Impressions of CJonstantinople. Melton Prior. 
Pictures from the Life of Nelson, Our Great Naval Hero. 
Joan of Arc ; the Maid of Orleans. Andrew Lang. 
Training Young Foxhounds. Young Stewart. 
A Remarkable Lizard ; the Tuatara. James Buckland. 
Campaigning in the Soudan. H. C. Seppings Wright 

Fortnightly Review.— London. December. 

Germany's Foreign Policy. E. J. Dillon. 

The Working of Arbitration. H. W. Wilson. 

Anatole France. Yetta Blaze de Bury. 

The Education Bill from the Old Nonconformist Standpoint. 

Turkish Guilds, (instance Sntcliffe. 

Young Turkey. Karl Blind. 

A Ftege from the Diary of a Lotus Eater in Egypt. E. F. 

Benson. 
Omar Khayyam. James A. Murray. 
The Impending Famine in India. T. M. Kirkwood. 
Democracy and the Liberal Leadership. '* Emeritus.'* 
The Proposed New Government Offices. With Plans. H. H. 

Statham. 
Tvessons from the American Election. Francis H. Hardy. 
Prince Bismarck's Secret Treaty. W. 



The Forum.— New York. December. 

Obstacles to Rational Educational Reform. J. M. Rice. 
Another Year of Church Entertainments. W. B. Hale. 
Rudyard Kipling as a Poet. Montgomery Schuyler. 
The Election— Its Lessons and Its Warnings. A. D. White, 

D. McG. Means, Cfoldwin Smith. 
Princeton in the Nation's Service. Woodrow Wilson. 
The Poetry of the Earl of Lytton. George Saintsbury. 
Drawbacks of a College Education. CTharles F. Thwing. 
Anatomy Laws vs. Body Snatching. Dr. Thomas Wnght. 
American Women and American laterature. H. H. Lnak. 

Free Review.— London. December. 

R. L. Stevenson on Robert Bums. John M. Robertson. 

The British Association of 1896 ; a Oiticiam. *' Scotus.'' 

The Rights of Man. D. H. Balfour. 

The Female Factor. Phil. C. Spenoe. 

" Thank GK)d for W. H. Smith." F. B. Powell. 

The Bread Question. Thomas G. Read. 

Julian Harney. Geoffrey Mortimer. 

Gentleman's Magazine.— London. December. 

The Memories of St. James' Square, London. W. Connor 

Sydney. 
The Correspondence of Andrew MarvelL Travers Buxton. 
The Age of Genius. David Lindsay. 
Charles Baudelaire. C. E. Meetkerke. 
Druidism. T. H. B. Graham. 

Good Words.— London. December. 

Countess de Ghisparin. Mrs. Warre Cornish. 

The House of Lords as a Court of Appeals. Michael Mac- 

Donough. 
Christina Bossetti. Grace Gilchrist. 
Notable Dogs of the Chase. Ontinued. '* St. Bernard.' 
Impressions of the Canary Isles. Concluded. 

Lynch. 

Christmas in the Olden Time. A. W. Jarvis. 
Motor Carriages and (^cles. G. R. Fleming. 

Green Bag.— Boston. December. 

John MarshalL Sallie E. M. Hardy. 

New Abridgement of the Laws of England. 

An Assassin's Plea. Irving Brown. 

Gunton's Magazine.— New York. December. 

Meaning of Bryanlsm in American Politics. 

The Future of Gold. Alex. Del Mar. 

Ck>mmon Sense on Trusts. 

The Greenback Controversy. 

Evidence of Business Revival. 

Claims of Cuba for Self -Government. Raimnndo Cabrera. 

Statistics of Immigration. 

Labor Insurance in Germany. 

Home Magazine.— Binghamton, N. Y. December. 

The Glories of Madison Square Garden. W. S. Walsh. 

Our Presidents.— IIL Guy L. Carleton. 

Manitoba Grain Farms. J. N. Ingram. 

The Chariot in Literature and Art. Watson Haynes. 

Homiletic Review.— New York. December. 

The Apostle Paul as Preacher. W. C. Wilkinson. 
The Date of Christ's Birth. C. Geikie. 
On the Study of Poetry by the Preacher. J. O. Murray. 
Transition from Hezekiah to Manaaseh. J. F. McOurdy. 

Journal of Geology.— diicago. (Semi-quarterly.) October- 
November. 

Glacial Geology of North Greenland. R. D. Salisbury. 
The Genesis of Lake Agassiz. J. B. Tyrrell. 
Laccolitee in Southeastern (Colorado. G. K. Gilbert. 
Italian Petrological Sketches.— H. H. S. Washington. 
Principles of Rock Weathering. G. P. Merrill. 

Journal of Political Economy.— Chicago. (Quarterly.) 
December. 

The Shipping Trade Between the United States and the 

United Kingdom. 
Lake Transportation and the Iron Ore Industry. G. G. Tu- 

nell. 
The Tariff and the Constitution. A. P. Winston. 
The St. Paul Method of Assuring Real Estate. F. R. Clow. 

Kindergarten Magazine.— diicago. December. 

Kindergartning in Japan. May Henrietta Horton. 
London Kindergarten Work. (Gertrude E. M. Taylor. 
Brookline Schools. Amalie Hof er. 

Ladies' Home Journal.— Philadelphia. December. 

What Christmas Means to Queen Victoria. ' Lady Jeune. 
When Mr. Beecher Sold Slaves in Plymouth Pulpit. Mrs. 
Beecher. 



CONTENTS OF REyiEWS AND MAGAZINES. 



123 



A People Who Live Amid Romance. Ruth Staarc. 
The Qarden Purtr of an Empreea Mrs. R. P. Porter. 
This Omntrv of Ours.— XIL Benjamin Harrison. 
The Story ox My Life. Row Bonhenr. 
The Yoang Man on the Fenoe. Charles H. Parkhurst. 

Leisure Hour. —London. December. 

Aotoffraph Letter of Mrs. Browning. With Portraits. 
Kottins^un : Midland Sketches. W. J. Gordon. 
PatareKimrs. With Portraits. Marie A. Belloc. 
A New World Aristocracy in the United States. E. Porritt. 
The ** Sense of Direction *^ in Animals. Continued. Charles 

Dixon. 
Toys and Oamee in the Past. 

Lonsmao's Masasioe.— London. December. 

French and Ehiglish Minxes. Mrs. Andrew Lang. 

Birds and Man. W. H. Hudson. 

Notes on the National Exhibition at Oeneva. Mrs. Henry 

Reeve. 
First Days with the Oun. Horace Hutchinson. 

The Looker-On.— New York, December. 

Pnol Boorget^s Novels.— I. Joakim Reinhard. 
The Sublime and Sentimental in Piano Playing. A. Mc- 
Arthor. 

Lucifer.— London. November 16. 

The Liffht and Dark Sides of Nature. Concluded. Mrs. 

Print 
The Lives of the Later Platonists. Continued, a. R. S. Mead. 
JujitBa. Charles Harvey. 

The Theoaophy of Eickartshausen. Mrs. Sinnett. 
Oecnltism in KngHah Poetry. Concluded. Mrs. Hooper. 
The Power of an landless Life. Concluded. Alexander 

FuUerton. 
Bover, Knowledipe and Love. Francesca Arundale. 
hnafble Helpers. C. W. Leadbeater. 
The New Gnostic MS. Q. R. S. Mead. 

Macmillan'a Magazine.— London. December. 

The Capital of Paris. 

The Molly Maguires of Ireland. 

A Winter^s Walk. 

SheUey at Tremadoc. 

Tlie Roman Church in French Fiction . 

A Study in Colonial History. 

Menorah Monthly.— New York. December. 

The Twentieth Century Jew. M. Ellinger. 

Oooventlon of Mothers in Israinl. M. EUincer. 

plsoe of Woman in Modem Civilization. J. Silverman. 

Metaphsrsical Masasine.— New York. December. 

laqiiration. Charles Johnston. 

Mystery in Man. Shelby Mumaugh. 

Hypnotic Suggestion. Arthur Vaufchan Abbott. 

hMOtutionalDevelopment-. Henry Wood. 

The Rationale of Prophecy. Leon Landsberg. 

Ifsn and the Lower Animals. Isabel P. Miller. 

The Metaphysician as a Reformer. Clara S. Carter. 

Midland Monthly.— Dee Moines, Iowa. December. 

Od Foot in Egypt and Palestine. N. Tjernagel. 
Orant^ Life m the West.— VL Col. J. W. Emerson. 
OBauDses of Pompeii and Vesuvius. James Hetzel. 
TheComing ** First Lady in the Land." Mrs. C. F. McLean. 
Unodln and Douglas. Daniel Evans. 

Missionary Review.— New York, December. 

The Permanent Basis of Mliwions. A. T. Pierson. 
The Jewish QanMtion. David Baron. 
Christtan Education in China. G. 8. Min«^r. ^ 

The Jews Betumins to Palestine. R. S. Moncrieff. 
TTie Jews in Palestine and Syria. J. M. Gray. 

e 
Music— Chicago. December. 

The Nature and Evolution of Art. Alfred FouiUee. 
Pfenonal Glimpses of Theresa Carrena. 
Muioal Tone and Color. C. S. Wake. 

National Review.— London. December. 

The Preaiaential Contest : 
I Altgeld of ininoiB. F. F. Browne. _ 

n. Notee on the Currency Question. W. E. Chandler. 

Church Reform. A. G. Boecawen. ^ ,^ 

DsBcmtostional Schools and the Government. J. Frome 
WQkhiBon. ^ 

Uanthony Abbey Monastery and Two of Its Priors. A. C. 



A Oueas at the Origin of Hamlet. Arthur Lyttelton. 
The VstiTe Problem in South Africa. W. F. Bailey. 



The Functions of a Colonial Governor-GeneraL W. P. 

Registered' Friendly Societies for Women. Elizabeth S. Hal- 

dane. 
Some Remarks on Modem Nurses. Emma L. Watson. 

New Review.— London. December. 

Francois de Bassompierre ; a Marshal of France. Charles 

Whibley. 
Sitting Down. Frederick Boyle. 
Servia. Herbert Vivian. 
The New Irish Movement. Standish O'Grady. 
Tyburn Tree, London. Francis Watt. 
The Women of Lyric Love. Maxwell Gray. 
Sfax and Mahdia ; the Italians in Tunis. T. A. Archer. 

The New World.— Boston. (Quarterly.) December. 

The Infection of Pessimism. George Batchelor. 

Religious Movements in England. Francis Brown. 

Moral Individuality in CathoUc Christianity. Gaston From- 

mel. 
The Heretics. Walter F. Adeney. 
Tendencies of Thought in Liberal Christian Churches. S. M. 

Crothers. 
Absence of Religion in Shakespeare. G. Santayana. 
Mr. Gladstone and Bishop Butler. R. A. Armstrong. 
The Religious Consciousness of Children. Mary W. Calkins. 
The Shinto Pantheon. Edmund Buckley. 

Nineteenth Century.— London. December. 

The Olney Doctrine and America's New Foreign Policy. Sid- 
ney Low. 

Manning the Navy in Time of War. Hon. T. A. Brassey. 

Total Abstinence. Rev. Harry Jones. 

The World Beneath the Ocean. Archer P. Crouch. 

Some Peking Politicians. Prof. Robert K. Douglas. 

Machiavelli and the English Reformation. W. Alison Phil- 
Ups. 

The Local Support of Education. T. J. Macnamara. 

The Commercu^ War Between Germany and England. B. 
H. Thwaite. 

The Authorship of *' Rule Britannia.'* J. Cuthbert Hadden. 

On the Selling of Books. J. Shay lor. 

Francis Osborne ; a Seventeenth Century Chesterfield. Sid- 
ney Peel. 
' The Superfluous Vaccination Commission. Malcolm Morris. 

A Shinto Funeral, Japan. Mrs Sannimiya. 

The Financial Grievance of Ireland. J. J. Clancy. 

Sterne. Herbert Paul. 

Frederick II. of Germany : a Mistaken Imperial Celebration. 
Earl BUnd. 

North American Review.— New York. December. 

The Enidneer in Naval Warfare. A Symposium. 

Some Memories of Lincoln. James F. Wilson. 

Penal Colonies. Arthur Griffiths 

American Bicycles in England. G^eorge F. Parker. 

Duty of the Coming Administration. James H. £k;kels. 

Has the Election Settled the Silver Question r W. J. Bryan. 

A Problem of Aridity. C. M. Harger. 

Our Trade with South America. T. C. Search. 

Curfew for City Children. Mrs. J. D. Townsend. 

What Shall Be Done About Cuba r M. W. Hazeltine. 

Reform of the Currency. A Symposium. 

Outing. — New York. December. 

A Bohemian Couple Awheeling. Alice L. Moque. 

At the Top of Europe. E. M. Allaire. 

Racing Schooners. R. B. Burchard. 

Lenz's World Tour Awheel. 

American Amateur Athletes in 1886. 

Golf in America to Date. Price Collier. 

National Guard of the State of Maine. Capt. C. B. Hall. 

Pall Mall Magazine.— London. December. 

The Settlement of St. Augustine. Florida. Theodore A. 

Cook. 
Constantinople : the Queen of Cities. Frederic Whyte. 
BUckUng Hall, Norfolk. Rev. A. H. Malan. 
Silver " Nefs "-Models of Ships. J. H. Rollason. 
Old Memories of the Indian Mutiny. Continued. Gen. Sir 

Hugh (}ough. 
Letters Written from Paris During the French Revolution. 
Despatches; Hatches, Matches and Despatches. J. Holt 

Schooling. 
The Royal Military College, Sandhurst. **A Comet of 

Horse." 

The Photo-American.— New York. December. 

Photography as an Aid to Composition. C. I. Berg. 
Sensitizing and Printing on Plain Salted Paper. C. A. Dar- 
ling. 
About Sarony and His Work. W. A. Cooper. 



124 



THE REVIEW OF REk'IE[VS. 



Photo- Beacon.— Chicago. NoTember. 
Flashlight Portraiture. -II. 



Automatic Photographv. 
How to Color Lantern Slj 



idee. 



Artistic Lighting.— VII. Jamee Inglis. 
Dark Room Illamination. F. C. Lambert. 

Photographic Timet.— New York. December. 

Condenser Dischargee. F. E. Millis. 

Naturalistic Photography.— n. P. H. Emerson. 

Halation. J. S. Qibson. 

Print- Washing Apparatus. G. M. Webster. 

The Acid Fixing Bath. Otomar Jarecki. 

Color Screen Makins and Testing. F. E. Ives. 

Notes on Badiograpny. 

Times of Exposures with Different Lenses. 

Development of Overexposed Plates. 

Poet-Lore.— Boston. (Quarterly). December. 

Dramatic Sentiment and Tennyson's Plays. L. J. Block. 

Is Blank Verse Lawless T Jeannette B. Perry. 

Tom Hood. W. J. Rolf e. 

Letters of John Raskin. W. G. Kingsland. 

New Ideas in Teaching Literature*. 

Review of Reviews.— New York. December. 

Professor Haupt and the ** Polychrome Bible." C. H. Levy. 
The Kindergarten Age. Hezekiah Butterworth. 
Child Study in the Training of Teachers. E. A. Kirkpatrick. 
New York's Great Movement for Housing Reform. 
The Sunday Schools : Their Shortcomings and Their Great 
Opportunity. Walter L. Hervey. 

Rosary Magazine.— New York. December. 

Our Ladv's Rosarv. Thomas Esser. 
Some Patricks of the Revolution. Thomas H. Murray. 
At the Manger. Annie Chambers-Ketchum. 
Letters on the Dominican Order. Paul Duchausseix. 

The Sanitarian.- New York. December. 

Progress of Sanitary Engineering. Andrew Noble. 
Mortality Among Negroes. J. C. Le Hardy. 
Formic Aldehvde : Its Use as a Disinfectant. F. C. Robinson. 
Report on Pollution of Water Supplies. Charles Smart. 
Danger of Contagion in Street Cars. E. B. Borland. 
Practical Sanitation in Glasgow. Peter Fyfe. 

Sch ol Review.— Chicago. December. 

New England Association of Colleges and PreiMtratory 
SchoSs. R. G. Huling. 

Strand Magasine.— London. November 15. 

Pictures In Fireworks. Wm. G. Fitzgerald. 

Idols. Continued. 

United States Presidential Campaign Buttons. G. Dollar. 

A Steamer on Wheels. J. W. Smith. 

Leaders of the Bar. Continued. E. 

The Chicago-Jericho Line. 

Mrs. Nansen. J. Arthur Bain. 

Sunday Magazine.- London. December. 

Sunday Morning in Westminster Abbey. Kate M. Warren. 
Lady Henry Somerset ; Interview. Jane T. Stoddart. 



Lincoln Palace. Continued. A. R. Maddison. 
Some Natural Artillery In the Animal World. Theodore 
Wood. 

Temple Bar.— London. December. 

Tlie Basilicas of Rome. 

A Study of Richard Jeffries. Charles Fisher. 

A Kendsh Arcadia. Linda Gkirdiner. 

Some Aspects of Matthew Arnold. G. Le Grys Norgate. 

Boston, Massachusetts, Revisited. H. Harting. 

The United Service.— Philadelphia. November. 

Is an Increase of the Regular Army Necessary ? H. C. Eg 
bert. 



Napoleon's Voyage to St. Helena. 
The Home Squadron in the War 



with Mexico. P. S. P. Con- 



United Service Magazine.— London. December. 

Edward Stanhope as War Minister. An Admirer. 

A Weak Point in Naval Administration. C. M. Johnson. 

Old Indian Armies and Their Feats : The Defence of Kori- 

G^un. 
Cavalry Drill, 1806. 

The Aldershot Manoeuvres. Vigilans. 
A Classification of Warships. 
Volunteer Musketry. 

The Madagascar War. With Map. Colonel Graves. 
War-Dogs. Mrs. Edith £. CutheU. 
Napoleon at St. Helena. Sir. James B. Urmston. 
The Italian- Abyssinian Treaty. F. Harrison Smith. 

Westminster Review.— London. December. 

The Depopulation of France. Stoddard Dewey. 

The Situation in Ireland. 

Social Evolution and Historical Science. *'A Historical 
Scientist." 

The Old M. P. and the New. G. A. B. Dewar. 

James I. and VI. Oliphant Smeaton. 

The Fdtes for the Czar. J. Buxton Latham. 

The Pseudo and the Real '' Cottage Homes *' for Pauper Chil- 
dren. 

Socialism and Militarism R. Seymour Long. 

Journalism as a Profession : a Rejoinder. W. N. Shansfield. 

Wilson's Photographic Magazine.— New York. December. 

Papers for Professional Photographers.— XXL J. A. Ten- 

nant. 
How to Study Process Chromatica. C. Ashleigh Snow. 
Carbon Printing. Ernest Heckroth. 
Vignetting in the Camera. 
Method in Printing. J. Steinfurth. 
Direct Trichromatic Half -Tone Negatives. 

Yale Review.— New Haven. (Quarterly.) November. 

European Copunent on American Politics. 

Gold and the Prices of the Products of the Farm. L. G. 

Poivers. 
Recent Economic and Social Legislation In the United 

States. F. J. Stimson. 
The Shifting of Taxes. T. N. Carver. 
Recent Legislation in England. Edward Porritt. 
Half a Century of Improved Housing. W. H. Tolman. 



THE GERMAN MAGAZINES. 



Daheim.— Leipzig. 
October 31. 

How a Newspaper is Made. G. Kukutsch. 
Duck Catching in the North Sea Islands. C. Jensen. 
Krupp. H. von Zobeltitz. 

Reform of German National and Athletic Festivals. D. K. 
Koch. 

November 14. 

Richard Strauss. With Portrait. 
Krupp. Continued. 

November 21. 
Krapp. Continued. 

November 28. 

Ludwig Richter. T. H. Pantenius. 
Biarine Salvage Work. H. von Spielberg. 

Deutsche Revue.— Stuttgart. November. 

Li Hung Chang's Travels and Chinese Diplomacy. M. von 

Brandt. 
Talks with Sardou. E. Lautmann. 
Poisons and the Black Art at the Court of Louis XtV. 
Prince Bismarck and the Bund of the German Zollvereln. 

H. von Poschinger. 



On the Rhine : Musical Reminiscences. W. J. von Wasielew- 

ski. 
Stosch*. Continued. Vice- Admiral Batsch. 
Frederic of Schleswig-Holstein and Prince Bismarck. Dr. 

Henrici. 
Meister Oberl&nder. H. Schmidkunz. 
" Religious Liquidation." Prof. E. TrOltsch. 
Charles I. of England. Count N. Rehbinder. 

Deutsche Rundschau.— Berlin. November. 

Prof. Max Mdller and His American Correspondent. 

Flowers in the Hochgebirge Continued, fi. Strasburger. 

Heinrich von Treitschke. Continued. P. Bailleu. 

The Journals of Theodor von Bernhardt Continued. 

Platen's " Confessions." E. Schmidt. 

The Berlin Women's Congress. Oiga Stieglitz. 

Napoleon and Alexander L Max Lenz. 

Deutzcher HausschaU.— Regensburg. Heft 2. 

The Ancient Germans at Home A. J. Ctippers. 
The Migration of Birds. H. Eschelbach. 

Neue Revue.— Vienna. 

October 28. 

' The Raimund Theatre. Continued. A. Ml^ller Guttenbmnn. 



CONTENTS OF REI/'IEU/S AND MAGAZINES. 



125 



November 4. 

Triple AIliAnoe and Dii«l AlliAnce. S. Schilder. 
The Baimiind Theatre. Contiiiaed. 
Boatine in Music. Dr. H. Schenker. 

November IL 

A New Party. 

Triple Alliance and Dual Alliance. Concluded. 

Tbe Baimnnd Theatre. Continued. 

November 18. 
Th* Centre. C. Alberti. 
Tlie Modem Conception of the Tragic E. Schlaikjer. 



November 25. 

The Pathology of Poverty. O. Perger. 
The Raimund Theatre. Continued. 
The Tragic. Continued. 

Vom Pels 2um Meer.— Stuttgart. 

Heft 5. 
Agnes Sorma. 
In the Upi>er Engadine. Continued. O. Peregrlnns. 

Heft 6. 

William McKinley. C. P. Dewey. 
The Pontine Marshes. Dr. H. Barth. 



THE FRENCH MAGAZINES. 



Bibliothique Universelle.—Paris. November. 

Tbe Queetion of Swiss Railways. Numa Droz. 
OeDeral Trochu. Abel Veuglaire. 

Tbe Agricultural Crisis in the United States. A. Dufour. 
A Page of Natural History. Aug. Qlardon. 

Nouvelle Revue.— Paris. 
November 1. 
Personal and Military Recollections. G^eneral Oudinot. 
CoDtemporay Italian Literature. H. Montecorboli. 
In the Regions of the Invisible. C. Mandair. 
Greece. A. Z. Stephanopoli. 
Hw Hungarian Cnsis. R. Schelard. 
Utters on Foreign Politics. Mma Juliette Adam. 

November 16. 

Letters from G^eonre Sand to the Abb6 Rochet. 

Petnrcfa. Prince de Valori. 

T<nmg Greece.— L Mile, de Bovet. 

Tbe Researches at Antinous 

Tbe Pine Arts During the Commune. M. de MonthouiL 

11» Revelations of Prince Bismarck. Mme. Juliette Adam. 

Revue Bleue.— Paris. 

October 81. 

The Prssideatial Election in America : McKinley or Bryan t 

Augusta Moireau. 
Bidyard Kipling. Mile Hannah Lynch. 
The PoUtical Press in France. Eugdne Pierre. 

November 7. 
The Correspondence of Victor Hugo. Emile Faguet. 
The Process of Law Pleading in France. Jean CruppL 

November U. 
** Lee Perses ** bv Bschyle. Mme. Jane Dieulafoy. 
Victor Hugo and Saint-Beuve. Emile Fauguet. 

November 21. 
Ooatemporary French Society. O. de Rivalidre. 
Cokmista and Natives. M. de Lanessan. 
Oooditioii of Women at the Present Time. Bfme. C. Coignet. 

November 28. 
Paupers and Mendicants. Paul Strauss 
Cbntemporary French Society. Concluded. O. de Rivalidre. 

Revue dee Deux Mondea.— Paris. 
November 1. 
The Psychology of the French Character. A. Fouill6e. 
Count Cavour and Prince Bismarck. Count Benedetti. 
I^hological Literature : De Quincy and Opium. A. Barine. 
Beethoven, Schubert^ Mendelssohn, Schumann, Berlioz. E. 

MkheL 
The Two Chancellors ; Apropos of a Recent Publication. 

G. Valbert. 

November 15. 
DsvidandG4ricault: Recollections of School Life. Michelet. 
The Evolution of Our Monetary System. R. G. Levy. 
Pathological Literature : De Quincy and Opium. A. Barine. 
The Eastern Origins of Greek Mythology. f>. Berger. 
ChiU and BoUvia. A. BeUesort. 



Revue de Paris.-^Paris. 

November L 

Letters to Alfred de Mnsset. Georee Sand. 

Verses to George Sand. Alfred de Mnsset. 

A Letter to Dr. Toulouse. Zola. 

Notes on Emile Zola. Dr. Toulouse. 

The Literary Remains of Ingres at Montaibau. L. MabQeau. 

, November 15. 

Letters to Sainte-Beuve. George Sand. 
British Trades Unions. P. de Rousiers. 
Berlin Before the Barricades (March, 1848). Count A. de 

Circourt. 
Watteau. G. Sailles. 
Young Egypt. A. Chevalley. 

Revue Politique et Psrlementaire.— Paris. November 10. 
Alcohol and Al(K>holism. Charles Dupuy. 



The New Classifications of Parties in France. E. Dejean. 

The Struggle of Parties in France. E. Pierre. 

The Reform of the Court of Assizes in Algeria. Maurice 

Colin. 
Notes on Decentralization. C. Cayla. 

Revue des Revues.—Paris. 
November 1. 
The Presidential Election in the United States. L. de Beau- 
fort. 
Life Beyond the Grave. Jean Finot. 
Little Dogs in France. Concluded. F. Engerand. 

m November 15. 

Alcoholism in France. Alexandre B^rard. 
Two Unpublished Poems by Louis XIIL Boyer d*Agen. 
William Morris. Charles Simond. 

Revue Scientifique.— Paris. 
October 81. 
Epochs in the Astronomical History of the Planets. J. Jans- 
sen. 
Maurice Schiif, 1823-1896. P. Langlois. 

November 7. 
The Fourth Congress of Criminal Anthropology. E. Ferri. 
Agricultural Diratsters in France. Victor Turquan. 

November 14. 
Progress in Engineering. Sir Douglas Fox. 
Child Psychology. M. Preyer. 

November 21. 
Nervous Debility and Fatigue. Ph. Tlssie. 
The Reproduction and Evolution of Wasps. Paul MarchaL 

November 28. 
Inauguration of the University of Paris. 
Nervous Debility and Fatigue. ContinuMi. Fb. Tissie. 

Revue Socialiste —Paris. November. 

Correspondence of Tourgueneflf with Herzen. 

The Fiscal Probl*?ai in France. Concluded. L. ^alraa. 

The Social Question in the Orient. Hugues Rosalt. 



OTHER EUROPEAN MAGAZliNES 



Nuova Antologis— Rome. 
November I. 
A Visit to Joles Verne and to V. Sardou. E. de Amids. 
In tbe Kingdom of Minos. -IL L. Mariani. 
Tbe Prediction of Brunette Latini in the Inferno. F. Cola- 
grasso. 

November 1ft. 
Ifopardi as Deputy. G. Carducci. 
Th^ Controrersy on Capltalirai in RuwHa. A. Loria. 
Sefaastiano Veniero and His Tumb. P. Molmenti. 



RasseKoa Nazionale.— Florence. 
November 1. 
Rival Banks. G. P. Assirelli. 
Empirical Finance. F. Bervaldo. 
Studious Woman. G. Grabinski. 

November 16. 
Mgr. G. Bonomelli. C. Calzi. 

The Eighth Centenary of the Crusades. G. Angelini. 
PellajBrra in the Provence of Vicenza. B. ClementL 
The Catholic Congress at Flesole. P. L. D. O. 



J 



126 



THE REyiElV OF REy/ElVS. 



B«pa&a Moderna.— Madrid. November. 

Avila : Its Monuments and Traditions. J. R. Melida. 
How to Make Gold. Prof. Rodriguez Mourelo. 
International Politics. Emilio Castelar. 

Reviata Contemporanea.— Madrid. 

October 80. 

The Iron and Steel Trades in Spain. P. de Alzola. 
Scientific Religious Problems. T. Rodriguez. 

November 16. 

Travels in Spain and Portugal. E. Gtorcia Chancellor. 
Epitaphs. Moreno Oarcia. 

Reviata Braiileira.— Rio de Janeiro. 

No. 4a 

Henriette Renan. Machado de Assis. 
Punishment Among the Hebrews. A. Orlando. 

No. 44. 

Why We Laugh. Urbano Duarte. 

The Lawyer in Literature and Real Life. J. C. de Souza 
Bandelra. 



De Oida,— Amsterdam. November. 

Education in Belgium and Holland. Ida Heyermans. 
Knut Hamsun, the Norwc^n Novelist. Dr. Boer. 
Impressions of Greece. Maurits Wagenvoort. 

Teyamannia.— Batavia. No. 9. 

Cacao Cultivation in Guadeloupe. Dr. Van Romburgh. 
The Best Kinds of Fruit to Grow. H. J. Wigman. 

Vragen dea Tijds.— Haarlem. November. 

Dividing Cities and Provinces into Electoral Districts. J. A 

Van Gilsie. 
Our Civic Laws from the Social Standpoint. E. Fokker. 

Kringajaa.— Christiania. November 15. 

Criminal Statistics from the United States. 
Faith and Religion. Dr. G. Armauer Aansen. 
Elizabeth Barrett Browning. H. Tambe Lyche. 

Nordiak Tidakrift.-Stockholm. No. 6. 

T^e Human Figure in Gk>tbic Sculpture. Jul. Lange. 
Wagner and Denmark. Karl Gjellerop. 
The Artist-Engraver, Max Klinger ana His " Brahms Phan- 
tasie." 



INDEX TO PERIODICALS. 



Unless otherwise specified all references are to the December nnml>ers of periodicals. 
For table of abbreviations see page 128. 



AfHca: 

The Italian- Abyssinian Treaty, F. H. Smith, USN. 

The Native Problem in South Afrtca, W. F. Balley» NatR. 

Zanzibar, SunH. . 

Gold Fields of South Africa, G. F. Becker, Cos. 

White Man's Africa- II., Poultney Bigelow, Harp. 
Arc, Joan of, Andrew Lang, EI. 

Arbitration : International Arbitration, E. P. Powell, A. 
Architecture; Fire-Proof Construction, and Recent Tests, 

EngM. 
Arcticllegions : The Farthest North, C. C. Adams, McCl. 
Aridity, The Problem of, C. M. Harger, NAR. 
Armenian Exiles in C*yprus, Emma Ck>ns, CR. 
Armies: 

Socialism and Militarism, R. S. Long, WR. 

The Royal Military College, Sandhurst. PMM. 

Medical Department of the British Army, Black. 
Art, Relation of, to Religion, W. O. Partridge, A. 
Anagrams, Arthur Inkersley, Lipp. 
Banking : See contents of Bank. 
Bassompierre, Francois de, NewR. 
Bethlehem, S. S. McClure, McCL 
Bible and Biblical Criticism : 

Bible Printing and Distributing, CJ. 

Prof. Haupt and the Polychrome Bible, C. H. Levy, RR. 

Predictive Element in Old Testament Prophecy, BSac. 
Bicycling : 

A Bohemian Couple Awheeling, Alice L. Moque, O. 

Lenz's World Tour Awheel, O. 

American Bicycles in England, G. F. Parker, NAR. 
Biology, Psychology, and Sociologry, Herbert Spencer, APS. 
Birds and Man, WTH. Hudson, Long. 
BUcking Hall, Norfolk, PMM. 
Bonheur, Rosa : The Story of My Life, LHJ. 
Books: 

A Raid Among Books, Black. 

On the Selling of Books, NC. 
Botanic GardensJC). T. Macdougal, APS. 
Bread Question, The, FreeR. 

Bribery and the Law. Margherita Arlina Hamm, AMC. 
British Association of l«fl6, FreeR. 
Browning, Robert— II., John J. Chapman, BA. 
Cabot and Other Western Explorers, C. H. Mackintosh, 

CanM. 
Canada: 

Canadian Poetry, Gordon Waldron, CanM. 

Canada and the Venezuelan Settlement, CanM. 
Canoeing Down the Rhine— I., R. Calhoun, FrL. 
Catholic Church : 

The Pope and the Anglicans, CR. 

The Roman Church in French Fiction. Mac. 
Channing, Homes and Haunts of, C. R. Thurston, NEM. 
Children : 

See contents of CRev. 

Royal Children, George Holme, MM. 

The Religious Consciousness of Children, NW. 

ChUdhoc^ in 1800, Amelia L. Hill, NEM. 
China: 

Some Peking Politicians, 5- K. Douglas. NC. 



Secret Societies in China, Black. 

Chinese Humbug, E. H. Parker, CR. 

Personal Recollections of the Tai Ping Rebellion, Cos. 
Christ : What Language Did Christ Speak y Agnes S. Lewis, 

CM. 
Christ's Birth, Date of, C. Geikie, HomR. 
Christianity, Practical, A Sjrmposium, A. 
Christmas : 

December 25, H. C. Beeching, C. 

Com Near No well, Nora Hopper, Ata. 

Christmas in Several Lands, Dem. 

A Middle English Nativity, John Corbln, Harp. 

Christmas Kalends of Provence, T. A. Janvier, CM. 
Church Entertainments, Another Year of, W. B. Hale, P. 
Church Reform, A. G. Boscawan. NatR. 
Citizenship, Obligations of, W. H. Goodale, AMC. 
City, The Problem of the, Clinton R. WoodruflLAMC. 
Collectivism, Indivdualism v*., L. Courtney, APS. 
Colonies, British : 

Functions of a Colonial Govemor-CJeneral, NatR. 

A Study in Colonial History, Mac. 
Costume, A Century of French, Alice M. Ekrle, Chant. 
Creoles : A People Who Live Amid Romance, Ruth Stuart, 

LHJ. 
Crime, Relation of, to Education, CW. 
Cuba : What Shall be Done About Cuba ? M. W. Hazeltine, 

NAR. 
Curfew for City Children. Mrs. J. D. Townsend, NAR. 
Currency, Reform of the. NAR. 

De Fronsacs, Past and Present. The, J. M. Forsyth, AHReg. 
Dixie, Old-Time Christmas in, Mary A. Fanton, Dem. 
Dominican Order, Letters on the, Paul Duchaussoix, R. 
Dmidism, T. H. B. Graham, GM. 
Duels of All Nations, J. Pemberton Grund, C. 
Education : 

See contents of Ed ; EdB ; F. 

The Kindergarten Age. Hezekiah Butter worth, RR. 

Child Study in the Ti-aining of Teachers, E. A. Kirkpatrick, 
RR. 

The Local Support of Education. T. J. Macnamara, NC. 
Edward the Confessor, Bishop Creighton, C. 

A Pase from the Diary of a Lotus Eater, E. F. Benson, FR. 

On Foot in Egypt and Palestine, N. Tiemagel, MidM. 
Electricity : Pc»wer from Alternating Currents, L. Duncan, 

CasM. 
Emerson, The Portraits of, F. B. Sanborn, NEM. 
Engineer in Naval Warfare, The, NAR. 
Entertainments, Church, Another Year of, W. B. Hale, F. 
Evolution and the Fall of Man. D. W. Simon. BSac. 
Field, Eugene : A Poet of Many Friends, E. C. Martin, Dem. 
Financial : 

Money and Investments, CR. 

Commercial War Between Germanv and England, NC. 

The Greenback Controversy. GMag. 
Fishing : Smelt Fishing in I^orthern Waters, J. H. Welsh, 

Dem. 
Flirtation as a Fine Art. Jean Wright. Lipp. 
Florida, The Settlement of St. Augustine, PMM. 



INDEX TO PERIODICALS. 



127 



Football as the Coachers See It J. L. Williams, BA. 

France, Anatole, FR. 

France: 

The Depopulation of France, S. Dewey. WR. 

The Capital of Paris, Mac. 
French Literature : Roman Church in French Fiction, Mac. 
French Revolution, Letters from Paris During the, PMM. 
French Revolution, The, M. H. Stephens, Chant. 
FrMcoea, Maccari^s Historical, ThM>dore Tracey. Coe. 
Fuel : Economy of Combustion in Marine Boilers, CasM. 
Genius, Axe of. David Lindsay, QM. 
George lu.. Prof. Gk>ldwin Smith, C. 
Germany : 

Prince Bismarck's Secret Treaty. FR. 

Germany's Foreign Policy, E. J. Dillon, FR. 

Commercial War Between (Germany and England, NC. 

Frederick IL: A Mistaken Imperial Celebration, NC. 
Girls : A Qroup of American Qlrls, Helen E. Smith, CM. 
Glasgow, Practical Sanitation in, Peter Fyfe, San. 
God, The Living, Laf cadio Heame, AM. 
Gokl Mining in New ZeaUnd. CJ. 
Golf in America to Date. Price Collier, O. 
Government By Injunction, L. E. Curtis, EngM. 
Government Offices, H. H. Statham, FR. 
Grant, Qen.: 

Csmpaigning with Grant. Gton. Horace Porter, CM. 

Grant's Lifein the West— VI.. Col. J. W. Emerson, MidM. 

The Early Life of Ulysses Grant, Hamlin Garland, McCl. 
Greece : Social Life of Ancient Greece, E. Capps, Chant. 
Gnnpowder Plot, Black. 

Hsnulton, Gail, Last Years of, M. B. Thrasher, A. 
Heretica, The. Walter P. Adeney, NW 
Hohnes, Oliver Wendell, W. D. Howells, Harp. 
Homes and Shelters : 

Almahonse Life, Emma Brewer jSunH. 

The Peeudo and Real ** Cottage Homee " for Children, WR. 
Hones of the Princess of Wales, E. M. Jessop, CFM. 
Housing : Half a Century of Improved Housing, W. H. Tol- 

man, YR. 
£imtinff : 

Wild Ducks and Tame Decoys, H. Sears, Harp. 

An Old Virginia Fox Hunt, 1>. B. Fitzgerald. Lipp. 
Hydraulic Power in London, E. B. Ellington, CasM. 
HjpDotic Suggestion, Arthur V. Abbott, MetM. 
Idioto Savants, Frederick Peterson. APS 
Immigration : Statistics of Immigration, GMag. 
India: 

The Impending Famine in India, T. M. Kirkwood, FR. 

Old Memories of the Indian Mutinv, Hugh Gough, PMM. 
Indians : The SoK^lled California ' Diggers," APS. 
Individualism v». Collectivism, L. Courtney, APS. 
Indnstrialism. Relation of, to Morality, Marie C. Remick, A. 
lannration, Cnarles Johnston, MetM. 
Irelud: 

The Situation in Ireland. WR. 

The New Irish Movement. 8. O'Grady. NewR. 

The Financial Grievance of Ireland, J. J. Clancey, NC. 

The Molly Maguires of Ireland, CJ. 
Iron Industry, The, W. T. Jeans, CJ. 
Italian- Abyssinian Treaty, F. H. Smith, USM. 
James L, O. Smeaton, WR. 
Japan: 

The Shinto Pantheon, Edmund Buckley, NW. 

A Shinto Funeral, Mrs. Sannomiya, NC. 
Jews: 

The Twentieth Century Jew, M. Ellinger, Men. 

The Jewish Question. David Baron. MlsR. 

The Jews Returning to Palestine, R. S Moncrieff, MisR. 
Jonmalixm : 

Jonmalittm as a Profession. WR. 

Som© Newspaper Women, Helen M. Winslow, A. 
Knit : A Kentish Arcadia, Linda Gardiner, TB. 
Khayyam. Omar. J. A. Murray, FR. 
Kipung. Rudyard. as a Poet. Montgomery Schuyler, F. 
Labor Statistics of Russian Faftoriee. H. Schoenf eld, CW. 
LaadscmDes with Figures, J. K. Paulding, AM. 
Law ana Lawyers : 

John Marshall. Sallie E. M. Hardy. GBag. 

New Abridgment of the Laws of England, GBag. 

Leaders of the Bar. Str, Nov. 
Lee. Gen. Robert E.. Gen. O. O. Howard, FrL. 
Lefal Profession. Influence of the, C. M. Depew. AMC. 
Legislation in EngUnd. Recent. Edward Porritt, YR. 
Legislation. Economic and Social, in the United States, YR. 
Lebnire. Vernon Lee. CR. 

Liberal Party : Democracy and Leadership, FR. 
Ltnooln. Abraham : 

Some Memories of Lincoln. James F. Wilson, NAR. 

Lincoln and Douglas. Daniel Evans, MidM. 
Literature : 

American Women and American Literature, F. 

Present State of Literature in America, Bkman. 

New Ideas in Teaching Literature, PL. 

English Literature in Germany, F. I. Carpenter. D. Nov. 16. 
A Osnnan Lecture on Literature, C. S. Brown, D, Dec. 1. 
Loekbart, John Gibson, CJ. 



London : 

Tyburn Tree, Francis Watt, NewR. 

Memories of St. James' Square, W. C. Sydney. GM. 

Looking Down on London, F. M. Holmes, CFM. 
Lytton, Earl of. The Poetry of the, George Saintsbury, F. 
Machiavelli and the English Reformation, W. A. Phillips, 

McKiniev, Mrs.: The Coming " First Lady in the Land.** 

MidM. 
Madagascar War, Col. Graves. USM. 
Mahomet and Mahometanism, W. Wright, SunH. 
Man. Rights of, D. H. Balfour, FreeR. 
Mankind, Progress of, Elisee Reclus, CR. 
Mazarin, Cardinal, J. B. Perkins, Chant. 
Medical Department of the Anxiy, Black. 
Memory, A Prejudice Against, Camille Melinand, Chant. 
Messenger System of London, District, CJ. 
Metaphysician as a Reformer, Clara S. Carter, MetM. 
Mexico: Ancient Silver Mines of Zacatecas, G. 8. Gleed,*Co6. 
Millais, Sir John, Bart.. P.R.A., Scrib. 
Mohawk River and Its History, Robert Earl, AHReg. 
Monasteryi Llanthony, and Two of Its Priors, NatR. 
Morris, William : 

William Morris : The Man and His Work, W. Sharp. 

William Morris and Some of His Later Works, B. O. 
Flower, A. 
Napoleon's Voyage to St. Helena, US. 
Napoleon L. J. B. Urmston, USM. 
Natural History : 

Natural Artillery in the Animal World. T. Wood, SunM. 

The '* Sense of Direction " in Animals, C. Dixon, LH. 

Natural History in the Primary Schools of France, APS. 

Muiiiiiiiji tl]'^ Nrivy iti Thncof War, T. A. Bi*aiBtfiy, NC. 

Nefs, »J. H. RolliLHuu. PMM. 

NelwuL Admrral T.ord. i;ijij-k Huw?elL EL 
Ni^i^^ England Rud tiit Formation of Amt^rfra. CW. 
Nr*w FrniiH V. Th<^ (ii>*r- nmi FaU of-IL, F, .T. Tur'ut'r, Chaut. 
Now Zt^limd ; finlii Minmii? in N**w ZL'ik.1aiid. CJ. 
Ktii-iimTHfri;, An Art*^frit>on \n. Snannna H. R*X'«e, AL 
NurH<^i*. i^vfiini* R*^mjirk8 on Mrpd^rn, Emmn L, Wataon» NatR 
Oc-'^n> Tb«? W^irld B*ni«itli tb+?. A, P. Crf^mt b, KC, 
Onitory, Political Sjitn*? Not*>« citi— tLt H. T. Peck, Bkman. 
<iBl*nrnt?, Frrtrn'ts. Hidney P*"?], XC 
Pfirliaui.'iit ■ rn.' OTil M. V niiA thf^ Xt?w. WR, 
I ^ , T. H, Murray, R 

i'aul. l..-^ Ai--: ■,. L-; i':^__ _livr. \7, C. WiUtitiaon, HomR. 
Penal Coloniee, Arthur Griffiths, NAR. 
Pessimism. The Infection of, QeorKe Batchelor, NW. 
Photography: See contents of AP; PA; PB: PT; WPM. 
Pirates in Fact and Fiction, Clark Russell, CFM. 
Poetry: Canadian Poetrv, Gordon Waldron. CanM. 
Pompeii and Vesuvius, Glimpses of, James Hetzel. MidM. 
Posters : Evolution of the Poster, Aflmes C. Sjaire, Lipp. 
Princeton in the Nation's Service. Woodrow Wilson, P. 
Prophecy, The Rationale of, Leon Landsbere, MetM. 
Provence, The Christmas Kalends of, T. A. Janvier. CM. 
Public Improvement, The Art of, Mary C. Bobbins, AM. 
Railways : 

A Pre-arranged Head-End Collision, Cos. 

Railroad BuUdine in Colombia, Eduardo J. Chibas, EngM. 

The Chicago^Tericho Line, Str, Nov. 
Reformation in England, Machiavelli and the, RC. 
Religion, Relation of Art to, W. O. Partridge, A. 
Religious Life, Its Nature and Claims, BSac. 
Rhine, Canoeing Down the— I., R. Calhoun, FrL. 
Rome, Ancient : The Basilicas of Rome, TB. 
" Rule Britannia,'* Authorship of, J. C. Haden, NC. 
Russia : The F6tes for the Czar, J. B. Latham. WR. 
Sanitary Engineering, Progress of. Andrew Noble, San. 
Santa Catalina : A Magic Island, FrL. 
Sanitation in Glasgow, Practical, Peter Fyfe, San. 
Savants, Idiots, Frederick Peterson, APS. 
Savings Banks, N. W. Wolff, CR. 
Saw Mill, The Modern, W. H. Trout, CasM. 
Scotland : Hatton House Restored, Scots. 
Servia, Herbert Vivian, NewR. 
Service, The Social Law of, Newell D. HiUis, BSac. 
Shakespeare : 

Some Characteristics of Shakespeare, CR. 

A Guess at the Origin of " Hamlet," NatR. 

Abj«enc*» of Religion in Shakespeare, G. Santayana, NW. 
Shellpy. P. B., at Tremadoc, Mac. 
Silver Mines of Zacatecas. Ancient, C. S. Gledd, Cos. 
Sitting Down, Frederick Boyle, NewR. 
Slatin Pasha, Ten Years' Captivity of, S. E. Tilman, Cos. 
Slaves Sold in Plymouth Pulpit. Mrs. Beecher, LHJ. 
Social Classes in the Republic, E. L. God kin, AM. 
Social Evolution and Historical Science, WR. 
Socialiimi in England. Giovanni Boglietti. Chaut. 
Socialism and Militarism. R. S. Long, WR. 
South America. Our Trade with, T. C. Search, NAB. 
Spain : La Granja, CJ. 

Spelling. The Future of English, D, Nov. 16. 
Spirit, The Life of the, A. 
Spooks, Edwin Oliver, Ata. 



128 



THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



Sport : Ftrflt Days with the Qun, Iionir* 

Srtevenaon, R. L.. on Btirnfl. FrcnjR. 

SontJay R^st a Civ-ll Rip lit. John C'hnrlton, CflnBL 

Btmday Sf^boola; Their yliorttxjm in ^b and Tliciii* Opportmii- 

ty, RR. 
SwltJMsHanfl : Nutional Eibibition at Qenova, L^ng. 
Symboliam, Animft.!. In EtrcIe&laatifAl An^^liltet ture, APS. 
1XxfttJ^>n, Prltuuulps of-IV., David A. Wellw, APf*. 
TftiPSn The Shi/tifitf of. T. N. Crtrvi^r, YR. 
TeleRraph Monopoly, The— X., Frank Parians, A. 
Temperance : Total Alwtiuence, Harry Jcim^* NG 
Theolo*?y. Tlie New. Jacoh A. Riddle, B8ai.\ 
TJmrasn. Bnidford Torrey, AM. 
Trampdom, The Border of. W, Noblti. AP^. 
Trusts* Common ^^cnee on, QMag. 
Tunia : Sfax and ilahdia, T. A. Anchor. NoiyR. 
Turkey: 

Y<jQnBf Turkey, Karl Blind, FR. 

Turkiuli Otiilds, Constance Siitrliffe, FR. 

(Constantinople, F. Whyte, PMM. 

lmpr<?wfirai« of CoDfltantlooplo, Mrdton Prior, EI. 

Life at YSJdlK, CR, 

Turkey, S;iiltan of. (>. B. Bur^ln, CFM. 

Tho Great Aaaassiln and the Christiana of Armenia, CW. 
United Statei^ : 

L«&aoGs from thn AraeriraTi Election, F. H. Esirdy, FR. 

The Presidential Oampul^n, NatH. 

Tha President b*) Cjitupaitrn h^ I Saw It. G. W. Steevens, 
Black. 

Tlie Olner Doctrine and Americo^s New Foroign Policy, 
NC. 



A New World Aristocracy, E. Porritt, LH. 

Ori^n of the United States Constitution, AMon. 
Universities : 

Cornell. H. C. Howe, FrL. 

The University of Virginia, W. Baird. EdRA. 
Vaccination: The Superfluoos Vaccination Commission, 

NC. 
Venezuela : Canada and the Venezuelan Settlement, CanM. 
Volcanoes, Igneous Intrusions and, I. C. Russell, APiS. 
Washingtons : 

The washinfftons, MM. 

An Unpublished Life Portrait of Washington. McCL 

The Washingtons in the Revolution, Susan R. HetzeU 
AMon. 
Water Supplies, Pollution of, San. 
Wealth, The Concentration of, E. Pomeroy, A. 
Winter's Walk, Mac. 
Women : 

The Female Factor, P. C. Spence, FreeR. 

The Evolution of Woman, Gleeson White, GPM. 

Registered Friendly Societies for Women. NatR. 

The Women of Ljric Love, NewR. 

French and English Minxes, Mrs. Andrew Lang. Long. 

Place of Women in Modem Civilization, J. Silverman, 
Men. 

Woman's Part in Political Sins, Florence A. Burleigh, AMC. 

American Women and American Literature, H. H. Lusk, F. 

Federation of Woman's Cluhe, Ellen M. Henrotin, A. 

Some Newspaper Woman, Helen M. Wlnslow, A. 

Types of Fair Women, MM. 
Yorktown, The Battle of, Eugenia Washington, AMon. 



Abbreviations of Magasine Titles used in the Index. 



AP. American Amateur Photog- 

rapher. 

AHReg. American Historical Register. 

AHR. American Historical Review. 

AMC. American Magazine of Civics. 

A APS. Annals of the Am. Academy of 
Political Science. 

AJS. American Journal of Sociol- 
ogy. 

AMon. American Monthly 

APS. Appleton's Popular Science 
Monthly. 

ARec. Arcbitectual Record. 

A. Arena. 

A A. Art Amateur. 

AI. Art Interchange. 

Ata. Atalanta. 

AM. AUantic Monthly. 

BA. Bachelor of Arte. 

BankL. Bankers' Magazine. (London "). 

BankNT. Bankers' Magaasiue. (New 
York.) 

BW. Biblical World. 

BSac. Bibliotheca Sacra. 

Black. Blackwood's Magazine. 

BRec. Bond Record. 

Bkman. Bookman. (New York). 

OanM. Canadian Magazine. 

CFM. Caaseirs Family Magazine. 

CasM. Cassier's Magazine. 

CW. Catholic World. 

CM. Century Magazine. 

<U. Chambers's Journal. 

CRev. Charities Review. 

< ' haut. Chautauquan. 

<'R. Contemporary Review. 

<'. ComhilL 

<'o8mop. Cosmopolis. 

Cos. Cosmopolitan. 

Dem. Demorest's Family Magazine. 

D Dial. 

DR. Dublin Review. 

ER. Edinburgh Review. 



Ed. Education. 

EdRL. Educational Review. (Lon- 
don). 

EdRNY. Educational Review. (New 
York). 

EngM. Engineering Magazine. 

EI. English Illustrated Magazine 

FR. Fortnightly Review. 

F. Forum. 
FreeR. Free Review. 

FrL. Frank Leslie's Monthly 

GM. Gentleman's Magazine. 

G. Gt«dey's. 
GBag. Groen Bag. 
GMag. Gunton's Magazine. 
Harp. Harper's Magazine. 
HomR. Homiletic Review. 

IJE. Internat'l Journal of Ethics. 

lA. Irrigation Aee. 

JAES. Journal of tne Ass'n of En 
gineering Societies. 

J MSI. Journal of the Military Serv- 
ice Institution. 

JPEcon. Journal of Political Economy. 

K. Knowledge. 

LHJ. Ladies' Home Journal. 

LAH. Lend a Hand. 

LH. I^eisure Hour. 

Lipp. Lippincott's Magazine. 

Long. Longman's Magazine. 

LQ. London Quarterly. 

LuthQ. Lutheran Quarterly. 

McCl. McClure'8 Magazine. 

Mac. Macmillan's Maffa%ine. 

Men. Menorah Monthly. 

MetM. Metaphysical Magazine. 

MR. Methodist Review. 

MidM. Midland Monthly. 

MisH. Missionary Herald, 

MisR. Missionary Review of World. 

Mon. Monist. 

M. Month. 

MI. Monthly Illustrator. 



MM. 

Mus. 

NatM. 

NatR. 

NEM. 

NewR. 

NW. 

Na 

NAR. 

OD. 

O. 

OM. 

PMM. 

PRev. 

PA. 

PB. 

PT. 

PL. 

PRR. 

PQ. 
QJEcon. 

rr! 

R. 

San. 

SRev. 

Scots. 

Scrib. 

Sten. 

Str. 

SJ. 

SunH 

SunM. 

TB. 

US. 

CTSM. 

WR. 

WPM. 

YR. 



Munsey's Magazine. 

Music. 

National Magazine. 

National Review. 

New England Magazine. 

New Review. 

New World. 

Nineteenth Century. 

North American Review. 

Our Day. 

Outing. 

Overland Monthly. 

Pall MaU Magazine. 

Philosophical Review. 

Photo-American. 

Photo-Beacon. 

Photographic Times. 

Poet-Lore. 

Presbyterian and Reformed 
Review. 

Presbyterian Quarterly. 

Quarterly Journal of Eicouom- 
ics. 

Quarterly Review. 

Review of Reviews. 

Rosary. 

Sanitarian. 

School Review. 

Scots Magazine. 

Scribner's Magazine. 

StenocTspher. 

Strand Magazine. 

Students' Journal. 

Sunday at Home. 

Sunday Magazine. 

Temple Bar. 

United Service. 

United Service Magazine. 

Wofitminster Review. 

Wilson's Photographic Maga- 
zine. 

Yale Reriew. 



fit has been found necessary to restrict this Index to periodicals published in the English language. All the articles in the 
leading reviews are indexed, but only the more important articles in the other magazines.] 



The Review of Reviews, Edited by Albert Shaw. 

CONTENTS FOR FEBRUARY, 1897. 



Ofcar II., King of Sweden and Norway. 

Frontispiece. 
The Progress of the World— 

The Arbitration Treaty ^ 131 

What It Really Signifies 131 

A Changing State of Mind Toward England 132 

The Plan in Detail 133 

As to Territorial Claims 183 

The Senate'^ Attitade 133 

Extradition and the Senate 134 

The Cuban Qnestion at Washington 134 

The Cuban Question in Cuba 136 

American Friends of Cuban Freedom 137 

Mr. Sherman as the Next Secretary of State. . . . 137 
The Nicaragua Canal and the Monroe Doctrine. . 138 

OurBestPolicy 138 

Pacific Railways as an Object Lesson 188 

The ProiKJsed Faciflc Cable 189 

Corporations and Campaign Funds 139 

Why Not Full PubUdty ? ^ 140 

Corporations and the Politics of New York 140 

Mr. Piatt's Complete Control 141 

Mr. Plat t '8 Selection for the Senate 1 42 

GoTemor Black*s Beginning 142 

Greater New York Charter 143 

Pennsylvania's New Senator 143 

Indiana's Choice 143 

The Qreat Contest in Illinois 144 

Other Senatorial Elections 144 

TariH and Currency Questions 145 

Cabinet Building 145 

England and the Irish Question 146 

Who Is the ** Hintermann ? " 146 

The Czar^s Policy East and West 146 . 

The Russians in China 147 

An Armenian Jail Delivery 147 

South Africa's Millionaire Imx)eria]ist 147 

Mr. Rhodes as Phrasemaker 147 

The Uncrowned Monarch of the Niger 148 

The Pasha of the Quarries 148 

Iowa's Semi-Centennial 148 

The Obituary Record 149 

With portraits of Sir Julian Pauncefote« Richard Olney, 
8«&or de Ltome, Don Francisco Cinijeda y Cirujeda, 
Senator Allison. Hon. John Shei-man. C. P. Hunting- 
ton, Hon. Nelson Dineloy, Hon. Cornelius N. Bliss^ 
Senators-elect Piatt. Fenrose, Fairbanks, Spooner 
and Mason, and Alderman Madden, Sir Geor^ce 
Tranbman Ooldie, the late Dr. Bobbins, the late 
Minister Willis, and the late Signor Errani ; map 
iDottratinK the Basso-Chinese treaty, and other il- 
huitrations. 

Record of Current Events 150 

With portraits of the late Ez< Representative Hatch of 
Missouri, Benator-elect Money of Mississippi, Lord 
Cromer. Baron Marshall von Bieberstein, and Dr. 
Henry Barnard, and other illustrations. 

Correot History in Caricature 155 

With rcpTodactions from American and foreign journals. 

Geoerml Francis A. Walker: A Character 

Sketch 159 

By Joseph Jansen Spencer. 
With portraits of General Walker and members of his 
family and view of the Walker homestead. 



Francis A. Walker as a Public Man 166 

By Davis R. Dewey. 
Withportraits of Oeneral Walker and view of Oeneral 
Walker's office. 

A Sketch of Rudyard Kipling 173 

By Charles D. Lanier. 
With portraits of Mr. Kipling and other illustrations. 

Browning and the Larger Public — 

I. The Significance of Browning^s Message 185 

By the Dean of Canterbury. 

II. Browning as a Poet of the Plain People 191 

By the Warden of Browning Hall. 
With portraits of Robert Browning and Elizabeth Bar- 
rett Browning and other illustrations, 

A Plea for the Protection of Useful Men 192 

Government and Banking in Australasia 195 

Leading Articles of the Month — 

The United States and Cuba 197 

The Armenian Question 197 

The Czar's Coronation 198 

Features of the House of Commons 199 

What Ireland £xpects at This Session of Parlia- 
ment 200 

Root DiflQculties of Irish GK>vernment 201 

The Position i»f Mr. Rhodes 202 

English Reviews on the Presidential Election. . . . 203 

Democratic Tendencies 204 

Pope Leo XIII 204 

The Making of the Bible 206 

Progressof the Churches 206 

Progress of the Institutional Church 207 

The *' Pastores '* of Mexico 209 

Thirty Years of the Peabody Education Fund. . . 209 

Henry Barnard, the Public School Honeer 210 

Intercollegiate Debating 21 1 

Our Popular Songs. ... 212 

♦* Ben Bolt " and Its Author 213 

Calv6'8 Home and Friends 214 

The Popular .^Jsthetics of Color 215 

Negro Folk- Lore and Dialect 216 

A Permanent Census Bureau 217 

Foreign Trade of the United States 218 

Health in the Industrial World 219 

The Use of Compressed Air ^ 230 

The Bicycle in a Knapsack 221 

with illustration of military bicycle. 

A Great Hotel 222 

The Art of Refrigeration 223 

Bacteria and Butter 22a 

A Study of American Liquor Laws 224 

Is there an Antarctic Continent ? 224 

Max Miiller's Recollections of Fronde 226 

Shakespeare's Characteristics 227 

The Periodicals Reviewed 229 

The New Books 244 

Contents of Reviews and Magazines 246 

Index to Periodicals 254 



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OSCAR II., KING OF SWEDEN AND NORWAY. 



Selected as Umpire under the Oeneral Arbitratiou Treaty between the United States and Great Britain. 

(Oscar II. is third son of Oscar I., and succeeded his brother, Carl XV., in 1872. He 
was 68 years old on January 21.) 



The Review of Reviews. 



Vol. XV. 



NEW YOKK, FEBRUARY, 1897. 



No. 2. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



jj^ The publication of the completed and 
irmfwthK signed treaty providing for general arbi- 
Tmtit. tj-ation between the United States and 
Oreat Britain was hailed with a great chorus of 
praise and congratulation. The best public opinion 
in both countries heartily endorsed the work of the 
negotiating statesmen, while the leading public 
men and journals of Continental Eui'ope also gave 
utterance to their conviction that this thing was 
flome^ing highly commendable and worthy.— « 
benignant example set before all nations, and a 
cheering mark of progress toward those halcyon days 
that ah wholesome optimists believe lie somewhere 
in the future. The two men most directly concerned 
m the n^otiation were Mr. Olney, as Secretary of 
State in Mr. Cleveland's cabinet, and Sir Julian 
Pfcnncefote, British ambassador to the United 
States. It must be remembered that an arrange- 
ment of this kind is valuable not chiefly by virtue of 
its mechanism. Upon neither the major nor the 
minor details of such an instrument do the great 
isoes of war and peace depend. Above aU else it 
18 valuable as registering the belief of the two 
nations and their statesmen that peaceful solutions 
can be found for such differences as are likely to arise, 
for the all-important reason that war is not in 
nherior contemplation. Whatever differences may 
«W»ear will at least not grow out of a purpose 
<m the part of either contracting power to act 
towards the other in a spirit of deliberate hostility 
or imfriendlinees, as a fixed design or a national 
policy. This treaty grives evidence to the whole 
woridthat Gh'eat Britain and the United States in- 
tend to deal with one another as friendly powers, 
tod to that end desire to have disputes settled in a 
pnnnpt, sensible and businesslike way. We sin- 
cerely hope the treaty may in due time be unani- 
BMwdy ratified by the Senate. Even if for any 
WMon it should not be ratified precisely as drawn 
up and signed, the work of the Cleveland adminis- 
tration and the Salisbury cabinet would stand 
nevertheless as an evidence of the general policy 
»od intention of the two governments to do away 
^h grudges and to settle controversies ; and thus 
toon^ its moral influence the treaty would con- 
tinue to make for peace. 



What n ^® essential trouble with several if not 

ffeaNy with most of the great nations of the earth 

8tgniji99, ^ ^j^^^ ^.j^^y ^^^ ^^^ altogether ready to do 

away with excuses for the adoption, at some con- 
ceivable moment in the future, of a hostile i)olicy 
toward some one of their rivals or neighbors. They 
may not consider that a hostile attitude is now ex- 
pedient. Nor would they now venture to avow that 
it is their intention, at some time when circum- 
stances might seem favorable, to gain certain ends 
of their own by acts of a hostile nature. Bat it ia 
plain enough that the prompt, amicable and final 
settlement of aU disputed issues is not in accordance 
with the wishes of some of the great nations of the 
earth. Therefore it would not suit them very well 
to have all their claims and contentions and grounds 
of difference thrown at once into the process of 
liquidation and adjustment at the hands of any arbi- 
tral board, no matter how great its zeal or how per- 
fect its impartiality. There are a great many x>eople 
in the United States, we regret to have to confess, 
who have been in the habit of thinking that at some 
time sooner or later a war between Great Britain 
and the United States must be deemed inevitabla 
This thing has become a mental habit that it ia 
rather difficult for them to throw off. They have 
trained themselves to think that England really 
means us ill and not well, and that there is ap- 
proaching, no one can say how rapidly, an irresisti- 
ble confiict which must cost us our mightiest efforts, 
but which can only end in the shattering of the 
British empire and the humbling of the proud 
British lion. Any Englishman coming aifiong 
these Americans and expecting to find them bellig- 
erent would soon discover that kinder and more 
hospitable folk never existed. Their state of mind 
involves no hostility toward Englishmen in the 
concrete, but is a strictly theoretical attitude, 
connected inseparably with the facts of our national 
beginnings and other facts of our subsequent politi- 
cal and diplomatic history. For the American 
people completely to overcome this traditional feel- 
ing toward Great Britain would be to exhibit an 
almost unheard of victory over forms of pride and 
prejudice that are so well masked as patriotism that 
the distinction is not easily recognized. Some of 



132 



THE REyiElV OF RE^IEIVS. 




Photo, by Bell, Washington. 

SIR JULIAN PAUNCEFOTE, 
British Ambassador to the United States. 

these people, therefore, must naturally feel that it 
would reall}^ be dangerous for the United States to 
put its possible differences with Great Britain in the 
way of being promptly disposed of by arbitration, 
lest through such an arrangement John Bull might 
somehow get the better of Brother Jonathan. 

A Changing "^^^ ^^* evidence possible that this 
state of Mind traditional attitude of mind is disap- 
Toward England, pganng in the United States is to be 
found in the very fact of the widespread approval 
throughout the country of the new arbitration 
treaty. The American people as a whole are not 
worrying lest the Briti^ should get the better of 
them, and are not anxious to have unsettled contro- 
versies nursed along and saved up in order that they 
may serve as a pretext at some future time for the 
adoption of an openly hostile attitude toward 
England. It seems cruel, perhaps, to deprive a cer- 
tain class of orators and politicians of so important 
a part of their stock in trade as the appeal to preju- 
dice against Great Britain and the forecast of inevi- 
table future conflict ; yet it must be plainly con- 
fessed that this treaty will greatly depreciate the 
value of their property. It means that we definitely 
intend that the once anticipated conflict with 



Great Britain shall never in fact come off. It 
means that it is our deliberate design so to arrange 
matters that there shall be almost as little excuse 
for a hostile attitude or jwlicy toward Great 
Britain as for warlike measures between the states 
of Ohio and Indiana. If we ourselves intend to be- 
have justly, and if England also has the same dis- 
position, it is extremely hard to see what question can 
possibly arise wherein the so-called demands of 
national honor or self-respect would necessitate that 
process of wholesale murder called war. Nations 
should be careful not to confound the high virtue of 
cherishing national honor with the baser sentiments 
that sometimes sway great multitudes of men. 

All this, it is true, does not explain the 
In^DetaU. *^®rm8 ^f the new treaty, but it defines the 

thing that is far more important— namely, 
the deliberate policy that lies behind the mere de- 
tail The preamble is the important thing, for it 
states that the articles of this treaty are agreed to 
and concluded because the two countries concerned 
are ** desirous of consolidating the relations of amity 
which so happily exist between them, and of conse 
crating by treaty the principle of international arbi- 
tration.'' As to the subject matter of disputes, the 
treaty makes no reservation, but provides for the 
submission to arbitration of ** all questions in differ- 
ence between them [the contracting parties] which 
they may fail to adjust by diplomatic negotiations." 
Matters involving pecuniary claims to the maximum 
extent of $500,000 are to be settled bv a board of 
three arbitrators composed of ** a jurist of repute " 
appointed by each of the contracting parties, and an 
umpire selected within two months by the two arbi- 
trators first named. If the two jurists do not agree 
upon an umpire, the appointment of one shall be 
made by the Supreme Court of the United States 
and the Judiciary Committee of the Privy Council 
in Great Britain ; while if these bodies in turn fail 
to agree, the umpire shall be appointed by his 
Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway. The 
award of the majority of the three arbitrators, in 
these cases that involve less than half a million dol- 
lars, is to be final. In respect to larger pecuniary 
claims and to all other matters involving disagrree- 
ment, excepting the settlement of territorial claims, 
the matter shall go first before a tribunal constituted 
as above described ; and if the three arbitrators are 
unanimous their award is to be final. But if they 
are not unanimous, either England or the United 
States may within six months demand a review of 
the award. In that case a new tribunal is to be 
formed, composed of five jurists of repute, two of 
whom shall be selected by each of the contracting 
parties, while the fifth, who is to act as umpire, is 
to be selected by the four thus nominated. If the 
four fail to agree upon an umpire, the question shall 
be referred to the Supreme Court of the United 
States and the Judiciary Committee of the Privy 
Council of Great Britain ; and if an umpire is not 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD, 



133 



agreed upon by these bodies, King Oscar of Sweden 
is empowered to make the appointment. The award 
of the majority of the five members of the tribunal 
thos constituted shall be final and conclnsive. 

^^ ^^ Boondary questions shall be referred to 
Urriiorial a tribunal of six members. Three of these 
ciaima. ^j^^^j ^ named from the judges of the Su- 
preme Court of the United States or justices of the 
Circuit Court by the President, and three by the 
Queen from the judges of the British Supreme Court 




RICHABli OLNET, SECRBTART OF STATE. 

of Judicature or members of the Judiciary Commit- 
tee of the Privy Council. An award made unani- 
mously, or by a five to one vote, shall be final. If 
made by a smaller majority either power may within 
three months protest the award, in which case it 
shall not be valid. But if in such case arbitration 
should fail as to territorial claims and disputes, the 
treaty distinctly provides that " there shall be no 
recourse to hostile measures of any description until 
the mediation of one or more friendly powers has 
been invited by one or both the high contracting 
parties." It must be observed, therefore, that while 
boundary claims or territorial disputes are to be 
submitted to arbitration, they are not to be umpired 
by the King of Sweden or any one designated from 
outside. All other disputes, — which, at best, 
would seem to involve nothing in the end but money 
payments or an apology,— are to be absolutely and 
finally settled by arbitration. The President may 
appoint a judicial officer of one of the states or 
territories if the question involved particularly con- 
cerns that state or territory, while the Queen may 
appoint a judicial officer of a colony, — Canada for 
instance, — if the matter in dispute pertains to such 
a colony. It is carefully explained that territorial 
<r]ainis include rights of navigation, of access, fish- 



eries and the like. The tenth article of the treaty 
provides for the appointment of a substitute or a 
successor for the King of Sweden if either of the 
contracting parties should give notice that reasons 
have arisen for the change. " The time and place 
of meeting of an arbitral tribunal and all arrange- 
ments for the hearing and all questions of procedure 
shall be decided by the tribunal itself." The treaty 
is to continue in force for five years, dating from 
the time when it comes into operation, and shall 
continue beyond the five years until the expiration 
of the period of twelve months after either of the 
parties shaU have given notice to the other of a 
wish to terminate the arrangement. The treaty is 
dated the 11th day of January, 1897, and the ex- 
change of ratifications is to take place in Washington 
or in London within six months of the date of sig- 
nature. 

jf^^ Such are the subtantial x>oints of the treaty. 
Senate's The general opinion of its admirable char- 
Attitude, acter must be strengthened rather than 
weakened as its provisions are studied. It seems to 
us to be all that its most enthusiastic advocates have 
claimed for it. We see no good reason why the 
Senate should deem it necessary to hold the treaty 
for very prolonged consideration. Its terms are so 
clear and distinct that every senator ought to be 
able, particularly in view of previous long-extended 
discussion of such questions, to make up his mind 
in a short time whether or not he is in favor of rati- 
fication, with or without certain changes of detail. 
Public opinion in our judgment will not justify on 
the part of the Senate any delay not actuated by the 
highest and piu-est motives of public duty. There 
has of late been a strong feeling in the Senate that 
Mr. Cleveland and Mr. Olney are not duly deferen- 
tial to the rights of that body as respects the govern- 
ment's foreign policy. When the Senate's Committee 
on Foreign Affairs decided to report the Cameron 
resolution in favor of the recognition of the inde- 
pendence of Cuba. Mr. Olney, on December 19, came 
out in an authorized newspaper interview which 
fiatly declared that the recognition of a new state 
was exclusively an executive act, and that a vote of 
Congress purporting to recognize the independence 
of Cuba would have no other effect than that of 
advice to the President from an influential quarter, 
the President still holding full responsibility for 
granting or refusing recognition to the Cuban 
insurgents. The prevailing opinion among consti- 
tutional lawyers, regardless of party affiliations, has 
sustained the contention of Secretary Olney. It is 
evident, on the other hand, however, that the Presi- 
dent would assume very serious burdens in a matter 
of this kind if his action should be opposed to the 
determined conviction of a strong majority in both 
bouses of Congress. In all such questions, involving 
foreign relations, we are put at awkward disadvan- 
tage in the eyes of the world at large when deadlocks 
occur or radical differences develop ketvveen the 



134 



THE REyiElV OF RE^IEIVS. 



execative authority and the law-making bodies. The 
consideration of treaties by the Senate has always 
been considered a secret and confidential affair, and 
it has been customary to attempt at least to keep 
the newspapers from publishing the text of projwsed 
treaties until the Senate has acted in closed session. 
In the case of the arbitration treaty, however, the 
Department of State seems to have departed from 
the usual policy and given the document to the 
newspapers as soon as it was sent to the Senate. 
This has been deemed by many senators a mark of 
contempt for the prerogatives of their body. But no 
feeling of this kind would justify any plan for 
delaying ratification as a means of getting even with 
Secretary Olney. The straightening out of the 
Venezuela tangle and the negotiation of this general 
treaty of arbitration are two magnificent achieve- 
ments, the full credit for which cannot be taken 
away from those entitled to receive it. 

Extradition -^Jiother difference of opinion between 
and th9 the administration and the Senate has 
Senate. jjgen disclosed in the matter of certain ex- 
tradition treaties negotiated by Secretary Olney 
with the Argentine Republic and the Orange Free 
State. The Senate objects to a very remarkable in- 
novation introduced in these treaties. The well- 
known plan of extradition, now in force throughout 
the civilized world by virtue of a vast number of 
treaties, is intended to secure the return to the 
custody of his own country of a criminal fugitive 
from justice. It seems that Mr. Cleveland has de- 
sired to incorporate in all our extradition treaties 
a clause providing for the surrender of American 
citizens to the authorities of a foreign country, pro- 
vided such citizens have been guilty of crime 
within the jurisdiction of the country demanding 
their return. There is much to be said on both sides 
of the question. It is possible that the time may 
come when the nations will thus give up to foreign 
courts of justice their own sons who have escaped 
and found footing on their native soiL As matters 
now stand, if an Englishman should commit murder 
in France and be seized, he would be tried under 
French law precisely as if he were a citizen of the 
country. But if he should commit murder and then 
escape across the channel to England, the British 
authorities would not send him to France for trial, 
but would, if he were apprehended, try him for 
murder as if his offense had been committed upon 
English soil. A French criminal escaping to EJng 
land, on the other hand, would, if apprehended, be 
returned to the French authorities for trial in 
France under French law, by virtue of the existing 
extradition arrangement. Theoretically, the man 
who on French soil violates French law is subject 
to the penalties which the law provides ; and a good 
enough argument could be made in favor of an ar- 
rangement as between France and England, let us 
say, for mutual extradition of criminals regardless 
of the question of their citizenship. But the public 



opinion of the world is not ripe for this extension of 
the principle of extradition, and we are unable to 
see any sufficient reason why the United States 
should initiate such a plan. There may be modifi- 
cations of such a plan, however, that might fairly be 
considereil. We certainly have no dtsire in this 
country to offer an asylum for the common crim- 
inals of all Europe, granting them naturalization 
papers, and thenceforth, under the cloak of their 
American citizenship, protecting them from the 
consequences of their past criminal careers. 




Courtesy of the New York Times. 

SE^OR DE LOME, 

Spanish Minister at Washington. 



The Cuban 
Question at 
Washington. 



Doubtless very much that has of late 
been published in the newspapers as an 
authentic account of an agreement be- 
tween the United States government and Spain for 
the settlement of the Cuban trouble has been pure 
fabrication. Yet there would seem to be a basis of 
truth in the report that the Spanish government 
has at length concluded that there is no way out of 
the difficulty except by ultimate use of the good 
offices of the United States. It is said that Premier 
Canovas is now ready to concede to Cuba a measure 
of home rule very similar to that which Canada en- 
joys, and which a few weeks ago he declared so 
stoutly that Spain could never permit. Cuba under 
that arrangement would remain a Spanish territory, 
but would control its own local affairs, lay its own 
taxes, and order the expenditure of its own rev- 



THE PROGRESS O^ THE U/ORLD, 



135 



ennes. This last statement, however, is subject to one 
very serious modification. Spain would expect Cuba 
to assume responsibility for so large an amount of 
the indebtedness that has accrued in the effort to 
subjugate Cuba that the payment of interest on 
what is essentially a Spanish debt would almost ex- 
haust the revenue-producing capacity of the island 
for many years to come. It has during the "pSLst 
month been the general opinion of the American 
press that Mr. Cleveland and Mr. Olney were de- 
sirous to accomplish the settlement of the Cuban 
qnestion upon this plan of the granting of full home 
role to the Cubans, under American guarantees for 
the carrying out of the scheme. While an end of the 
distressing war in Cuba is supremely to be wished, 
we have> very little faith in the possibility at this 
joncture of any such compromise plan. If Spanish 
statesmen now see no objection to the granting of 
home rule such as all great British colonies enjoy, 
what must Spanish public opinion think of govern- 
ment leaders who would bring their country to the 
verge of ruin, and sacrifice scores of thusands of the 
best young men of Spain, in a desperate war of two 
long years, rather than grant to the Cubans simple 
idministrative reforms of a far less sweeping 
nature than those now proposed? Such criminal 
imbecility is not to be matched in the annals of 
modem statesmanship. The Cuban patriots would 
St one time willingly have accepted concessions ; 
but they entered upon this war because they had a 
ri^t to claim complete independence. It is our ar- 
dent hope that they may yet be successful. How 
any right-minded American can feel otherwise it is 
difficult to conjecture. It does not follow that it is 
wise at this time for the United States government 
to recognize either the independence or the bel- 
ligerency of the insurgents. We are not at this 





8BCBVTABT ow 8tat« OunJtY I **Do not be disturbed, 
Tosr M«j««t7. Oon^em can do nothing. The AmericaD 
people can do nothing.*^ 

From Illustrated American (New York^ 



DON FRANCISCO CIRUJEDA Y CmUJEDA, 

Who led the Spanish troops that killed Maceo. 

moment discussing that question. But it would be 
a great mistake to forget for a moment that the 
Cuban insurgents have entered upon a deliberate 
policy of their own, and that their aim is nothing 
short of that complete and absolute freedom for 
Cuba to which the island is so amply entitled. For 
generations the whole Spanish policy in Cuba has 
been one of plunder. The island has been exploited 
for the benefit of the home country. Sentimental 
attachment to Spain is at an end. Canada has not 
been selfishly exploited by England ; and the senti- 
mental attachment of the Canadians for the mother 
country is deep and sincere. And thus, although 
the Canadians for their own domestic purposes are 
practically an independent nation, the sentimental 
bond suffices to hold them firmly to the British em- 
pire. A home-rule Cuba, on the contrary, remain- 
ing attached to Spain by any sort of amicable tie. is 
well-nigh inconceivable, after the fearful atrocities 
perpetrated in the island by Spanish authority. 
One might almost as well have expected that Hol- 
land, despite the Duke of Alba, should have been 
ready voluntarily to remain attached to the Spanish 
crown and to bear forever the name of a Spanish ter- 
ritory. Mr. Cleveland and Mr. Olney have won some 
notable diplomatic triumphs ; but there remain 
several things that even these negotiators, with all 
their prestige, cannot bring to pass ; and in our 
opinion the pacification of Cuba on the lines they 
are said to favor is one of those things that lie be- 
yond their power. They must assuredly observe 
the duties of neutrality; but on the other hand they 
must not interfere with the right to ship arms and 
ammunition freely. 



136 



THE REyiElV OF REI^IEIVS. 



The Cuban Cleneral Weyler'B recent campaign 
Queatton against the insurgents in the western 
M Cuba, province of Pinar del Rio has been con- 
ducted with great ostentation. That theatrical 
person has issued a number of dispatches, mani- 
festos, and bulletins to the effect that Pinar del Rio 
is now completely pacified, and that there are no 
longer either any insurgents in arms, or any appear- 
ance of hostility to Spanish rule in all that part of 
Cuba. It happens, however, that there is at present 
no man alive whose unverified assertions are so 
much discounted by the American and European 
public as those of this same General Weyler. There 
is no satisfactory evidence that the Spanish army in 
Cuba has made any substantial progress. Nothing 
stands out in the way of Spanish good fortune except 
the death of the Cuban leader. General Maceo. The 
rapturous manifestations of joy which convulsed 
the whole Spanish nation when the news was con- 
firmed that this mulatto cavalry leader had been 
slain, reveals Spanish character in a very unpleasant 
light. Towns were illuminated, processions were 
organized, assemblages listened to congratulatory 
speeches, and a fiendish joy was exhibited. The 
Spanish officer who led the ambush into which 
Maceo was entrapped has been promoted and covered 
with honors. The principal Cuban army, under 
General Gomez, still sustains the provisional gov- 
ernment in an actual administration of more than 
three-quarters of the island of Cuba; and there came 
a report the other day that Gomez had captured the 
large inland town of Santa Clara. Whether or not 
this news be true, the facts seem to justify the state- 
ment that the insurgents are much better armed and 
equipped than they were a year ago. and that they 
are gaining in effectiveness through experience and 
improved discipline. It has been easy in most cases 
to land cargoes of arms and ammunition, in spite 
of the Spanish naval patrol. It must be remembered 





PART OF THE DEFENSES OF SANTA CLARA. 

(Reported captured by Gomez.) 



MACEO^S SOUL IS MARCmNO ON. 
From Illustrated American (New York). 

that the insurgents have many points of advantage. 
In the first place, they are at home in their own 
country, and are sustained by a jwwerful sentiment 
In the second place, the agriculture and industry of 
Cuba are so completely paralyzed that almost every 
man in the island is out of work ; and active young 
men are in a safer and a far more agreeable position 
when bearing arms under the leadership of Gomez 
and the other patriot officers, than they would be if 
they flocked into the overcrowded garrison towns 
held by Spain, where they would have hard work to 
get enough to eat, and would be liable any day to be 
shot by the Spaniards as ** suspects." The climate 
of Cuba is so favorable for food production that the 
insurgent troops can live oflf the country for an 
indefinite number of years. They are in the position 
of men who have everything to gain and nothing to 
lose. The rebellion has no credit, therefore it can 
incur no debts. It has no burdensome expenses, 
because it has nothing to spend except the gifts of 
its friends and adherents. Spain's jwsition is as 
different as possible. It can maintain the war only 
by incurring enormous obligations for heavy daily 
expenditures. Every day that the war is prolonged 
brings the resources of Spain nearer the point of 
eidiaustion ; while for the insurgents each day adds 
something to the strength and vitalitj' of their cause. 
Fully one-half of this season's fighting period has 
already elapsed. The rainy season will set in toward 
the end of April, and Spanish operations must then 
come to an end for six months. But during that 
period the insurgents will not forego their activities, 
and they will have abundant opportunity to recu- 
perate and prepare themselves for still more ener- 
getic measures. In our judgment, therefore, facing 
all the facts, it would seem absurd for the United 
States to enter into any negotiations with Spain look- 
ing toward a plan by which the Cuban patriots might 
be deprived of the independence that is their one 
object, and that they are abundantly entitled to win. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 



137 



AmvimM FHtmda ^1"^*©^©^ policy our government 
of may adopt, there is no impropriety 

MtMfntdom. ^ ^j^^ bestowal of generous aid by 
American citizens in their private capacity; and 
friends of Caban freedom need feel no compunctions 
whatever in making contributions. A large number 
of distinguished Americans, at the head of whom is 
Colonel Ethan Allen of New York, have formed 
"The Cuban League of the United States." The 
Vice-Presidents are Hon. Charles A Dana, Hon. 
Chaoncey M, Depew, Hon. RosweU P. Flower, Hon. 
Thomas F. Qilroy, Hon. George Hoadly, J. Edward 
Siomions, Hon Thomas L. James, Hon. Theodore 
Roosevelt, Charles H. Denison, John R. Dos Passos. 
and the Elxecutive Committee are the following 
▼ellknown men : Hon. Paul Dana, Col. John Jacob 
Ajstor. G^en. Daniel Butterfield, John D. Keiley, 
Frank B. Carpenter, Hon. John C. McGuire, R. C. 
Alexander, CoL Frederick D. Grant, Ervin Ward- 
man, Constant A. Andrews, Hon. Walter S. Logan, 
Thomas E. Stewart and Wm. E. D. Stokes. The 
Secretary, Mr. Francis Wayland Glen, and the 
TreMsnrer. Mr. Chas. H. Denison of 38 Park Row, 
Xew York, are prepared to receive American con- 
tribntions and to apply them through honest and 
responsible channels. 

Mr Sherman Naturally the friends of Cuban 
at tht Next independence, not less than those 
a*e«farir of State, ^j^^ sympathize with Spain, have 
been much concerned to know who would be Secre- 
tary of State in Mr. McKinley's cabinet. The ques- 
tion was answered in the middle of January by the 
announcement that Senator John Sherman of Ohio 
had, after much consideration, accepted an invita- 
tion to fill that 
office. Mr. Sher- 
man had on per- 
sonal accounts 
preferred the 
Senate, and Mr. 
McKinley is said 
to have endeav- 
ored to persuade 
Senator Allison 
of Iowa to take 
the first place in 
the cabinet But 
:Hr. Allison, as 
on former occa- 
aons when cabi* 
net places have 
been offered to 
him, chooses to 
heep his desk in 
the Senate, 
where his duties 

sre congenial and his able services are highly appre- 
ciated. Mr. Sherman entered President Hayes's cabi- 
net as Secretary of the Treasury twenty years ago, 
and greatly distinguished himself. He has now for 
conM years been at the head of the Senate's Com- 





SENATOB ALLISON OF IOWA. 



HON. JOHN SHERMAN, TO BE SEORETABT OF STATE. 

mittee on Foreign Relations. Tho country has, how- 
ever, formed the habit of looking to Senator Sher- 
man as pre-eminently an authority on questions of 
finance rather than diplomacy. . The duties of the 
Secretary of State are not a little trying and difficult, 
inasmuch as they exact from the Secretary, — far 
more than the duties of any other cabinet place, — 
much work of a delicate and far-reaching nature 
which cannot be delegated to others, but must be 
attended to by the head of the department himself. 
Senator Sherman is now nearly seventy-four years 
old, and therefore, at the end of Mr. McKinley's 
brief four years in office he will be approaching his 
seventy-ninth year. As a member of the Senate he 
is extremely valuable by reason of his vast expe- 
rience and his very high order of statesmanlike 
ability. But it is something of a question whether 
he has not made a mistake in giving up his own 
preferences and entering at his time of life upon 
the arduous duties of an executive post. His taking 
up the treasury portfolio with its accustomed tasks 
would of course be a very different matter from the 
portfolio of state. But Mr. Sherman will have 
the good-will and confidence of the country. A few 
weeks ago he was identified with the advocacy of 
the recognition of Cuban independence. Since ac- 
cepting a place in Mr. McKinley's cabinet, however, 
he has expressed himself with conservatism on the 
Cuban question, and has said bluntly that his chief 



138 



THE REVIEW OF REk'lElVS. 



policy as Secretary of State would be to keep the 
peace in every direction. It is said that Senator 
Sherman is in favor of the ratification of the general 
treaty of arbitration with England, but favors cer- 
tain limitations and modifications. 

The Nicaragua '^^^^^ ^^ always pending, in one 
Canal and the hoase of Congress or the other, a 
Monroe Doctrine, Nicaragua canal bill. It is reported 
that many of the senators have desired to deal con- 
clusively with the Nicaragua canal question before 
ratifying the general arbitration treaty. This 
country has repeatedly madeknown to the world its 
intention to exercise full political control over the 
proposed Nicaragua canal, as necessary to our inter- 
national integrity and peaceful development. The 
Nicaragua canal would be for all practical purposes 
an essential part of our coast line. All parties in 
America have adopted the view that the Clayton- 
Bulwer treaty of nearly half a century ago, provid- 
ing for the joint Anglo-American control of the 
Nicaragua canal, had sole reference to a canal which 
it was then proposed to build, and could not justly 
be considered as binding upon a generation then 
unborn and living under totally different conditions. 
The relations of the Nicaragua canal to the Monroe 
doctrine are of the most essential character. We 
ought not. therefore, to share the political control 
of the Nicaragua canal with England or with any 
European powers. Nor could we well submit to 
arbitration with England or any other European 
power any question the adverse settlement of which 
would involve to any extent the denial or the weak- 
ening of our position under the Monroe doctrine, as 
defined not only by earlier statesmen but as defined 
to-day by such statesmen as Sceretary Olney or 
Senator Davis of lif^i^i^^^ta. We can no more con- 
sent to arbitrate questions which involve the princi- 
/ples of the Monroe doctrine than England could sub- 
mit to arbitration any question affecting the struc 
ture of her imperial system. But the signing of the 
general arbitration treaty has immediately followed 
Mr. Olney's elaborate exposition of the Monroe doc- 
trine, and what seems to be Lord Salisbury's com- 
plete acceptation of Mr. Olney 's views. It does not 
seem likely, therefore, that there can arise any 
serious misunderstanding as to the scope of the ar- 
bitration scheme. 

Our Beat '^^® relations of the Nicaragua canal to the 
Poiicu as to Monroe doctrine, and every phase of the 

the Ganai. interesting diplomatic history that England 
and the United States have helped to make with re- 
spect to the isthmus region and the transit question, 
are most ably set forth in Mr. Lindley M. Keasbey's 
new book entitled ** The Nicaragua Canal and the 
Monroe Doctrine.*' We must resi)ectfully beg every 
member of the Senate as well as the other branch 
of Congress to read Mr. Keasbey's book, and would 
also commend it to every gentleman who counts 
upon having a seat in the McKinley cabinet or a 
place in the diplomatic service. The government 
of the United States has made innumerable blun- 



ders, both diplomatic and legislative, in connection 
with the isthmian transit question ; and it is ear- 
nestly to be hoped that there will be enough courage, 
character and resolution at Washington to get this 
question finally settled within the coming four 
years. The best jwlicy would be that of out-and- 
out construction, ownership, and politicarcontr?>H)y 
the United States government, with the ownership 
of a strip of territory along either bank of the canal 
such as Nicaragua has in the past agreed to confer 
upon the United States. This would put our gov- 
ernment in the same position respecting the Nic- 
aragua canal that it holds toward all the other 
navigable waterways of the United States. In build- 
ing our own canal on our own territory, we avoid dip- 
lomatic questions altogether, and also provide what 
is by far the most economical and effective arrange- 
ment. The alternative proposition would be to 
allow a private company to build and own the canal 
with money borrowed from European capitalists, 
under the bond guarantee of the United States gov- 
ernment. It would be better that our govern- 
ment should issue its own bonds direct for the 
prosecution of the canal as a government work, 
rather than to guarantee the bonds of a private com- 
pany. In the government's direct construction and 
ownership of the canal there would be no scandals 
and no extravagance; but it will be practically diffi- 
cult to avoid scandals and extravagance, and the ulti- 
mate swindling of the government, if private 
promoters are to float the scheme, with the United 
States guaranteeing the bonds. 

Pacific Railways Our Pacific railway experience ought 
as an . to have been sufficient to teach us a 
Object Leaaon, j^^^^ The money loaned to the rail- 
way companies, now due to the United States gov- 
ernment in the form of second mortgage bonds, will 
never come back into the treasury. The Pacific 
roads thus concerned, represented principally by 
Mr. C. P. Hunting^n of the great Southern Pacific 
system, have been strenuously endeavoring to secure 




"MOBB, PLEASB"— OLIVTCR TWIST UP TO DATE. 
From 7Vt6iin6 (Chicafifo). 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 



131) 




C. p. HUNTINGTON. 

for themselves some advantageous reftmding system 
by which the United States government would 
Tirtnally make them a present of a great many 
millions of dollars. The only alternative would be 
for the government to foreclose, pay off the first 
mortgage, and assume control of the lines against 
which its claims stand. But the managers of these 
railway systems long ago provided against the pos- 
sibility of profitable foreclosure by diverting the 
paying strength of the system to " feeders,*' termi- 
ni, and connecting lines upon which the govern- 
ment has no hold. Over against the seven-score 
millions of dollars properly due to the United States 
goTemment,— which the government will never 
get.— stand a few colossal private fortunes made 
oat of the manipulation of government benefits. On 
Monday, January 11, the latest refunding bill, 
which proposed to extend the debt eighty years 
longer at two per cent interest, was defeated in 
the House by a negative vote of 99 Republicans, 58 
Democrats and 11 Populists or Independents, as 
against an affirmative vote of 86 Republicans and 
16 Democrats. Whatever may be the ultimate out- 
come of the attempts to settle the question of the 
Pacific railway bonds, the American people will not 
be particnlarly overjoyed if Congress should, in the 
hght of past experience, conclude to float a Nicaragua 
amal scheme by a similar method. The country 
io warmly favors the construction under American 
aospices of this inter-oceanic ship canal, that almost 
any method would be accepted ; but the masses of 
the people would infinitely prefer government con- 
rtmction and ownership. For it is plain to see that 
the American people are extremely tired of the 
creation of tremendous corporations enjoying quasi- 
public franchises, which, after receiving countless 
benefits, turn and assume to control politics and 
govern the country. 



n9 Proposed There is pending also before Congress a 
Pacific bill to promote construction of a Pacific 
" '* submarine cable by way of Honolulu to 
Japan. Unquestionably the country favors the 
cable, and here again, doubtless, public opinion 
would not disapprove of a postal cable directly 
constructed and owned by the United States. Japan, 
and the Hawaiian islands. The question is a very 
different one, however, from that of the Nicaragua 
canal. It is not proposed that the United States 
government should guarantee bonds, but that it 
should pay a direct money subsidy for a term of 
years. If the companies which are promoting this 
enterprise could be held closely accountable, there 
could be very little objection to their plans, and the 
facts would probably warrant for a few years a lib- 
eral subsidy. The trouble is that the new cable lines 
are so likely to be gobbled up by vast existing mon- 
opolies, the management of which does not possess 
entire public approbation. England, Canada and 
Australia prefer direct government construction, 
and they have just secured a report from their joint 
commission of inquiry which favors a cable from 
Canada to Aastralia, to be laid within two years, at 
a cost of $10,000,000, each country paying one-third 
of the amount required. 

Corporationa ^^^ *^** *^® smoke of the presidential 
and Campaign campaign has fully blown away, there 
*"* *• has been some frank discussion in pub- 
lic, — and a great deal more of it in private,— touch- 
ing the methods employed on both sides. The 
question has been asked whence came the enormous 
and unprecedented sums of money spent by the Re- 
publican managers to achieve Mr. McKinley's vic- 
tory. How the money was spent our readers have 
been truthfully informed. It was not spent cor- 
ruptly, and the victory was not won by the bribing 
of voters, whether to go to the polls or to stay at 
home. Great sums were spent to promote political 
clubs and organizations, but the bulk of the money 
was used to pay for the paper, printing and distribu- 
tion of reading matter pertaining to the questions 
at issue. In former campaigns, money had been 
collected from those who held offices and wanted to 
retain them, or from those not in office who were 
fighting for a chance to feed at the public crib. 
Civil service reform has gradually changed all that. 
Contributions from the office-holding and office- 
seeking classes do not now constitute the mainstay 
of campaign committees. Nor do the gifts of pri- 
vate individuals who are deeply attached to the 
principles of their party, or who aspire above all 
things to promote their country's welfare, account 
for the bulk of the campaign funds. The great 
soimd-money campaign of 18E96 was carried on by 
money contributed by corporations, — money voted 
by the directors out of the funds held by them 
in trust for the stockholders. Nobody, probably, 
would even care to deny that this is literally the 
truth. 



140 



THE REyiElV OF RE^IEIVS. 



Wky Not ^^ many cases, of course, the bookkeeping 
Full of these corporations would not directly re- 
Pubiicity? ^^ ^1^^ transaction, any more than the 
bookkeeping of our most reputable railway corpor- 
ations would plainly reveal the sums they have here- 
tofore appropriated for the maintenance of lob 
bies at state capitals. The motives in 1896 of the 
great loan and trust companies, insurance com- 
panies, banking corporations, railway companies, in- 
dustrial trusts, gas comx)anies, and moneyed associ- 
ations of various sorts, were perhaps not all of 
exactly the same nature. But. in so far as campaign 
funds were supplied by the great corporations whose 
principal offices are in New York, it would scarcely 
be true to say that the directors were not acting in 
accordance with what they deemed a high sense of 
duty. They believed that, as trustees of corporations, 
it was obligatory upon them to protect the interests 
of their stockholders; and in their judgment such a 
change in the monetary standard as was proposed by 
Mr. Bryan would have been not merely detrimental, 
but absolutely disastrous to those interests. They 
might choose to explain that the appropriation of 
large sums of money in such a crisis for x>olitical 
uses was in the nature of a heavy insurance pre- 
mium, under circumstances which had subjected 
their property to extra hazardous risks. Or they 
might be expected to liken it to heavy expenditure 
undertaken for the sake of collecting debts that 
were in danger of going to the bad. Arguing, as 
they did, that the free coinage of silver would cut 
the value of the dollar in twain, these great financial 
corporations held that their paramount duty to their 
stockholders was to protect by all 
means x>ossible the value of the 
dollar. And so they poured out 
their money by the millions to help 
carry the country for the sound- 
money ticket. We shall not enter 
into any argpiment, pro or con, with 
any one choosing to impute blame ~~ 

to these directors of corporations who took this 
course in the campaign of 1896. Those gentlemen 
are not seeking ax>ologist8 for their conduct. We 
have no intention to praise them, nor any desire 
to criticise them. The only thing we deem im- 
portant is that the public should know the facts. 
These corporations wield so vast a power that it 
is not consistent with public safety that their 
methods should be secret. If, indeed, it was their 
duty to contribute great sums to the campaign fund, 
there ought to be no secrecy about it. Every stock- 
holder should know where every penny of the money 
went ; and in our opinion the general public, also, 
should have a right to know. Whatever other 
means, at some time in the future, it may be desir- 
able to devise for the better regulation of corpora- 
tions, entire publicity of all their proceedings should 
be demanded and should be enforced. And let it be 
said that this is an opinion held by many of the wisest 
and most experienced business men of the country 
who are themselves directors in great corporations. 



Oorporationa ^* ^^ ^^ interesting fact, worth partic- 

and the Poiittca ular note at this time, that some of 

of Ntw York. ^^^ ^^^ .^ jj^^ York who had to do 

with the securing of funds from corporations for 
the prosecution of the presidential campaign, have 
been most bitterly opposed to the complete control 
of politics in the State of New York which has been 
brought about by this very same process of secret 
payments by great business corporations. In every 
community like New York city one finds centred a 
group of powerful corporations which have by one 
means or another come into the monopoly control of 
extremely lucrative public privileges. Conspicuous 
among such corporations are those which control the 
gas supply, the street railway franchises, the tele- 
phone monopoly, electric lighting and other electric 
service. As a rule, the companies in which private cit- 
izens make their money from the exploiting of valu- 
able public assets.^f or which in most cases they have 
X)aid nothing at all, and in no case more than a tri- 
fling fraction of the real value,— are subject to legis- 
lative control Transit companies may by law have 
the price of fares reduced, or may be compelled to 
give better service. Gas companies may by law be 
compelled to reduce the price of gas from an ex- 
orbitant figure to a reasonable one. The telephone 
monopoly in like manner may be compelled to give 
the public good service at a fair price, instead of 
charging from two to six times as much as is 
charged in foreign cities for similar services. In 
like manner it is true of a great number of corpora- 
tions not so conspicuous as those just mentioned, 
that they have something to be afraid of whenever 





FATHER KNICIOERBOCKKR : ** HELP I " 
From the Herald (New York). 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



141 




'^m 



HOW THOltAS C. PLATT WORKS THE WIRES AT ALBANY. 

(For results see bottom of page.) 

i legislature is in session. Once npon a time such 
companies, each for itself, was represented by 
agents unpleasantly known as lobbyists, who were 
entrusted with considerable sums of money to use 
at their own discretion, and who haunted the halls 
of legislation and endeavored to bring direct in- 
flnence to bear upon the people's representatives. 
These agents, or lobbyists, in the good times after 
the war, were known as the ** third house " of every 
legislature. But we have greatly refined our 
methods since those times, and the third house is 
practically non-existent. Corporations have found 
a much better way. It was always offensive to the 
moral sensibilities of the good deacons and elders and 
Testrymen who make up corporation boards, to hire 
Tulgar lobbyists and set them at the direct task of 
paying bribes to members of the legislature. It 
was not only an unpleasant thing to do, but it was 
somewhat unsafe, because it was a penitentiary 
crime. Under the newer system, a certain sum, we 
are assured, is set aside by certain corporations to be 
contributed to the campaign funds of the leading 



parties. This is to insure the election of worthy 
men to the legislature, who can be relied upon not 
to pass foolish laws adverse to those great business 
interests which the silly public ought to recognize 
as its truest benefactors. Such funds, it is declared, 
have in the state of New York been given in part 
to the Republican organization and in part to the 
Democratic organization, so that the men elected 
from Democratic districts might be reasonable and 
rightminded men, while the men elected from Re- 
publican districts might be possessed of similar 
virtues. Inasmuch as a hostile and wrong-headed 
legislature might divert millions of dollars from the 
incomes of these great corporations to the pockets 
of an tmdeserving public, it can readily be seen that 
the companies can well afford to pay a large price 
for the certainty that men after their own hearts 
shall be elected to the legislature. 



Mr p/att'a '^^ apex of the Democratic organization 
Complete of the state has been Tammany Hall, with 
Control. j^j. Riehard Croker at its head. The Re- 
publican organization has been in the full control of 
two so-called machines, one for the management of 
the state at large and one for the management of 
New York city, with Mr. Thomas C. Piatt as the 
undisputed dictator of both. It was Mr. Piatt who 
named Mr. Morton as governor in 1894, and in turn 
selected Mr. Black in 1896. Mr. Piatt is president of 
the United States Express Company ; and it would 
certainly seem well within bounds to say that his 
control, not only over the organization of the Re- 
publican party, but also o^er the actual officials and 
government of the state of New York, is much 
more complete than his control over the exi)ress 
company which he manages. For in the express 
business the stockholders and board of directors 
have undoubtedly something to say ; whereas the 
government of the state of New York has appeared 
of late to be a mere bit of private pocket property of 
Mr. Piatt's very own. There has been established a 
complete circuit which it is not easy to break. Some 
people would call it a ** vicious circle." Because a 
certain gentleman is at tUe head of a political or- 




142 



THE REyiElV OF RE^IEIVS. 



ganization. he receives the campaign contributions 
of the corporations. But because he receives the con- 
tributions, he maintains his supremacy. Money 
does it all. The man who has power gets the 
money, and the man who gets the money can keep 
the power. The system does not deal with mem- 




SENATOR-ELECT THOMAS COLLIER' PLATT. 

bers of the legislature after they are elected, but 
goes back to the very remotest beginnings of things, 
and deals in every county of the state with the 
primary elections that select the delegates who at- 
tend the conventions where legislative candidates 
are nominated. 



Mr. Platt'a 

Selection 

for the Senate. 



On January 14th, the Republican 
members of the Legislature of New 
York met in caucus and selected their 
candidate for the United States Senate to succeed 
Mr, David B. Hill. The most eminently qualified 
man in the state of New York, the Hon. Joseph H. 
Choate, was duly presented to the caucus. No 
other names were presented or mentioned. There 
are 151 Republican members of the present state 
Legislature. A vote was taken, and seven members 
were found to be in favor of Mr. Choate. All the 
rest, with a notable exhibition of spontaneity, de- 
clared themselves in favor of Thomas C. Piatt. A 
few days later Mr. Piatt was formally elected. His 
control of the Legislature is more complete than his 
control of any office-boy in his private employ : for 
the office-boy after all is not owned by Mr. Piatt 
and could quit work if he did not find that the place 
suited him, but the legislators seem to be his, both 
soul and body. Let our readers distinctly under- 
stand that these comments are not made in dispar 
agement of Mr. Piatt. Any prejudices that this 



discussion may seem to show are against the exist- 
ing x>olitical system. Mr. Piatt personally is no more 
to be condemned than many of the gentlemen who 
are at times most strenuous in their opposition to 
what they call his methods. He is part of a jwlit- 
ical system that has grown up under new conditions. 
Attacking him personally does not tend to change 
either the system or the condition. He has not been 
a public official, and therefore he is not responsible 
to the people of the State in the same sense that the 
officials are. It is a curious fact that Mr. Piatt was 
most soundly abused for certain appointments made 
by Governor Morton, while Mr. Morton himself was 
always handled with soft gloves. If Governor Mor- 
ton's appointments were not what they ought to be, 
he alone was to blame ; and it was quite irrelevant 
to rate Mr. Piatt for Governor Morton's alleged 
obedience to " the machine.'* If the boss system is 
to prevail, it is scarcely likely that a more exem- 
plary boss than Mr. Piatt could possibly be evolved 
out of the New York situation. In 1895 the New 
York city reformers willingly entered into alliance 
with Mr. Piatt and his machine to defeat Tammany. 
It is not necessary to prejudge Mr. Piatt's career as 
a senator. He will at least avoid the errors of 1881. 

Governor ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^ worth while to predict either 
Black's good or ill concerning the administration 
Beginning, ^^ Gtovemor Black. The Governor's first 
message to the Legislature (January 6) was in many 
respects a clear and sensible docimient. It dispar- 
aged the civil service reform movement, however, 
in a manner which did not do credit to the Gov- 
ernor's acquaintance with the facts. GJovemor 
Black's demand for ** less starch " in the civil serv- 



T. c. p. 




' IS THERE TOO MUCH * STARCH ' IN THAT COLLAR, J 
From the Telegram (New York). 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 



143 



ice examinations gave the cartoonists a particularly 
good chance for a fling, inasmach as Gk>vemor Black 
oomes from that world famed town of collars, cuffs, 
and 8teaui laundries, Troy on the Hudson. 

9ntttr "^^ Legislature is now expected to look 
Htm fork into the work of the Greater New York 
^*^*'' Charter Commission without too much 
t-oncem for the opinions of the gentlemen who have 
framed that elaborate document, and the whole 
question is in a position which 
makes it inexpedient for us to dis- 
cuss at any length the character of 
the charter as now proposed. When 
it attains its final 8hax>e and has be 
come a legal fact we shall discuss 
its provisions. It is enough here 
to say that in a good many respects 
the St Louis plan has been fol 
lowed by the New York Commis 
sioiL A municipal assembly of 
two houses is provided for, and the 
mayor, tobejwpularly elected, will 
bold appointing i>ower and general 
executive authority. The laying of 
taxes and the disposal of the reve- 
naes must originate as at present 
with a board of executive officers 
rather than with the municipal 
cooncil or board of aldermen. For 
convenience of administration, the 
metropolis is to be divided into a number of so>called 
boroughs, and the upper branch of the municipal 
assembly is to be made up of members elected in 
groaps from these borough divisions. The members 
<rf the lower house are to be elected in single dis- 
trictBL No provision, therefore, is made for the 
election at large of any member of either house. 
Tbe charter as it stands in the present tentative con- 
dition is extremely complicated. The provision for 
tn Assembly of two chambers flies in the face of 
all sound exi)erience everywhere. Fortunately the 
charter to a great extent transfers the deliberative 
government of New York city from Albany to the 
mftro^xilis. and this in itself is an inestimable gain. 
Far some years past, from one thousand to two 
thotnand bills dealing exclusively with local affairs 
in New York, Brooklyn, or other parts of the pro- 
P«ed greater New York, have been introduced 
e^efy winter in the state Legislature. 




SSNATOBrELECT PENROSE 
PENNSYLVANIA. 



Senatorial contests have 
uH^tmSl^^ the attention of politicians in a num- 
ber of states during the past month. 
In PfUQsyivania the contestants for the honor of the 
«(nt in the Senate now occupied by the Hon. Don 
Cameron, were at length narrowed down to two — 
namely, Mr. John Wanamaker of Philadelphia, who 
▼as Prendent Harrison's postmaster- general, and 
^ Hon Boies Penrose of Philadelphia, who has 
■erred In the state Legislature for twelve or thirteen 



years, and has always shown a striking capacity for 
politics. Boies Penrose is one of the youngest men 
recently selected for the United States Senate, inas- 
much as he was bom in 1860. He comes of a family 
distinguished in the annals of Pennsylvania. He 
graduated at Harvard in 1881, was admitted to the 
bar of Philadelphia in 1883. and since 1884 has been 
active in the political affairs of his city and state. 
Few young men in pablic life have had better op- 
portunities of training for distinguished pablic serv- 
ice, and he ought to set his mark 
high. The senatorial election in 
Pennsylvania was, like most of the 
senatorial contests this year, com- 
plicated with questions of machine 
politics and boss rule. But the 
inner mysteries of Pennsylvania 
politics have never been even 
faintly comprehended by any one 
outside the bounds of that great 
state. Mr. Quay, who will be 
known henceforth as the senior 
senator from Pennsylvania, con- 
trols the state Republican machi- 
nery; and the ** machine " gave 
its support to Mr. Penrose. So 
much at least an outsider may 
venture to comprehend. 

In the state of Ohio 
the senatorial ques- 
tion would not have 
come up just now but for Senator Sherman's accept- 
ance of the State jwrtfolio in Mr. McKinley's cabi- 
net. The resignation of Senator Sherman will make 
a vacancy, and the one absorbing question among 
political correspondents has been whether or not 
Gtovemor Bushnell would appoint Mr. Hanna to the 
vacant senatorial chair. These correspondents in- 
form us that Governor Bushnell himself is to be 
regarded as an aspirant, and that Senator elect For- 
aker. who is intimately associated with Governor 
Bushnell, is in control of the machine organization 
of the state and stands in deadly antagonism to Mr. 
Hanna. There are others who profess to have 
knowledge that Mr. Sherman's acceptance of the 
cabinet place was in pursuance of a friendly under- 
standing among all the leading Ohio Republicans 
that Governor Bushnell woald appoint Mr. Hanna 
to the senatorial vacancy. The facts themselves 
will in due time settle all these conjectures. 

Several well known Republicans were am- 
'"cholce.' l>itious for the honor of representing the 

state of Indiana in the Senate to succeed 
the Hon. Daniel W. Voorhees, Democrat. When 
the question came to the point of a test in the legis- 
lative caucus, the Hon. Charles W. Fairbanks was 
found to be very far ahead of all the other com- 
petitors combined. Mr. Fairbanks, as described by 
fair minded Western newspapers, is *' universally 
esteemed in Indiana as an able lawyer, an honest 



Ohio 

statesmen 

and the Senate. 



144 



THE REyiEW OF REVIEIVS. 




SEKATOR-EL£CT FAIRBANKS OF 
INDIANA. 



I>olitician and a 
citizen of sterling 
worth. He is a 
product of the 
farm and the uni- 
versity, the coun- 
try and the city, 
the bar and the 
forum." He was 
born in Ohio 
forty-four years 
ago, and has prac- 
ticed law in In- 
dianapolis for ex- 
actly half his 
lifetime. He is a 
friend of Ex-Pres- 
ident Harrison 
and of President- 
elect McKinley. 
and is said to rep- 
resent the best 
Republican tend- 
encies in politics. 

The most notable of all the senatorial con- 
Cottt7st tests has been that of the Illinois Republic- 
//» iiiinota. j^j^ |j^ ^Yieit effort to select a man to suc- 
ceed the Hon. John M. Palmer. The machine 
organization of the state had believed its arrange- 
ments safe beyond a doubt, and had selected Alder- 
man Madden of Chicago for its candidate. But the 
machine did not reckon upon the force of public 
opinion. Leading citizens of Chicago called mass 
meetings to denounce Mr. Madden as a municipal 
corruptionist. and the great newspapers of Chicago 
opposed him with refreshing vigor. In the face of all 
this, it seemed strongly prob- 
able for some days that Mr. 
Madden would win. He was 
ultimately defeated in caucus, 
however, and Mr. 'Lorimer, 
the alternative selection made 
by the machine, was in turn 
overthrown. The delay made 
it probable that some one of 
the couppicuous and exx)eri- 
enced Republicans of Illinois 
would win, Mr. Hitt's name 
having grown steadily in fa- 
vor. Mr. William E. Mason 
was at length agreed upon on 
the last night (January 19) be- 
fore the day set for the elec- 
tion. Mr. Mason is a Chicago 
lawyer, about 46 years of age, 
who has served ably in the 
lower House of Congress, has 
much repute as an orator and 
debater, and is acceptable to 
the best elements of Illinois Re- 



Other 
senatorial 
Eitctiona, 



publicanism. The success of this uprising against 
machine dictation in Illinois is a good sign of the 
times. It will have influence beyond that state. 

New England has the well-established 
custom of sending able and efficient men 
to the Senate, and of reelecting them 
from term to term. Senator Orville H. Piatt of 
Connecticut was last month elected as his own suc- 
cessor, and so also was Jacob H. Gallinger of New 
Hampshire. The Republicans of Wisconsin have 
done themselves credit in electing the Hon. John C. 
Spooner to the Senate, his former services in that 

body having been of 
a character which 
commanded the at- 
tention and respect 
of the entire coun- 
try. Senator H. C. 
Hansbrough of 
North Dakota has 
been accorded an- 
other term, while 
in Colorado Senator 
Teller was almost 
unanimously re- 
elected. In North 
Carolina Senator 
Pritchard, by a 
fusion of Repub- 
lican and Populist 
votes, was duly re- 
elected in the face 
of much opposition, while the Missouri Legislature 
accorded another term to Senator Vest as a matter 
of course, and Senator Jones of Arkansas was hon- 
ored in like manner. 




Photo, by BelL 

SENATOR-ELECT SPOONER* 
OF WISCONSIN. 




SENATOR-ELECT MASON OF ILLINOIS. 



ALDERMAN MADDEN OF OHIOAQO. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 



145 




From tne Joumaa. 



HON. NELSON DINGLEV OF MAINE. 

Tarif ^^^ tariff question has come very pronii- 
ntcmrme^ nently to the front through the daily 



new8X)aper reports of public hearings 
before the Ways and Means Committee at Wash- 
ington. The various interests that desire increase 
of protection have made their arguments; and if 
their views are to be accepted by Congress the re- 
ralt will be a protective tariff of a more pronounced 
character than the McKinley bill of 1890. But it 
w evidently the purpose of Mr. Dingley and his col- 
leagues to hold a firm hand and construct a moder- 
ate measure. The currency question has been forced 
upon public attention by the meeting at Indianap- 
olis of a great gathering of representative business 
men from all parts of the country, sent as delegates 
from scores of chambers of commerce and kindred 
bodies. The convention was a successful one. and 
it made evident the prevailing opinion of the mer- 
cmtile community that the greenback currency 
ought to be retired, and that a thorough reorgani- 



zation of the whole monetary system ought to be 
proceeded with, in a systematic manner but without 
delay. At present the American money market 
shows very favorable symptoms. The balance of 
trade for the calendar year 1896 was more strongly 
in favor of the United States than in any previous 
year, amounting to more than $325,000,000. The 
gold reserves in the treasury had risen to a point 
approaching $150,000,000. Business circles in the 
West have been ranch disturbed by a series of 
heavy bank failures in Chicago, Minneapolis, St. 
Paul, and other Northwestern points, but these 
calamities were either due to the collapse of 8i)ecu- 
lative enterprises or else were the culmination of con- 
ditions extending back some years into the past. 
The general business situation in the West, as in 
the East, would seem to be showing signs of slow 
but unmistakable improvement. 

Mr. McKinley has been making progress 
Bui!i"ng. ^^^^ *^® selection of his cabinet, but ex- 
cept for Mr. Sherman as Secretary of State 
no definite announcement had been made when 
these pages closed It was well understood that 
Mr. Dingley of Maine might have had the treasury 
portfolio if ne had been willing to take it, but on 

account of his 
somewhat p r e - 
carious health he 
thought it better 
to keep his place 
in the House, 
where as chair- 
man of the Ways 
and Means Com- 
mi ttee he is 
much occupied 
with the consid- 
eration of a new 
tariff bilL Mr. 
Cornelius Bliss 
of New York, it 
is also under- 
stood, was of- 
fered a portfolio, 
— presumably 
that of the navy ; 
but his final de- 
cision was that private circumstances would not per- 
mit him to enter official life. It seemed to be 
thought probable, late in January, that Senator 
Cullom of Illinois would be made Secretary of the 
Treasury, although it was also the opinion of well- 
informed men that Senator Aldrich of Rhode Island 
would be exceedingly acceptable to President Mc- 
Kinley if he were willing to take the place. Sena- 
tor Aldrich's eminent qualifications for the treasury 
portfolio are well known. For other places the men 
listed in January as very probable appointees were 
General Russell A. Alger of Michigan as Secretary 
of War, Ex Governor John D. Long of Massachu- 




CORNELIUS N. BLISS OF NEW YORK. 



146 



THE RE^/EIV OF REk'/ElVS. 



setts as Secretary of the Navy, Judge Nathan Gtoflf, 
Jr. . of West Virginia as Attorney General, the Hon. 
Joseph J. McKenna of California as Secretary of 
the Interior, and the Hon. James Wilson of Iowa as 
Secretary of Agriculture. Mr. Henry C. Payne of 
Wisconsin is also very prominently named for Post- 
master General. That these gentlemen will actually 
be appointed is of course quite beyond the knowl- 
edge of tlie newspaper correspondents or the politi- 
cians at this time. 



litU 



England 
and the 



The new session of the British Parlia- 
ment began on January 19th. The 
Msh Question. Qu^^^'g address, which may be said to 
correspond to our presidential message, informed 
Parliament that the six ambassadors of the great 
powers at Constantinople were still engaged in their 
conferences over the present condition of the Turkish 
empire. The Venezuela arbitration was alluded to 
in suitable terms, and the general treaty of arbitra- 
tion with the United States was made a subject of 
congratulation. It was promised that energetic 
measures should be used to mitigate the distress in 
India caused by the great famine and the frightful 
spread of the plague. No allusion whatever was 
made in the address to the question of financial re- 
lief for Ireland, although no other question has 
caused half so much discussion throughout the 
United Kingdom for two or three months past. 
Irishmen of all pai-ties and factions, from the Tory 
landlords to the most extreme home-rulers, and 
from the prelates of the Catholic church to the min- 
isters of the dissenting congregations, have appeared 
on the same platforms throughout Ireland, demand 
ing readjustment of the national revenue system 
along lines which would relieve Ireland from the 
excessive payments that two royal commissions 
admit have for many years been exacted from the 
distressed island. The government has shown no 
conciliatory disposition toward these demands. It 
remains to be seen to what extent the various Irish 
interests may agree to adopt obstructive tactics in 
Parliament for the sake of enforcing their views. 

^ . In Germany the chief sensation of 

the last month was supplied by the great 

"Htntermann?" ||^j ^^^ brought by Baron Mar- 
schall, the Foreign Minister of Germany, against 
journalists who had libelled him by accusing him of 
having falsified the report of the Czar's speech when 
he passed through Germany on his way to France. 
The suggestion was that the speech had been pur- 
posely misrepresented in the interests of England, 
in order to render difficult a rapprochement l>etween 
Germany and Russia. There was no truth in the 
story, and the journalista who circulated it have 
been sent to prison and fined. The importance of 
the trial, however, lay in the evidence which it 
afforded that the journalists who had made those 
accusations against the Foreign Minister of Ger- 
many were instigated thereto by the Chief of the 
Secret Police. Tausch, who for the last eighteen 







Av^'v^v^^vc^^^>■ ■-v^^r.-v-- 



NEW IRISH DUET. 

Small Irish farmer and noble landlord singr— 

" IjxndXord and tenant, though cat and dog, toe 
Are both of one mind when we want £. S. D. 
Lord Castletown and Timothy Healy, M.P., occupied the 
same platform at a recent mi^etingr held in Cork, and from 
sentiments expressed by Lord Castletown, he was afterward 
referred to as the Qt^oTo^ Washington of Ireland He was 
warmly seconded by Mr. Healy.— From Punch (London). 

years has had in his hands all the secrets of the po- 
litical police. Tausch, who was called as a witness 
in the trial, was ** given away *' by his subordi- 
nates, and then arrested on a charge of perjury. He 
is awaiting his trial; but it is hardly credible that 
Tausch acted solely on his own initiative. All Ger 
many is asking who was the ** hintermann," and 
suspicion points naturally to Bismarck, for Tausch 
was a Bismarckian, and there is no other person- 
ality sufficiently imposing in G^ermany to inspire so 
secret and subordinate a department of administra- 
tion with the daring design of checkmating the for- 
eign policj' of Prince Bismarck's successors. The 
whole story has created a profoundly bad impres- 
sion throughout Europe, and the end is not yet. It 
is possible that the evidence thus afforded of dis- 
loyalty and secret conspiracy on the part of mem 
bers of the permanent Civil Service may lead to a 
demand for making a clean sweep of the old officials 
when a new Chancellor comes into power. 

The Czar's. From Russia comes the report that a 
Policy definite appointment has been made 

East and )fif eat. ^^ ^^ successor to Prince Lobanoff. 
Count Mu^a^^eff, who for some years has been 
more or less in retreat as Ambassador at Copcm- 
hagen, has returned to St. Petersburg, and is said 
to have secured the coveted portftilio of Minister of 
Foreign Affairs. With that office unfilled, we have 



THE PROGRESS OF THE 1VORLD. 



147 



been left to gness very much in the dark what 
policy the new Czar has decided to follow. The 
latest news from Russia is that the chief objective 
of his policy in the Far East will be the Russianiz- 
ing of China, beginning with Pekin, where Russian 
schools are to be established and Russian influence 
made predominant. In Europe his policy is to rest 
and be thankful with that, keeping the peace as long 
a-t possible, and doing everything to postpone the 
crisis in Turkey. There have been sensational re- 
ports as to the Czar*s health. \y 

One of the sensations of December in 
^^JJjJj^ Eumpe was the publication, the contra- 
diction, and the reaffirmation of the 
Rnsso-Chinese Treaty, which secures to Russia a 
right of way for her transcontinental railway 
through Manchuria to an ice free port in China. 
The Russians will not reach the Yellow Sea with 
their railway till 1903, and until then the policy of 
Russia will be a policy of peace. But the opening 
np of northern China and southern Siberia to the 
commerce of the world is one of those achievements 
of which Russians may well be proud, although it 
is also one by which British merchants will proba- 
bly be the first to profit. What England needs most 
of all jn^t now is a commercial treaty with Russia, 
which would enable her to share in the industrial 
and commercial development of the immense domin- 
ions of the Czar. Some prominent Americans have 
gone to China to see what field there may be at this 
jonctnre for our lailroad builders and industrial 
organizers. Americans, having no political axe to 
grind, will naturally be welcomed by Russians and 
CbiTMxw nlik^. 



B E R I 






ti^t-O0»^i 






fMotyn 






*-'C 













SEA or 



; C II I N A > a4 ''^'^ 



«AF ILLCSTIUTINO THE TERMS OF THE BEPORTfP 
RUSSO-CBINESE TREATY. 



An Armenian '^^ ^^^ *^® improved relations between 

JaU England and Russia that date from the 

Deiivery. ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ q^^ ^^ Balmoral appear to 

be bearing some tangible fruit in Turkey. Thanks 
to the unanimity of the Ambassadors and the un- 
derstanding that they would, if necessary, apply 
pressure by sea and land, the Sultan has at least 
been induced to ojien the prison door and to allow 
the Armenians to leave tho dungeons in which they 
had been flung to rot and die. It is but a begin- 
ning, no doubt, but it is something solid at all 
events, and to many a miserable captive it is the 
difference between life and death. M. de Nelidoff, 
acting in concert with England and Austria is tak- 
ing the initiative at Constantinople. He is said to 
be exceedingly gloomy, and will certainly do what- 
ever in him lies to postpone, if he cannot altogether 
avert, the threatened crash of the Ottoman Empire. 

South Africa's '^^® triumphal progress of Cecil 
Millionaire Rhodes from the Central African 
Imperialist, Y^m^iie which bears his name to the 
capital of the colony which he has served as Prime 
Minister, was a surprise to some of his enemies in 
England. South Africa has a much more accurate 
conception of the comparative magnitude of its 
greatest son. The majority of the white population 
of the Cape Colony is Dutch, not English : but the 
immense assemblages which greeted Mr. Rhodes 
wherever he appeared seem to have been as unani- 
mous as they were enthusiastic. These cheering 
thousands were under no hallucination about the 
bad blunder of the raid. But all great men make 
blunders, which, though bad enough, are less deadly 
than the blunder of being paralyzed into impotence 
by the dread of blundering. South Africa recog- 
nizes in Cecil Rhodes the one man, among all the 
swarm that have enriched themselves with her 
treasure, who realizes the stewardship of wealth 
and acts ever as trustee for the people. In a gen- 
erous and magnificent fashion, the Cape Colonists 
have ignored the false step of last New Year, and 
acclaimed with patriotic enthusiasm the millionaire 
Empire builder. Whatever may befall him in Eng- 
land, Mr. Rhodes is not discredited in Africa. 

Mr Rhodes ^^^* ^^^^^^ '^ a man whose words are 

as deeds. But sometimes when the fit 

Phrasemalier. g^-^^g j^i^ jj^ ^^^ ^^^^n a phrase which 

stings and sticks. It is a dangerous gift. The bit- 
ter sneer which he dropped when he remarked that 
he was going to England to be tried by the ** unctu 
ous rectitude '* of his fellow-countrymen was not 
politic. But what two words ever more felicitously 
hit off the characteristic of John Bull when he is 
pleased to pose as the Pecksniff of the world t 
When the news of Dr. Jameson's sentence reached 
him in Matabeleland. Mr. Rhodes is said to have 
exclaimed : ** What a tribute to the moral worth of 
the nation that has * jumped ' the world ! '' Of a 
different order, but not less pungent, was his re- 
mark that ** territory is everything,'' a phrase easy 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS. 

(From December 19, 1896, to January 19, 1897.) 



PROCEEDINGS IN CONGRESS. 

December 19.— The House of RepresentAtives only in 
session ; the urgent deficiency appropriation bill (^881,- 
862) is passed, also a bill appropriating $180,000 to enable 
the general government to make an exhibit at the Ten- 
nessee Centennial Exhibition in 1897. 

December 21.— In the Senate the resolution of Mr. 
Cameron (Bep., Pa.) for the recognition of Cuban Inde- 
pendence is reiwrted from the Committee on Foreign 
Relations and laid over until after the holiday recess ; 
the House considers the legislative, executive and judi- 
cial appropriation bill in committee of the whole. 

December 22.— The Senate passes the urgent deficiency 
appropriation bill — The House passes the legislative, 
executive and judicial appropriation bill ($21,608,370) .... 
Both branches adjourn to January 5, 1897. 

January 5.— Both branches re-assemble after the holi- 
day recess. . . .The Senate passes the House bill to reduce 
the number of cases in which the penalty of death may 
be inflicted .... The House discusses the bill of Repre- 
sentative Loud (Rep., Cal.) placing certain restrictions 
on matter admitted to second-class postal rates, in com- 
mittee of the whole. 

January 6.— The Senate agrees to a resolution offered 
by Mr. Hale (Rep., Mft.) calling for information regard- 
ing the recognition of foreign powers by the executive 

and by Congress The House passes the Loud bill 

amending the postal laws by excluding from second-class 
matter sample copies of periodicals and serial novels. 

January 7.— The Senate passes the House bill amend- 
ing the laws relating to navigation The House begins 

consideration of the Pacific Railroad refunding bill. 

January 8.— The House only in session ; debate on the 
Pacific Railroad refunding bill is continued. 

January 9.— The House only in session ; committee of 
the whole reports Pacific Railroad refunding bill with 
amendments. 

January 11.— The Senate debates the method of recog- 
nizing new governments The House passes the Mili- 

tary Academy appropriation bill and a bill authorizing 
national banks in cities of 4,000 inhabitants to begin 
business with a capital of $30,000, the present require- 
ment being *50,000. 

January 12,— The Senate discusses the Oklahoma free 

homestead bill The House passes bills to define the 

rights of aliens in the Territories and to give preference 
in civil service appointments to honorably discharged 
soldiers and sailors of the Civil War. A decision of 
Speaker Reed prevents the reconmiitting of the Pacific 
Railroad funding bill. 

January 13.— In the Senate Mr. Gear (Rep., la.) intro- 
duces a bill for the appointment of a commission with 
full power to settle the indebtedness of the Pacific rail- 
roads on such terms as may be agreed on by a majority 
of the commission and the owners of the roads, the set- 
tlement to be approved by the President The House 

transacts only routine business. 

January 14.— The Senate passes the Oklahoma free 
homestead bill — The House passes the bill making 



olemargarine and other imitation dairy products sub- 
ject to the laws of the state into which they are trans- 
ported, by a vote of 126 to 96. 

January 15.— The Hou.se only in session ; routine busi- 
ness is transacted. 

January 16.— The House only in session ; eulogies are 
delivered on the late ex-Speaker Crisp. 

January 18.— The Senate passes the army appropria- 
tion bill (123,129,344), and begins consideration of the 




THE LATE EX-REPRESENTATIVE HATCH OF MISSOURI. 

Nicaragua Canal bill The House passes a bill to pro- 
hibit the sale of intoxicating drinks to Indians, and 
makes amendments to the patent laws. 

January 19. — The Senate discusses the Nicaragua 
Canal bill The House passes .52 private pension bills. 

POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT— AMERICAN. 

December 19.— The Dawes Indian Commission con- 
cludes a treaty with the Choctaws of Indian Territory 
for the allotment of lands in severalty, and the abandon- 
ment of tribal government within eight years. 

December 23. — A mass-meet ng of Republicans is held 
in New York City to urge th<^ election of Joseph H. 
Choate to the United States Senate. 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS. 



151 



December 24.— The Greater New York Charter Com- 
mission makes public the report of its committee on 
draft. 

December 28.— The Ways and Means Committee of the 
House of Representatives opens a series of tariff hear- 
ings 

December 29.— President Cleveland amends the civil 
service rules so as to include all employees of govern- 
ment penitentiaries who are subject to classiftcation. 

December 80.— The Tennessee Republican State Execu- 
tive Committee takes steps to contest the election of 
Robert L. Taylor as Governor. 

December 31.— The New York City Rapid Tniusit 
Commissioners announce a new route for an under- 
ground railway Governor Morton of New York re- 
moves the Inspector-General of Militia for criticising 
the Gk)vemor and members of his military staff. 

January 1.— Oovemors are inaugurated in New York 
and other states. 

January 4.— Legislatures m ^et in California, Idaho and 
Tennessee. 

January 5. — The Pennsylvania Republican legislative 
caacus nominates State Senator Boies Penrose for 
United States Senator Legislatures meet in Dela- 
ware, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, North Dakota and 
Texas. 

January 6. — The California Republican legislative 
cancos nominates Senator George C'. Perkins for re-elec- 

titin Legislatures meet in Colorado, Connecticut, nii- 

XMA^ Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, Mon- 
tana, Nebraskai New Hampshire, New York, North 



Carolina and Wisconsin Mayor Hooper of Baltimore 

removes most of the Public School Commissioners, and 
api)oint8 in their places prominent educationists and 
business men, headed by President Gilman of the Johns 
Hopkins University. 

January 7.— The Nebraska Legislature meets. 

January 9.— The Indiana legislature meets. 

January 11.— The Electoral Colleges of the United 
States meet and cast their formal votes for President 
and Vice-President.. ..Governors are inaugurated in 

Illinois, Indiana, Kansas and Missouri Legislatures 

meet in Minnesota, Oregon and Washington. 

January [12.— Legislatures meet in Kansas, New Jer- 
sey, Okl^oma and Wyoming... Charles W. Fairbanks 
is nominated for Senator by the Republicans of the Indi- 
ana Legislature. 

January 13.— The West Virginia Legislature meets 

The Republicans of the New Hampshire Legislature 
renominate Senator Gallinger.... Ex-Sena tor John C. 
Spooner is nominated for the Senate by the Republicans 
of the Wisconsin Legislature. 

January 14.— The Republicans of the New York Legis- 
lature nominate Thomas C. Piatt for Senator — Martin 
B. Madden, Republican '* machine *' candidate for Sena- 
tor in Illinois, withdraws in favor of Representative 
Mason. 

January 15. — Senator Sherman of Ohio announces that 
he has accepted the office of Secretary of State in Presi- 
dent-elect McKinley's cabinet ; he declares himself as 
opposed to intervention in Cuban affairs. 

January 18.— Legislatures meet in Arizona, Nevada 




OOV. JOHW p. JLLTOELD BIDDING OOOD-BY TO ILLINOIS. 

"I have Kiven her (lUinois) fonr of my best years and have 
hrooffbt all my affections to her altar. Had it been necessary 
to do SIX I Hhoold have connidered life itself bat a small sacrifice 



GOV. JOHN R TANNER SWEARING FEALTY TO ILLINOIS. 

*' I, John R. Tanner, do solemnly swear that I will support 
the ("onstitutiou of the United State** and the Constitution <)f 
tho State of Illinois, and that I will faithfully dis<harire the 



to ber Interest. I retire ♦ ♦ ♦ withimt trace of bitterness or duties of the office of governor according to the liest of ray 
dteq^wintment.*'— From Timea-Herald ^Chicago). ability.'*— From Time»-Herald (Chicago). 



152 



THE REy/ElV OF REVIEWS. 




Photograph by Ueyman, C&iro. 
LORD CROMER, BRITISH PRESIDENT AT CAIRO, 
Actual Ruler of Egypt. 

and New Mexico The United States Supreme Ck)urt 

declares the South Carolina liquor dispensary law in 
part unconstitutional. 

January 19.— The Republicans of the Illinois Legis- 
lature nominate William E. Mason for United States 
Senator. Thomas C. Piatt (Rep., N. V.), Boies Penrose 
(Rep., Pa.), and Charles W. Fairbanks (Rep., Ind.) are 
elected to the Senate in their respective states. The 
following Senators now holding seats are re-elected : 
Jacob H. Gallinger (Rep., N. H.), Orville H. Piatt (Rep., 
Ct.), Henry M. Teller (Silver Rep., Col.), George G. Vest 
(Dera., Mo.), James K. Jones (Dem., Ark.), and H. C. 
Hansbrough (Rep., N. D.). In the balloting by separate 
houses in North Carolina, J. C. Pritchard (Rep.) has a 
majority of the votes of both branches. 

POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT— FOREIGN. 

December 22. —The Sultan of Turkey grants amnesty 
to 2,000 Armenian prisoners and commutes 90 death sen- 
tences. 

December 23.— General John J. H. Gordon appointed 

one of the Council of India Articles of the Eastern 

Chinese Railway Company sanctioned by the Czar. 

December 24.— A mutiny of Turkish troops occurs at 
Mondonia, on the Sea of Marmora. 

December 25.— The Japanese Parliament is opened. 

December 26.— M. Doumer accepts the Governorship 
of Tongking ..Resignation of the Servian Ministry 
accepted by the Kmg. 

December 28.— Citizens of Dublin urge the attention 
of the British government to the taxation of Ireland. 

December 20.— A meeting to protest against the excess- 



ive taxation of Ireland by the British government is 
held in Limerick. 

December 30.— A special meeting of the German Min- 
isterial Council is held to consider the opposition to the 

bourse law Irish Parliamentary party, at a meeting 

in Dublin, resolves to offer amendments to the Address 
to Parliament touching the financial grievance. 

December 81.— A report on the finances of Turkey 
shows an average yearly deficit of ^400,000 since 1890. 

January 8.— In the elections for one third of the mem- 
bers of the French Senate the Republicans gain three 
seats. 

January 4.— The Belgian government adopts a scheme 

for making Brussels a seaport Sir Edward Clarke, 

formerly Solicitor-General of Great Britain, declares his 
acceptance of the Irish Commission's statement of facts. 

January 11.— It is reiwrted that Count Muravieff has 
been appointed Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs. 

January 14.— M. fimile Loubet is again chosen Presi- 
dent of the French Senate. 

January 15.— A great meeting is held in Kildare to 
protest against the overtaxation of Ireland. 

January 18.— The Elarl of Kimberley is chosen leader 
of the Liberal party in the British House of Lords. 

January 19.— The British Parliament assembles The 

Italian ministry decides on the dissolution of the Cham- 
ber of Deputies, 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. 

December 21.— The civil trial of Julio Sanguily, a nat- 
uralized American citizen, on the charge of conspiring 
against the Spanish government begins in Cuba. . . .Com- 
mercial treaty between Austria- Hungary and Bulgaria 
signed Mr. G. Greville apjwinted Her Majesty's Min- 
ister Resident and Consul-General at Bangkok. 

December 22.— Senate at Rome approves the Italo- 
Tunisian treaty with France. 

December 28.— President Cleveland formally recognizes 




From a photograph by Orium, Berlin. 

BARON MARSHALL VON BIEBEBSTEIN, 
Foreign Minister of Germany. (See page 146.) 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS. 



153 




HON. H. D. MONET, 

Senator-elect from Mississippi. 



the new " Greater Reimblic of Central America," con- 
sisting of Honduras, Nicaragua and Salvador, by receiv- 
ing J. D. Rodriguez as Envoy to the United States. 

December 25.— The steamer Three Friends is seized by 
the Collector of Customs at Key West, Fla., on returning 
from an alleged filibustering expedition to Cuba. . . .Ger- 
man and Portuguese authorities at Delagoa Bay ex- 
change greetings 
acknowledging the 
end of the unplea»- 
antntrss. 

December 26.— 
Mr. Alfred Le 
(ihait Belgian Mii> 
i!»ter at Washing- 
ton, presents his let- 
ters of recall, in 
order to accept pro- 
motion to the Rus- 
sian mission of his 
government.... 
General Fitzhugh 
liee, U. S. Consul- 
Oeneral. resumes 
his official duties at 
Havana Vene- 
zuelan Minister to 
the Cnited States 
declares the people 
of Venezuela satis- 
fit^ with the bound- 
ary treaty. 

December 28.— W. N. Beauclerk is appointed British 

Coni^ul-Ovneral at Budapest An increase of European 

judges agreed to by the Khedive and Cabinet. 

January 2.— The United States cruisers Dolphin and 
y^sMrius are ordered to the Florida coast to aid m sup- 
pressing filibustering exx)editions to Cuba. 

January 5.— The appointment of Andrew Percy Ben- 
nett as British Consul in New York C*ity is announced. 

January 11.— A general arbitration treaty between the 
United States and Great Britain is signed by Secretary 
Olney and Sir Julian Pauncefote at Washington and 
transmitted by President Cleveland to the Senate. 

January 12.— The Sultan of Turkey decorates Sir Ellis 
A^hmead Bartlett, M.P., in recognition of his support in 
the British Hou^e of Commons. 

January 15.— The British government announces that 
an international conference will be held to consider 
Okeasures for the protection of Europe against the India 
plague. 

INDUSTRIAL, COMMERCIAL AND FINANCIAL 
DOINGS. 

December 19.— The strike of the bituminous coal miners 

m Indiana is ended, the men accepting 55 cents a ton 

A bill for a receivership of the International Building, 
I^An and Investment Association is filed in the U. S. 
Circuit Court in Chicago ; the bill declares that the lia- 
hilitied to shareholders are 1940,000, while the assets do 
tot exceed 1370,000. 

I>ecem*oer2l.— The Illinois National Bank of Chicago 
fails, with liabilities of $11,000,000; three private banks 
*lfio su-spend. 

December 22.— The Bank of Minnesota and two smaller 
banlu in St. Paul suspend as a result of the bank failures 
in Chicago. 



December 23.— Additional business failures are an. 
uounced in Chicago. 

December 24.— The Calumet State Bank at Blue Island 
111., fails — A strike of employees ties up the street rail 
way lines of Boston. 

December 28.— The Scandia Bank of Minneapolis closes 
its doors.... W. M. and J. S. Van Northwick, bankers 
and manufacturers, of Batavia, HI., make an assignment, 
with liabilities of 1:2,000,000. 

December 30.— The Bankers' Exchange Bank of Minne- 
ajwlis and the Commercial Bank of Selma, Ala., fail. 

December 31.— Attorney-General Harmon files a suit 
in the United States Court in Topeka, Kan., for the dis- 
solution of the Kansas City Live Stock Exchange, on the 
ground that it is operated in violation of the Federal 
anti-trust laws. 

January 2.— Numerous Western bank? close their 
doors. 

January 4.— Heavy withdrawals cause the failure of 

four state banks in St. Paul, Minn The Standard 

Cordage Company of Boston resumes work after a three- 
years' shutdown, employing 400 hands. 
January 7.— The control of the Long Island Railroad 

passes from 
the Corbin es- 
tate to a syn- 
dicate headed 
by Charles 
M. Pratt of 
Brooklyn. 

January 9. 
— Articles of 
incorporation 
of the Gen- 
eral Trust 
Company of 
Illinois, hav- 
ing a capital 
of $5,000,000, 
are filed at 
Springfield. 
I 111. 

January 12. 
State Comp- 
troller Rob- 
erts of New 
York opens 
bids for canal 
bonds to the 
amount of 
$4,000,000. 
January 13. 

—The Monetary Conference at Indianapolis adopts reso- 
lutions in supiKjrt of the single gold standard and favor- 
ing the retirement of all government notes. 

OTHER OCCURRENCES OF THE MONTH. 

December 27.— The fall of a train from a bridge in Ala- 
bama causes the loss of twenty-seven lives. . . .The body 
of Miss Kate Field is cremated in San Francisco. 

December 28.— A landslide in County Kerry, Ireland, 
causes much loss of life — A village in Italy is destroyed 
by a landslide. 

E>ecember 29,— The Rt. Hon. William E. Gladstone 
celebrates his eighty-seventh birthday. 

January 1.— The trustees and faculty of the Johns 



K 




hx 


r" 

* ■ 


V 


L 




m 


^msM 


fT 



DR. HENRY BARNARD. 
(See page 210.) 



154 



THE REVIEW OF RE^IEIVS. 



Hopkins University, at Baltimore^ formally accept the 
subscription of 4(289,500 made by merchants of Baltimore 
and f^radnates of the uuiver»ity to tide the institution 
over financial <fif&culties. 

January 4.— A landslide at the village of Stanna, in the 
province of Modena, Italy, destroys 182 buildings, ren- 
dering hundreds of people homeless. 

January 6.— The Belgian steamer Belgique founders 
off the coast of Brittany, and most of her crew are lost. 

Mrs. Gladstone unveils the memorial window to the 

Armenian martyrs in the church at Hawarden. 

January 8.— The Most Rev. Dr. Temple is enthroned 
as Archbishop of Canterbury. 

January 9.— Relief measures for the starving people of 
India are undertaken in England. 

January 11.— Thirty cadets at the United States Mili- 
tary Academy at West Point are discharged because of 
mental deficiency. 

January 14.^Zurbriggen, a Swiss mountain guide, 
completes the ascent of Mount Aconcagua, in the Andes, 
more tlian 22,000 feet above sea-level, and the highest 
mountain in the Western Hemisphere. 

January 15.— An unusually severe rain and snowstorm 
rages in southern California. 

OBITUARY. 

December 19.— The Most Rev. Dr. James Lynch, Ro- 
man Catholic Bishop of Kildare and Leighlin, Ireland, 90. 
James Charles H. W. Ellis- Agar, Earl of Norman- 
ton, 78. . . .Silas D. Hudson, an old time Iowa politician, bl. 

December 21.— Eugdne Jolibois, French statesman end 

jurist, 78 Auguste Joseph Paris, the well-known 

French statesman, 70.... General William CuUom of 
Kentucky, 90. 

December 22. -Georg von Bunsen, member of the Ger- 
man Reichstag, 72. 

December 23. —Ex -Representative William Henry 
Hatch of Missouri, 64. 

December 25.— Captain William P. Swasey, a Calif or 

nia pioneeer, 74 Colonel Henry J. Lamar of Macon, 

Ga., 71 Judge Charles D. Kerr of Minnesota, 62 

Rev. J. I. Sheldon, Hon. Canon of Canterbury, 85. 

December 26. — Joseph D. Weeks, editor of the Ameri' 

can Manufacturer of Pittsburgh, 55 Professor Emile 

du Bois Reymond, the distinguished physiologist of the 
University of Berlin, 79. 

December 27.— General John Meredith Read, Amer- 
ican diplomatist, 60 Sir John Brown, English armor- 
plate maker, 80 Charles W. Hoffman, librarian of the 

United States Supreme Court, 07 Rev. Dr. Alden B. 

Robbins of Muscatine, Iowa, a well-known pioneer, 80. 

December 28.— Antoine Theodore Joseph Th6ry, Life 
Senator of France, 90. 

December 29.— Sir Alexander Milno, Admiral of the 

British Fleet, 90 Bertram Wodehouse Currie, English 

banker, 69 ...Woldemar Nissen, president of thi? Ham- 
burg-American Steamship Company, 68. ..Joseph W. 
Wasielewski, violinist and historian, TS ..Dr. Charles 
Beardsley of Burlington, la., 66 Horatio Hall, author- 
ity on Indian lang^uages, 80... Sir George B. Owens, 
M.D., 88. . . .Canon Christopher Bird, 88. 

December 30. — Archbishop Edouard Charles Fabre of 
Montreal, 70 J. Ross Jackson, San Francisco journal- 
ist, 51 The Marquis of Sligo, 76. 

December 31.— Joseph B. McCullagh, editor of the St. 



Louis Globe-Democrat, 54 Rear- Admiral Joseph S 

Skerrett, U. S. N. 

January 1.— Professor W. A, Loades, a prominent 
Cleveland musician, 64. 

January 2.- Rev. William Adams, D.D., a pioneer 
clergyman of Wisconsin, 84. ..James Johnston David- 
son, Congressman-elect from the Twenty-fifth Pennsyl- 
vania District. 

January 3.— Dr. Theodore George Wormley, distin- 
guished chemist and toxicologist of the University of 
Pennsylvania, 71 ... . Cardinal di Acquavella, Archbishop 
of Naples, 63. 

January 4.— Sir Henry St. John Halford, 60 Sir 

Joseph Hickson, formerly general manager of the Grand 
Trunk Railway of Canada, 66. 

January 5.— General Francis A. Walker, president of 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 56 ..Dr. 
William H. Pancoast.of Philadelphia, 62... Count dt» 
Mas-Latrie, French paleographist and member of the 
Institute, 82. 

January 6. —Albert Sydney WiUis, U. S. Minister to 
Hawaii, 55 — Mgr. Frangois Marie Tr6garo, Bishop of 
Seez, 73 — Professor Achille Errani, a well-known mu- 
sician of New York City, 73. 

January 7.— Rev. Lyman Jewett, D.D., for forty years 
a missionary in India, 83. 

January 8.— M. Orkjerulf, Norwegian Minister of 
State, 1871-84 Stephen von Papay, chief of the pri- 
vate chanc^Uerie of the Austrian Emperor. 

January 9.— Ex-Governor Daniel F. Davis of Maine, 54. 

January 11.— Stanislaus Alphonse Cordier, Life Senator 
of France, 77. 

January 12. -Judge E. T. Merrick, ex-Chief Justice of 

the Louisiana Supreme Court, 83 John W. Crisfield, 

Maryland lawyer and politician, 88 The Dowager Em- 
press Asako, mother of the Emperor of Japan, 63. 

January 14.— Rt. Rev. William Basil Jones, Bishop of 
St. David's, 75. 

January 15.— Sir Travers Twist, English jurisconsult, 
88 .. Henry C. Baldwin, a promiut^nt Populist of Con- 
necticut, 55. 

January 16.— Joel T. Headley, the historian, 83. 



FORTHCOMING EVENTS. 

NEGRO CONFKRENXB AT TUSKEOES. 

At Tuskegee, Ala., February 24, will be held the annual 
conference on the negro problem, under the auspices of 
the Tuskegee Institute, of which Mr. Booker T. Wash- 
ington is president. In many respects this is one of the 
most important gatherings of the year for the Simth. 
In it not only the friends of the negroes, but the negroes 
themselves, actively participate. 

NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

The Department of Superintendence of the National 
Educational Association will meet this year at Indian- 
apolis, February 16-18. 

CONFERENCE OF CHARFTIES AND CORRECTIONS. 

A special meeting of the National Conference of Chari- 
ties and Corrections is to be held at New Orleans. 
March 3-7. 

THE WILHELH I. CENTENARY IN OERMANT. 

The Kaiser Wilhelm I. centenary celebration at Berlin 
will begin on March 22, and this day will be observed by 
the whole German people as a national holiday. 



CURRENT HISTORY IN CARICATURE. 




BUSINESS AND PROSPERITY FOR BOTH.— From the Telegram (New York). 




IWT AT M^KINLET*8 DOOR BY OROVER CLEVELAND. 
From Judge (New York). 



CLEVELAND HOLDS THE KEY TO THE SITUATION. 
From Judge (New York). 



156 



THE REyiEW OF REVIEWS. 




THIS SHOWS Wnif'TT U *v -vnv \Vl^*n BT OW^ TP AT ALEAJTV. 

From the Telegram (New York). 



M'KIKLEY AND PROTBCTION HAVE NO USE FOR 
CLKVELANDI8M OR EUROPEAN TRADE. 
From Strekoza (St. Petersburg. Russia). 



I*A OUfiSTION DB <XI7BAt 

111. 'if^mm '(t^HL 4m wjb, -j f. ^ 




^^^.^N^^ 



THIS IS THE POSITION IN WHICH A MEXICAN CARTOONIST FINDS SPAIN AND THE UNITED STATES. 
From El Hijo del Ahuizote (City of Mexico). 



CURRENT HISTORY IN CARICATURE. 



157 





JOHN BULL AMD JOHN CHINAMAN. 

Chinaman : ^* Oood-a-bye, Mr. Ball, big Russian Bear devil likee 
me welly much, he makee me topside/^ 

John Bull : " All right, Mr. Chinaman, I don't mind ; only youll 
have to go to him when you want to borrow money, not to me/' 

From Picture Politics (London). 



THE queen's year, 1897 

Queen Victoria has entered upon the sixtieth year of her 
reign, and Mr Punch makes his bow. 

From Punch (London). 




WANTED MILLIONS I 



^v Michael Hicks- Beach as Chancellor of the Exchequer finds 
bi trtmnuj surplus assailed by clamorous representatives of 
■aoT iDtere8ts.—Ireland, India, the Soudan, the Army, the Navy 
vidtbegcboolB. 

From Westmintter Gazette (London). 



QUEENSLAND'S ATTITUDE TOWARD FEDERATION. 

SiT little niggers sitting in the sun. 

Five rlimlied the fence, and then there was one^ 

From the Sydney (Australia) Bulletin, 



158 



THE REHEiy OF REl^/EH/S. 




M., THE MAN AGAINST WHOM NOTHING CAN BK DONE. 

Who is the grreatest man in the country ? It is M. The man 
against whom nothing can be done ! No policeman or official will 
trouble himself about him. 

When a poor woman, driven by misery, offends against her 
sovereign, she is at once imprisoned; against her there are only 
too manv protests. 

But when M., the man against whom nothing can be done, cries 
and storms. Justice sleeps tranquilly. 

From Des Warhe Jacob (Berlin). 




TAUSCH AS LADY MACBETH (866 p. 14($). 

Gentlewoman of the Interior : *' She 
has spoken what she should not. I am sure of 
that. Heaven knows wliat she has kaowu 1 *' 

Lady Police-Macbeth : " . . . . All the per- 
fumes of Arabia will not sweeten this httle 
(sinful) hand. Oh, Oh, Oli ! " 

From Ulk (BerUn). 



^ 




'SEASIDE LODGINGS." 



Russian Beak : " Nice view of the sea : Just what I 
wanted ! Think 111 take 'em : '* 

("The .«*cht?me" embodied in the new treaty reported 
as having been quite recently concluded between Ru-^sia 
and Cliini. gives the former maritime outlets, "Chinese 

{MDrts in the warm water, and even allows her to plant 
ler garriMons in Chinese territory.") 

From Funch (Loudon). 



CHRI.STMAS gifts. 

British Lion: " All right, ray hearty: Belay there! Where's 
my lump? "—From Fun, December 22, 1896. 



GENERAL FRANCIS A. WALKER : A CHARACTER SKETCH. 



BY JOSEPH JANSEN SPENCER. 



THE sndden death, January 5, of Francis 
Aniasa Walker, LL.D., President of the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, brings to a 
cloe« a career of great usefulness, and removes a 
figure prominent in educational circles for the last 
quarter of a century. His activity was as wide- 
reaching as that of any man of the period, and gave 
promise of larger results for years to come. 

ANCESTRY. BIRTH. PARENTAGE. 

Francis Amasa was the youngest of the three 
children of Prof. Amasa Walker, LL.D., and was 
bom in Boston, July 2, 1840. 

The house of Professor Walker in Montgomery 
Place was next to that of Dr. Oliver Wendell 
Holmes, with whose son. Judge Oliver Wendell 
Holmes. General Walker enjoyed an intimate friend- 
ship daring the last years of his life. 

His first American ancestor was Capt Richard 
Walker of Lynn, bom in 1611-12. He was a man of 
military instincts, a member of the Honorable 
Artillery Company of London, and one of the first 
members of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery 
Company of Boston. He came to America about 





Francis A. Walker. 
AMASA WALKER AND HIS SONS. 



FRANCIS A. WALKER. 

In his cap and gown worn in receiving the degree of 
LL.D., at Dublin tJniversity, In 1882. (President Walker 
appearerl in this cap and gown at the recent sesquicentennial 
celebration of Princeton University.) 

1630. Active in the affairs of the church, a man 
of prominence in the primitive life of his com- 
munity. 

In 1748 Captain Phineas, his descendant of the 
fifth generation, removed to Sturbridge, Mass. , with 
his father, Nathaniel Walker, who built a house at 
the head of Walker Pond on a tract of land still in 
the passession of one of his descendants. Captain 
Phineas was an intense patriot, being Captain of the 
Militia Company of Woodstock. Conn., one of 
those bodies to which Washington Irving gives 
so much credit for their constant service along the 
coast. 

Before the Revolution Captain Phineas had 
served in the French War, being with General 
Wolfe on the Plains of Abraham, and at the begin- 
ning of the Revolution with Ethan Allen at the 
taking of Ticonderoga. 



100 



THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



His wife, Snsanna Hyde of Sturbridge, was a 
woman of no less remarkable vigor and strength of 
mind than her husband. 

Deacon Walter, the fourth son of this remarkable 
pair, like his father, a blacksmith and fanner, re- 
moved from Woodstock to North Brookfield, Mass. , 
in the year 1800. Here he built the house where his 
sons. Professor Amasa and the Hon. Freeman 
Walker, were reared, and where Francis spent his 
childhood and youth. He was soon prominent in 
all the affairs of the town, and next to his pastor 
held the respect and reverence of the people 

His wife, Priscilla Carpenter (in old deeds spelled 
Char pen tier) of Woodstock, was descended from the 
French Huguenot colony which settled in Webster, 
Mass., and she inherited many of the characteristics 
of her race. 

Professor Amasa was the eldest and Hon. Free- 
man the youngest of the three children of Deacon 
Walter and Priscilla Walker. Both were men of in- 
tellectual and moral vigor, and both became prom- 
inent as leaders in the reforms of the day. 

Amasa, never physically robust, began to fit for 
college and took up special studies under the Rev. 
Dr. Snell, ogether with two associates, William 




FRANCIS A. WALKER AT THE AGE OF ELEVEN. 

From a dacruerreotype. 

Cullen Bryant and Judge Samuel Cheever, later of 
Albany. Obliged by ill health to abandon the hope 
of a college course, he fitted himself for business. 

In 1826 he removed to Boston, where he success- 
fully engaged in business as a merchant until 1842, 
when, having acquired a modest fortune— all he ever 
cared to possess —and being deeply impressed with 



the evil and danger of the banking system of the 
day, he retired to devote himself to currency re- 
form and the study of political economy. He pos- 
sessed a fixed conviction tliat all paper currency must 
rest upon a sure foundation of the precious metals. 
In 1842, when his son Francis was two years old, 
he volunteered to give his services to Oberlin Col- 
lege as lecturer on political and economic science, 
and went with his family to Oberlin, Ohio; her*- 
he remained a year, returning to New England and 
settling in the old homestead in North Brookfield 




FRANCIS A. WALKER, WHEN IN AMHERST COLLEGE. 
From a daguerreotype. 

in 1848. He retained for some years his connection 
with and membership in the faculty of Oberlin 
College, going from his home to give lectures until 
a permanent chair of political economy was estab* 
lished. 

Later he gave his services as lecturer on political 
economy in Amherst College, continuing to do so 
until the same was made a department by the 
founding of a professorship. 

He served a number of years as Secretary of State 
of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Owing to 
ill health he refused a proffered nomination as Rep 
resentative to Congress, but later accepted an ap- 
pointment to fill out the unexpired term of the mem- 
ber from the same district. He was one of the 
directors who built the Western Railroad, which 
was the name then applied to the section of the 
present Boston & Albany Railroad between Wor- 
cester and Albany, and created amusement at his 
own expense when he predicted in Faneuil Hall the 
time when it would be possible to go from Boston 
to St. Louis in four days and eat and sleep on the 
train. 

While in Boston Professor Walker was deeply in 
terested in the reforms of the day, and closely as 



GENERAL FRANCIS A. WALKER: A CHARACTER SKETCH. 



161 




AMASA AND FREEMAN WALKER. 

sociated with Garrison and Phillips, only parting 
company with them when later they renounced fel- 
lowship with church and citizenship in state, 
Professor Walker believing that reforms could be 
carried on better from within than from without. 
He retained his friendship with them and interest 
in the cause, entertaining them and other friends 
of the reform when meetings brought them to North 
Brookfield. He established a 
lyceum in the town, before 
which appeared Wendell Phil- 
hp6, Charles Sumner and most 
of the noted New England lec- 
turers of the period, whom he 
greatly enjoyed entertaining as 
his guests. With his brother. 
Freeman, he became known as 
one of the most prominent abo 
litionists in Central Massa 
chosettfl. Amasa, because of his 
financial opinions, was a Demo 
crat and Freeman a Whig. They 
both severed these ties to help 
organize the Liberty party, 
which had its birth in Worces- 
ter County, their home, and in 
those days a center of anti slav 
cry agitation. Later they helped 
organize the Free Soil and after 
ward the Republican party. 



By the publication of his ** Science of Wealth " in 
1866 the reputation of Professor Walker as a scholar 
and deep thinker was established. This book was 
well received abroad, especially in England and 
France. It was translated into Italian, to be 
placed in the Historical Library of Economic 
Science established in Turin by the Italian govern 
ment. 

His wife, Hannah Ambrose, was the daughter of 
Stephen Ambrose, a prominer.t merchant of Con- 
cord, New Hampshire, and a woman of great 
strength of character and fine literary tastes. 

Mrs. Walker was one of those mothers with that 
Puritan instinct which so often has sacrificed 
affection for the sake of duty. Her children grew 
up to reverence and admire her. General Walker 
never allowed her name to be mentioned without 
paying her a royal tribute. 

The following incident told by him at a recent 
meeting of the Commercial Club of Boston is an 
excellent illustration of her character. In sub- 
stance, he spoke as follows : 

** In the fall of 1862, after the battle of Antietam, 
General Mi^Clellan granted to Greneral Couch a leave 
of absence to go North and recruit his health. 
With that considerate thoughtfulness which so en- 
deared him to the young officers of the army, he ac- 
companied it with the suggestion that General 
Couch should extend a similar leave to some one of 
his staff. I was the one selected. It was a period 
of great discouragement in the army and through- 
out the North; many officers had resigned, and 
desertions from the army were frequent. 

** Glad of the opportunity to see my family, 1 
hurried North without notifying them of my 
coming. I reached home early in the morning, and 
entered the house unseen. My mother was sitting 
in her room by the window, the open Bible in her 
lap. She was not reading, but, with gaze fixed 




THE WALKER HOMESTEAD AT NORTH BROOKFIELD. 



162 



THE REyiElV OF REI^/EIVS. 



toward the South, was thinking of her absent sons. 
As I appeared suddenly before her, instead of the 
glad welcome I expected to receive, came the quick 
question: * You haven't left the army, have you ? ' ** 

Her sense of honor was so strong that it kept even 
her mother heait in abeyance. She would not greet 
him until she knew that he had not left his post of 
duty in time of need. 

It is interesting to note that her sister, Lucretia 
Ambrose, married the Rev. Charles Walker. D.D., 
a cousin of Professor Amasa, and that they were 
the parents of George Leon Walker, D.D., of Hart 
ford, the late Stephen Ambrose Walker, and Henry 
Freeman Walker, M.D., of New York City, all men 
widely known in their respective professions. 

It seems proper, also, in this same connection to 
mention another cousin, Mr. Aldace Walker of New 
York, prominent in railroad circles, formerly of the 
Interstate Railroad Commission, and now by ap- 
pointment the receiver of the Atchison road. 

ENVIRONMENT. 

The home of young Francis, from the time of his 
arrival in North Brookfield at the age of three, was 
a centre of culture and refinement. From his 
mother Prof. Amasa Walker had inherited courtly 
grace and polished manners. He was a man widely 
traveled for his day, and full of pronounced opin- 
ions on all the topics of the time. An original 
thinker, a fearless investigator, a bom reformer. 

His wife was endowed with soundness of judg- 




ment and common sense, and had an impressive 
dignity of manner which made her presence felt 
wherever she appeared. 

In the house of Hon. Freeman Walker, whose 
place adjoined theirs, was the same spirit of zeal for 
reform in church and state. Rarely were two 
brothers so closely united as Amasa and Freeman 




FRANCIS A. WALKER AT TWENTY. 



FRANCIS A. WALKER AT TWENTY-ONE, 

As a Sergeant Major of Volunteers. 

Walker. Elihu Burritt, their close friend, was a 
frequent visitor in both homes. 

The Walkers were men of strong religious princi- 
ples and the inflexible New England conscience. 
They led in a movement which resulted in the for- 
mation of a Second Church, because they were un 
willing to bo silent on the slavery question. 

EDUCATION. 

When seven years of age Francis was sent to be- 
gin the study of Latin in a school for boys in Brook- 
field kept by Rev. Mr, Nichols ; here he remained 
two years. He then attended public and private 
schools in North Brookfield until about twelve 
years old, when he was sent to Leicester Academy 
for a time, there being no opportunity for the study 
of languages in his own town in those days. 

He completed his preparation for college at the 
age of fourteen, but spent a year in the study of 
Latin and Greek under Mr. Kimball in the academy 



GENERAL FRANCIS A. WALKER: A CHARACTER SKETCH. . 



163 



ftt Lancaster. Mass. , entering Amherst College at 
\iie age of fifteen. After two years of study he was 
compelled by trouble with his eyes to remain out a 
rear. Then resuming his work he was graduated in 
I860, taking the Sweetser essay prize and the Hardy 
prize for extempore speaking. He at once began 
the study of law with the firm of Devens He Hoar, at 
Worcester. The senior member of the firm after- 
ward became the well-known and honored late 
jeneral and Judge Charles Devens and the junior 
is the senior United States Senator from Massachu- 
aetts, George F. Hoar. 

SOLDIER. 

At the outbreak of the Civil War Major Devens 
of the Third Battalion, Massachusetts Militia, took 
his command to the front for three months. Re- 
turning to Worcester in July, he recruited the Fif- 
teenth Massachusetts Volunteers, and his young law 
student having just attained his majority was en- 
listed August 1. 1861. as sergeant-major of the regi- 
ment 

A very short time after General D. N. Couch 
wrote to Colonel Devens asking him to recommend 
an assistant adjutant-general for his brigade. 
Colonel Devens replied by offering his sergeant- 
major, who at once joined General Couch, receiv- 
ing the rank of captain. Not long after General 
Conch was given command of a division of the 
Army of the Potomac, and, as was the custom at 
that period of the war. took with him his assistant 
adjutant general, who then received the rank of 
major. 

General Couch was again promoted, this time to 
the command of the Second Cori>s, and again took 
with him his assistant adjutant-general. Major 
Walker this time being given the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel. 

Later, when General Couch was appointed to an- 
other command, his assistant adjutant-general re- 
mained with the corps, having become attached to 
the general's staff, although always serving directly 
nnder the corps commander. 

From this time he served under Generals Han- 
cock, Warren and Humphreys, who in turn com- 
manded the Second Army Corps. 

In the very beginning of the battle of Chancellors- 
Tille Colonel Walker was severely wounded in the 
left hand by pieces of a bursting shell. Had it oc- 
cnrred later he would have lost his hand, for it was 
only through the particular attention of the skill- 
fal surgeon, who had time to carefully dress it. that 
amputation was avoided. 

Save during a short leave of absence, when in 
pri.'HDii and while recovering from his wound, 
Colonel Walker was in all the many battles of the 
^^econd Corps. In the evening after the battle of 
Beams Station he was sent to help straighten the 
hue of the corps. In the darkness he rode into a 
gap between two regiments, and a rebel soldier 
*«Md his horse's bridle, saying to his comrades. 



" Here, take him; I want to catch another Yank." 
While being carried along with a large number of 
prisoners toward Richmond, he managed to escape 
into a dense swamp with another officer They tore 
their way through the thicket, which had been con- 
sidered impassable, so that no guards had been 
placed on that side. 

They reached the Appomattox River, and Colonel 
Walker, who was able to swim, attempted to cross 




FRANCIS A. WALKER AND HIS MOTHER. 

In 1863. after the battle of Chancellorsville, where (General 
Walker was wounded. 



to the Union lines and send back help to his com- 
rade. The river was very wide at this point, and 
the current carried him a little beyond into the 
picket lines of the enemy, which were so near 
that those on guard on both sides were within 
speaking distance. He was completely exhausted, 
and would have drowned had he not been seen and 
brought ashore by the enemy. He was sent to Peters- 
burg jail, and placed in the same cell with a negro, 
who kindly offered to give him his shoes. He had 
lost his own in the swamp. And this proffered act 
of kindness, though not a(;cepted, was the tenderest 
consideration he received while in the hands of the 
enemy. 

Following a train of more than two thousand 
other prisoners taken from General Hancock in the 
fight at Reams Station, he was marched to Rich 
mond and sent to Libby Prison ; here he was al- 
lowed to have a brief interview with his brother, 
Lieutenant Robert Walker, who was in the prison 



164 



THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



hospital, where he had been sent, severely wounded, 
from the Shenandoah Valley. A few days later 
Lieutenant Robert Walker was exchanged for a 
Confederate officer of the same rank, through ar- 
rangements his brother had made with General 
Birney a short time before his own capture. 

Colonel Walker remained in Libby Prison about 
six weeks, at a time when life there was most severe, 
owing to the shortness of provisions. From the 
dampness of the building without windows and on 
the banks of the river, along with the exposure and 
lack of proper food, he grew so ill that he was sent 
to the prison hospital, and by the examining surgeou 
placed on the parole list because of his reduced con- 
dition. He was sent to Annapolis, and from there 
returned to his home, remaining until he was reg- 
ularly exchanged. He returned to 
the army in January, 1865, but "** 

finding himself unable to endure 
campaigii life he resigned his com- 
mission and returned home about 
three mouths before the close of 
the war. For a number of years 
he suffered from ill health, re- 
covering gradually during his life 
in Washington. At the request of 
(General Hancock he was brevetted 
brigadier general. 



', 



THE RETURN TO CIVIL LIFE. 



\ 



In the autumn of 1865 he ac- 
cepted a position as teacher of 
Greek and Latin in Williston Sem- 
inary, at Easthampton, Mass. Here 
he remained two years, resigning 
to accept the position of assistant 
editor of the Springfield Republi- 
can. The admirable drill of the 
editorial work under Samuel Bowles was profitable 
to him in helping to produce that conciseness and 
clearness of style which characterizes his writings. 

A year later, upon the recommendation of David 
A. Wells, President Grant appointed him Chief of 
the Bureau of Statistics. His excellent work here 
caused him a year later to be appointed superin- 
tendent of the census of 1870, where he manifested 
his remarkable gifts as an organizer. It was by far 
the best census that had been taken up to that time. 

In 1871 he was appointed Indian Commissioner, 
an office in which his integrity was manifest. He 
rode over 500 miles beyond the railroads, visiting 
some of the wildest of the tribes He held this 
position only a year, accepting in 1873 the newly 
formed professorship of political economy and 
history in the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale. 
While in this position he acted as Chief of the 
Bureau of Awards at the Centennial Exposition in 
1876, and organized the census of 1880. 

In 1881, at the earnest request of the founder. Dr. 
William Barton Rogers, he became president of the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, an institu- 



MRS. AM ASA WALKER. 

Mother of Francis A. Walker. 



tion then having 300 students. Here he found his 
life work, a position needing what were especially 
combined in him —scholarship and the ability to 
organize. He revised, increased and widened the 
courses of study, bringing the institution up to the 
very highest position among schools of its kind. Its 
students now number about 1.200, making it the 
largest technical school in the United States, and 
one of the largest in the world. When the ques- 
tion of the admission of women to the full privileges 
of the institute came up it was adjusted by at 
first simply granting their request to be allowed to 
take the regular courses of instruction When 
those who first completed the arduous work re- 
quested the same reward as the men of their class, 
the board decided that since ** they had done the 
work, they should have the recog- 
^ nit ion ;*' so they won their parch- 

ments, and the Institute of Tech- 
nology threw its doors wide open 
to women. During the fifteen years 
of his work in building up and 
directing the affairs of the insti- 
tute he found time for work as a 
writer on economics and history, 
publishing various books, making 
many public addresses, and deliver- 
ing courses of lectures at Johns 
Hopkins and Harvard universities 
and before the Lowell Institute. 

In 1878 he was sent by President 
Hayes as United States Commis- 
sioner to the International Mone- 
tary Conference at Paris. He was a 
strong advocate of international bi- 
metallism, the subject which more^ 
than any other absorbed his inter- 
est the last year or two of his life. 
In 1892 he declined the appointment of President 
Harrison as delegate to the Brussels conference of 
that year. 

He was an officer of many statistical and scientific 
societies, a member of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society and an ex-president of the St. Botolph 
Club of Boston. His recognition at home and abroad 
was great. His writings were used as text books in 
the English universities. 

He received the degree of Ph.D. from Amherst, 
his alma mater, which also bestowed the LL.D., the 
latter being confen*ed in turn by Yale, Harvard, 
Columbia, St. Andrew's, Dublin and Edinboro. 
He also received the degree of Ph.D. from Halle. 

In 1893 he was elected a corresponding member 
of the Institute of France, being chosen to fill a 
vacancy made by the death of Emile Laveleye. 

His public service was of the widest range. In 
New Haven, in Washington and in Boston he was 
prominent in local life, in this respect differing 
from most scholars. He applied his learning and 
investigation to the needs of the hour. He per- 
formed signal service for the city of Boston as a 




GENERAL FRANCIS A. IVALKER: A CHARACTER SKETCH. 



1G5 



member of the Park Commission, as a member of 
tbe Board of Tnstees of the Boston Public Library 
And as a trustee of the Museum of Fine Arts. 

He rendered long and valuable service on the 
State Boards of Education of Connecticut and Mas- 
sachiisetts : was a Massachusetts State Commis- 
sioner at the World's Fair in Chicago in 1893 : Vice- 
President of the National Academy of Sciences ; 
President of the Massachusetts Military Historical 
Society; President of the American Statistical So- 
ciety, and was a member of many other learned 
societies here and in Europe. 

HIS MARRIAGE AND HOME LIFE. 

He was married in 1865 to Exene, daughter of 
Timothy M. Stoughton, Esq., of Gill, Mass., and of 
the seven children who survive 
him five are sons and two are 
daughters. The third son, Fran- 
cis, his namesake, follows the 
same line of work as his father 
and grandfather, and is in- 
structor in political science at 
Colorado College, having re- 
ceived the degree of Ph.D. from 
Columbia. 



/ 



PEBSONAL TRAITS AND CHAR- 
ACTERISTICS. 

In many ways General Walker 
▼as the culmination of the best 
characteristics of his ancestors. 

To the sturdy English quali- 
ties was added in him a touch of 
thathttle leaven of French blood 
which permeated his whole na- 
ture, qualifying his mannei*s, 
enhvening his disposition, and 
giving him that mental quick- 
ness and aptitude for the exact 
sciences which has ever characterized the French 
scholars. 

As a l)oy and young man General Walker was 
fond of active and manly sports, and his playmates 
to-day remember him as being peculiarly high 
minded. 

He was magnanimous to his fellows ; there was 
nothing of envy or jealousy in his disposition ; he 
was always ready to give credit to whom it was 
due. and to overlook any littleness or wrong in oth- 
ers. He was fun loving and kind. 

He was fond of reading, and history was his 
favorite subject. He reveled in the description of 
great campaigns and bloody battles. At one time, 
when quite young, he went through a description 
in detail of all the great battles of the Revolution 
to a peace loving aunt, who patiently listened while 
he rehearsed all the particulars, and to whom he in- 
variably explained the reasons why the Americans 
were defeated, as they almost always were. It was 
characteristic of him always to excuse and overlook 
the defects and mistakes of men. 




FRANCIS A. WALKER, 

As Aflst. Adjutant- General of the Second 

Army Corps, 1868. 



His father was one of the founders and a prom- 
inent member of the American Peace Society, serv- 
ing as president, and going abroad as delegate to 
the International Peace Congress in 1843, and again 
in 1847 ; but young Francis was not of the same 
opinion and spent those same days in the fostering 
of a far different spirit in the minds of his play- 
mates than that which favored universal arbitration 
and peace. While his father was delivering lectures 
in behalf of disarmament, he was arming the small 
boys of the town with wooden swords and guns, and 
marching them through the streets to the sound of 
tin pan drums. He was a lad of pluck and daring, 
fond of all forms of athletics, for which to the last 
he showed the keenest enthusiasm. 
From early youth he had a gift for statistics. 
When about eighteen years of 
age he served with ability as 
secretary of a Pleuro- Pneu- 
monia Cattle Commission, which 
met in North Brookfield, and of 
which his father was a member. 
This same talent was apparent 
in his reports to the Adjutant- 
General in Washington, and 
General Williams once said 
they were the best sent to his 
office. 

The qualities which made him 
a popular leader in his boyhood 
made him an excellent soldier; 
he was brave, courteous, modest 
and enthusiastic. 

As an official he carried his 
faculty for organization into 
whatever he did. He laid out 
the work of the Bureau of Sta- 
tistics in a systematic way, 
and the department owes to 
him many of its best features. 
The following incident which happened in con- 
nection with one of his government positions, a 
place shared in a measure with another, shows his 
incorruptibility : One day he was approached 
with the suggestion that since the whole depart- 
ment was under their control, by working in har- 
mony they could have whatever they desired, ** I 
have no desires," said General Walker. " But, 
General." said his coadjutor. ** do you not see that 
we can push forward our friends and relatives into 
good places ? " ** I have no friends " was the char- 
acteristic reply. His pet abhorrence was nepotism, 
and never was he willing to foist a friend or rela- 
tive mto position either through public or private 
influence. 

As an educator he was especially impatient of that 
tendency, in some educational centres, to set before 
the young the thought of a college degree as a mere 
ornament , or of connection with a great university 
for the sake of getting a ** pull " in life. 

In all the home training of his children he tried 
to instill the one thought that equipment and worth 



166 



THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



are the only true and certain means of advancement 
and permanent success. 

In his relations to the young he announced as his 
creed a belief ** in the essential manliness of young 
men." 

The one Intent and aim before him in his build- 
ing up of the Institute of Technology was to make 
the course so vigorous that only the strongest could 
hope to complete it. It was an institution where 
men went to equip themselves for life work, not a 
hospital for the treatment of mental weaklings. 

His home life in a measure included the life of the 
institute. For a time each day his office door stood 
ajar, giving its silent invitation to any who wished 
to enter. 

In his relations to the institute and students he 
was a father, friend and working companion, and 
the widest work of his life is that which is still be- 
ing done by his spirit and ideals, carried all over 
the world by the students who knew and loved him 
there. His distinguishing trait as a student was in- 
defatigable industry. He had no spare moments. 
In literary and civic service he endeared himself to 
those in position above and below him. 

Mr. John C. Hopes said of him, " For the last ten 



or twelve years I have enjoyed the friendship of 
G^eneral Walker, and during the whole of that time 
we have thoroughly trusted each other. I soon got 
to know him ; it was not difficult to recognize in 
him a grand simplicity of character, an absolute 
frankness and sincerity, a warm and honest heart, 
and a spirit of unhesitating and entire devotion to 
his work. With his rare combination of moral quali- 
ties, he possessed also rare intellectual gifts, es- 
pecially that of comprehending enough of the scope 
and direction of the various branches of study at 
the institute to be able to give to each its due pro- 
portion of attention and to all the benefit of his un- 
tiring interest and energy. Added to all this was 
his unsurpassed faculty of administration,— first 
shown in the army, and developed by successive 
experiences of increasing responsibility until he 
wielded and also augmented the resources and capac- 
ities of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
with a skill and success which commanded uni- 
versal admiration. 

'* His contributions to political economy and to the 
history of the war and of the first half century of 
American history were most admirable works, and 
attest the wide range and vigor of his mind. *' 



FRANCIS A. WALKER AS A PUBLIC MAN. 



BY DAVIS R. DEWEY. 



FEW men have lived so many lives in one as did 
Francis A. Walker, who died January 5, 1897. 
at the age of 56. Military officer, public adminis- 
trator, economist, statistician, historian and educa- 
tional leader— a roll of activities each well done, 
with a record of splendid achievement. It is difficult 
to compress the narrative of so much noble accom- 
plishment in one brief article, and especially difficult 
when called upon so near the hour of death. After 
graduation at Amherst, in 1860, Mr. Walker entered 
the law office of Devens & Hoar in Worcester. In 
a few months came the nation's call for troops at 
the opening of the Civil War. Mr. Walker promptly 
enlisted, and after a few months became an assistant 
adjutant- general under Brigadier- General Couch. 

HIS WAR RECORD. 

During the winter of 1861-62, at brigade head- 
quarters, Captain Walker became an accomplished 
adjutant-general, and when, in March, 1862. General 
Couch was advanced to division commander, the 
captain followed as major and chief of staff. 
** It was a well-earned promotion," says General 
Couch; ** he had shown himself quick to grasp the 
substance of whatever came before him. Further- 
more, he did not put off until to-morrow, and his 
records and books were faultless." During that 
second year he took part in the battle of Seven Pines, 



Fair Oaks and Malvern Hill, and then, when Conch 
relieved General Sumner in October, 1862, in com- 
mand of the noted Second Corps, Major Walker 
became lieutenant-colonel and assistant adjutant- 
general of the corps. His superior had already 
noted his skill and bravery on the field. By this 
promotion Colonel Walker was brought into closer 
contact with the army chiefs at General McClellan's 
headquarters, who soon learned to appreciate the 
brilliant abilities of probably the youngest officer 
of his rank in the army. Colonel Walker took part 
in the disaster at Fredericksburg, and G^eneral 
Couch relates that a few weeks after this trying 
ordeal Colonel Walker seemed to have made up his 
mind to give up his staff position and to cast his lot 
in the line of the army by taking the command of a 
regiment. ** He was almost fiercely loyal, and con- 
sidered it to be his sacred duty to go right into the 
front line and there fight with his Massachusetts 
comrades." In this plan he was opposed, and he 
consequently continued at his old x)08t. At Chancel- 
lorsville, May 1, 1863. he was severely wounded and 
obliged to be absent from the battle of Gtjttysburg. 
He participated in the Wilderness and Petersburg- 
campaigns of 1864. and won repeated commendation 
in the reports of his corps commander, now Han- 
cock. Near Petersburg, at Reams' Station, he was 
captured, and although he escaped by night and 



FRANCIS A. U^ALKER AS A PUBLIC MAM. 



167 



swam the Appomattox River, he was unable to re- 
giin the UQion lines. For three months he led a 
pri^n life at Libby, and was then paroled. 

It is worth narrating these few events in the mili- 
tary life of General Walker, for at this early period 
he eminently displayed those qualities of thorough- 




sij^' 



FRANCIS A. WALKER. 
From a photograph taken in 1876. 

new, rigid adherence to all duties imposed and in 
tense energy which have made his whole career so 
raccessful. Military authorities declare that a first- 
nte adjutant- general is indispensable to the first rate 
management of any military body, and the larger 
the body of troops the more responsibility falls upon 
the adjutant-general. *' Without excellent business 
abilities and great faithfulness and thoroughness 
these duties cannot possibly be performed to the 
satisfaction of such an exacting ana capable corps 
commander as was GJ^neral Hancock.'* It is said 
that General Hancock, soon after he took command 
of the Second Corps, exclaimed : ** Colonel Walker 
is the best adjutant-general that I ever knew 1 '* It 
most be remembered that General Hancock himself 
had been an adjutant-general and had already gained 
a reputation for ** papers. *' 

AS A MIUTARY WRITER. 

Like many volunteer soldiers. General Walker 
was averse to ** talking over " or writing about the 
war, save, it might be, with some of his old com- 
rades. In the preface to his life of General Hancock 
he expresses regret for this prolonged indifference 



on his part, but fortunately he was prevailed upon 
to write two books of military history— one the 
History of the Second Army Corps, and the other 
the Life of General Hancock, in the Great Com- 
manders Series. As to the value of these volumes 
from the standpoint of the professional army man I 
have no information; but many laymen, both those 
who participated in the events there recorded and 
those of a later generation who know of war only 
from print or tradition, can testify to the interest 
and the cluirm of those writings. These pages are 
free from words of asperity and carping criticism. 
There is a frankness, a buoyancy of spirit, a dash, a 
devotion, a love of country which outweighs any 
tediousness from enumeration of troops or barren 
description of topographical lines. Who without a 
thrill can read that page from the Life of General 
EEancock describing the education of a young cadet 
at West Point, ** ever in the sight of the flag of 
the United States, . . . living scarcely a day out 
of the sight of that gay and glorious emblem of the 
nation's unity ? " And when he has read that, let 
him turn to the page where the author describes the 
feelings of the troops who, after the awful trials at 
Chancellors ville, marched northward toward Gettys- 
burg, ** wonderfully heartened by scene and circum- 
stance, by friendly greeting and the look of home." 
There is no doubt that if General Walker had devoted 
himself to the writing of history he would have 
made a distinguished mark in that field His Making 
of the Nation is a i;emarkable example of historical 
generalization, disclosing at every turn opinion and 
conviction, and yet inspiring the reader with confi- 
dence that the author has mastered the details. He 
has assimilated "original data." and not been 
smothered by their weight or led astray by their 
pictures<|uenes8. 

A RETURN TO THE ARTS OP PEACE. 

Soon after the close of the war General Walker 
made a fresh start in civil life. For three years he 
taught at Williston Seminary, Easthampton, Mass., 
an institution for which he always maintained a 
warm affection. He then served a year in the oflSce 
of the Springfield Repiiblican, under Samuel Bowles, 
and in 1869 was appointed by President Grant Chief 
of the Bureau of Statistics of the Treasury Depart- 
ment. This was soon followed by an appointment 
in 1870 to the superintendency of the Ninth Census. 
It had been the hope to introduce some radical 
reforms in the taking of this census by revising the 
schedules provided by the law of 1850 and by sub- 
stituting a special force of enumerators for the 
marshals hitherto employed. This measure failed. 
In spite, however, of the defects which obliged the 
superintendent to continue inadequate and clumsy 
methods, General Walker insisted upon a more 
scientific treatment of the data thus obtained, and 
introduced fresh material in the form of statistical 
maps. General Walker was also called to the super- 
intendency of the Tenth Census, and for that a new 



168 



THE REyiElV OF RE^/EIVS. 



law was pa^ssed more in keeping with the great de- 
mands necessitated by the social and industrial 
changes of half a century. The nation had just 
celebrated its centennial, and it seemed a fitting 
time to take stock of the national resources and the 
measurement of its grandeur, as well as of its weak- 
ness, on a larger scale than had ever before been 
a exempted either in this country or in any other 
nation throughout the world. The census of 1B80 
was an enormous undertaking, planned on a scale 
which taxed the executive and organizing capacity 
of its chief to the utmost. It was necessary to call 
together an army of enumerators, lo select a body 
of picked and trained experts upon whom would 
devolve in a large measure the task of preparing the 
special monographs, to organize an enormous office 
force of clerks, to prepare new schedules, never yet 
tried, to draw up minute instructions, and to provide 
for a va3t variety of details all necessary for the 
successful initiation and execution of a census. All 
this had to be done by a t-emporary force, done at 
once, with little opportunity for deliberation, and 
above all in the presence of a hungry mob of poll, 
ticians seeking office for their friends and depend- 
ents. More than twenty volumes is the outcome of 
the plan thus undertaken. It is a work, naturally, 
of uneven merits; but, considering the administra- 
tive difficulties involved, the magnitude of the 
project, the complete lack of precedent in many 
fields of investigation, it is amazing that so few of 
the inqniries originally planned broke down. This 
vast work immediately established in Europe the 
reputation of General Walker as a statistician of 
the highest order, and has created an envy in many 
an administrative bureau of the Old World. 

AS STATISTICIAN. 

Of late years General Walker has been so occupied 
with academic and educational work that he has had 
little opportunity to devote himself to specific statis- 
tical inquiry, and it is possible that the younger 
student may have omitted to note the careful analysis 
and patient attention to schedules which were illus- 
trated by these earlier accomplishments. His interest 
in this department of work, however, never left him. 
After the census of 1890 he published a series of 
interesting articles in the Forum. He ever encour- 
aged the introduction of the study of statistics in 
colleges and universities, earnestly advocated the 
training of *' cadet '* statisticians by the government, 
and insisted upon the establishment of a permanent 
census bureau. In 1882 he was elected president of 
the American Statistical Association, and served 
faithfully at its head until his death, making a 
special point to be present at its meetings, frequently 
at great personal inconvenience; and finally he co- 
operated in every possible way in the work of the 
International Statistical Institute, of which he was 
a vice-president. 

Mr. Walker's more distinctive career as an econ- 
omist^began with his appointment to a professorship 



of political economy at the Yale Scientific School in 
1873, a position nominally held until 1881. The fruit 
of this academic life soon appeared in the pub- 
lication of "Wages'* in 1876; ** Money," in 1878; 
and *• Money, Trade, and Industry," in 1879. 
The more systematic treatise on "Political Elcon- 
omy" appeared in 1883, quickly followed by a 
little work on "Land and Its Rent" No fur- 




FRANCIS A. WALKSR. 
From a photograph taken in 1891. 

ther volume, save an abridged and revised edi- 
tion of the "Political Economy," appeared until 
1896, when he published a volume on " Interna- 
tional Bimetallism." During this period, however, 
appeared a score or more of essays, magazine 
articles, presidential addresses before the American 
Economic Association, etc., in which he discussed 
various phases of social economics and engaged in 
controversial explanations of the theory of distribn- 
tion earlier propounded. 

WAIJCER THE ECONOMIST. 

For what does President Walker stand as an 
economist ? In brief, the reply may be grouped in 
four-headings under Wages, Theory of Distribution, 
Money, and Social Economics. In his first work, on 
" Wages," he immediately attracted attention, not 
only by the adoption of the historical method, not 
yet common in this country, but by his attack on 



FRANCIS A. WALKER AS A PUBLIC MAN. 



1G9 



tbe wage fnnd theory. It is nnnecessary to discuss 
the historical origin of this criticism; it is only 
necessary to say that in the overturn or modification 
of the somewhat musty and classic wage fund 
theory, no name is more frequently mentioned than 
that of President Walker. It was a welcome de- 
liverance. The opportunity and the recompense of 
the laborer are not measured by the fullness of the 
capitalistic purse, but by the productivity of labor 
itself. This idea commended itself to the practical 
*en-se, experience and ideals of the American people. 
There are students, indeed, of political economy 
irho contest the validity of President Walker's 
analysis: but there is a fairly general consensus of 
opinion that while a restatement may be necessary 
—and in all healthy pursuits of science restatements 
are necessary — the truth is nearer Mr. Walker's end 
of the ellipse than it is of the other. 

Closely connected with this analysis is Mr. 
"Walker's theory of distribution, in which profits are 
treated as rent, and the laborer appears as the resid- 
nal claimant in the great process of the distribu- 
tion of wealth. Mr. Walker was never satisfied 
with the exposition given in his larger and earlier 
*• PoUtical Economy " and did much to clear away 
ambi^ities in a fresh and happier statement in the 
«maller work. Over this theory there has been 
sharp controversy, much of the difficulty, to my 
mind, being due to the fact that the critics do not 
€af5ciently recognize that Mr. Walker's theory calls 
for a condition or state of perfect competition at 
every stage, never, of course, as yet realized in the 
actnal economic world. There has also been a fall- 
ing out over the element of time in the problem; 
and a somewhat unreasona- 
ble criticism has been made 
that the portion profits was 
not more fully and accurately 
analyzed into all its com- 
ponent parts, — criticism 
which for the most part does 
not disturb the inner and 
vital principle set forth. 

ms RELATION TO MONETARY 
DLSCUSSION. 

General Walker's views on 
money are probably fairly 
wen known. He gave a broad 
scope to the term money, in- 
cluding bank notes; he intro- 
duced the term *' common - 
denominator in exchange." 
M a substitute for the phrase 
"measure of value ;'' and 
followed his father in his 
opposition to the so-called 
^king schooL It is in con- 
nection, however, with bi- 
metallism that his name is 
more closely associated in 



monetary science during these later years. On 
this he has a consistent record. While recogniz- 
ing the evils of inflationism, he was deeply impressed 
with the evils of contracting the sound money sup- 
ply in a time of expanding industry. In his remarks 
at the Paris Monetary Conference of 1878, to which 
he was a delegate, he made this statement: ** Suffo- 
cation, strangulation, are words hardly too strong 
to express the agony of the industrial body when 
embraced in the fatal coils of a contracting money 
supply." He never acepted the defensive on this 
question. ** We are not the innovators. It is om 
opponents who are proposing a new and strange 
thing. On our part, we stand upon the ancient 
order." The Paris Conference of 1867 did a cruel 
wrong; the German government, in 1873, made a 
stupid blimder, and the heroic efforts of France 
unaided could not prevail. He placed the cause ol 
bimetallism on a broad foundation, taking cogniz- 
ance of world conditions and not national interests 
alone. Commerce and manufactures needed a 
common world's par of exchange. Monometallism 
was responsible for the friction cutting deep into 
the vitals of a beneficent world competition. He 
had an honest hatred of repudiation or partial con- 
fiscation, or an intentional scaling of debts, or less- 
ening of obligations. He spumed to rest the cause 
of bimetallism on class interests. At London this 
past summer, his final word in an address there 
delivered was: "The bonds of the United States 
will continue to be paid in gold coin or its full 
equivalent; and its credit will stand where it has 
ever stood since the triumphant vindication of its 
nationality in the war of secession." He felt that 




PRESIDENT walker's OFFICE AT THE MASSACHUSETTS INSTTTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. 



170 



THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



his country had been maligned. The legislation of 
1878 and 1890 was highly injudicious and mischiev- 
ous, but it was not the result simply of selfish and 
particular interests engaged in the production of 
silver. The act of 1878 was ** in the main disinter- 
ested, in the main loyal." And so, too, the act of 
1890 ** was in the main due to a loyal intention to 
undo the great wrong of demonetization.*' 

The position he took during the past year showed 
the highest moral courage. Subjected to misinter- 
pretation, accused of giv- 
ing covert aid to the free 
silver movement which 
he opposed as heartily as 
any, he maintained his 
academic and intellectual 
freedom, — solicitous that 
no word of his should be 
misapplied, and yet at 
appropriate times assert- 
ing the truth that was in 
him. 

In the domain of social 
economics, President 
Walker has written no 
systematic work. His 
Treatment of such ques- 
tions in his ** Political 
Economy" is fragment- 
ary and incomplete and 
the general reading public 
has perhaps drawn con- 
clusions, often superficial 
and inaccurate, upon 
chance reading of a ma/2:a- 
zine article. There were 
three things which 
aroused President Walker 
to sharp speech : Shallow 
philosophy, a suggestion 
of non-fulfillment of obli- 
gations, or confiscation, and any attack upon law 
and order. 

HIS VIEWS ON SOCIAL REFORM. 

Mr. Walker had little patience with short-cut or 
mechanical schemes of social reform; and yet his 
sympathy for the uplifting of the oppressed was 
great. He recognized the benefit of trade unions at 
a time when sympathy was rare on the part of the 
educated. His sympathy, too. was more than a 
passing and indifferent feeling. In a magazine 
article published some years ago he remarks: ** I 
believe I was the first person occupying a chair of 
political economy to declare that sympathy with the 
working class on the part of the general community 
may. when industrial conditions are favorable, be- 
come a truly economic force in determining a higher 
rate of wages; but by sympathy I certainly did not 
mean slobber." He believed in the efficacy of free 
competition, but when he said competition he meant 




FRANCIS A. WALKER. 
From a photogrraph taken in 1894, 



a real competition at every point It was to be 
*• severe, searching and unremitting," for the work- 
man must be able ** to withstand and return the 
pressure. What is wanted is the largest capability 
of resistance and reaction." Any measure, there- 
fore, which would aid workmen to be more ** alert, 
active and aggressive in presenting their economic 
interests '* he favored. Hence he advocated a re- 
striction of immigration, believed in a gradual 
redaction of hours of labor, opposed trusts. His 
appreciation, however, of 
the evolutionary forces of 
history was so profound 
that he rode roughshod 
over schemes which prac- 
tically annihilated time 
and the realities of human 
nature. It is needless to 
add that George's earlier 
proposition of confisca- 
tion stung him to the 
quick, and that strikes 
associated with lawless 
action led to blunt denun- 
ciation. 

AS AN EDUCATIONIST. 

There is a close associa- 
tion between his social 
and economic philosophy 
and the principles of edu- 
cation which he advo- 
cated. In education he 
stood for manual training, 
the kindergarten and 
cooking and sewing 
schools for the mass ; and 
for those who had the 
aptitude, technical train- 
ing of a higher order, 
not only for its own sake 
as an educational factor, but as a conserver of the 
industrial and economic forces of the nation which 
now go to waste or wreck. Such training is a 
bulwark to the laborer in helping him to resist 
pressure and thus make competition a force working 
for good instead of for destruction. His views on 
the general educational value of manual and techni- 
cal training have been repeated again and again 
in public addresses and may be found briefly 
summarized in print in "A Plea for Industrial Edu- 
cation in the Public Schools '* (Boston, 1887). and in 
an address delivered before the Convocation of the 
State of New York, 1891, published in Vol. 4 of the 
Technology Quarterli, 

Mr. Walker took an earnest interest in public 
school education. During the period that he was 
connected with the Sheffield Scientific School he 
was a member of the Connecticut State Board of 
Education and of the Municipal School Committee 
of New Haven. When he came to Baston this 



FRANCIS A. WALKER AS A PUBLIC MAN. 



171 



interest in public school education was continued. 
He was a member of the State Board of E^ducation 
of Massachusetts from 1882 to 1890. In this con- 
nection he was especially interested in making the 
normal schools truly professional. His influence 
was particularly felt in behalf of better laboratories, 
gymnasiams and hand work. As a visitor at 
Wellesley College his influence was felt in the 
shaping of the scientific departments. He was a 
member of the Boston School Cominittee from 1885 
to 1887. and here made his spirited attack upon the 
teaching of arithmetic, and was instrumental in 
securing a reduction of the amount of time given to 
this study and a rationalizing of the instruction. 

WORK AT M.\SSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF 
TECHNOLOGY. 

His chief glory, however, in education was his 
administration of the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, to which he was called in 1881. Over 
this he exercised a judicious, intelligent and pro- 
gressive administration. The wise plans of its 
founder. President Rogers were developed, and no 
error was made to check its growth. During this 
period of fifteen years the number of students 
increased from 302 to 1,108. Five new department 
courses have been added— electrical engineering, 
chemical engineering, sanitary engineering, geology, 
and naval architecture. Instead of one building 
there are now four. There has been a wise recog- 
nition of the independent organization of the various 
departments, with, however, a beneficial co ordina- 
tion at all necessary points. He has supported a 
generous recogpiition of the study of language and 
literature, history and political science, as essential 
to a harmonious training of the engineer. 

His work at the institute, however, should not be 
left without reference to his relations to the student 
body. These were indeed unique. Although giving 
no instruction and never meeting the students in a 
class, save possibly some two or three times a year 
when called upon for a special lecture, yet he knew, 



I think, every man of the graduating class each 
year, and could also address by name scores, if not 
himdreds, of other students of the school. He had 
their complete confidence and admiration. He never 
addressed the students on questions of discipline, for 
such questions did not arise under his administra- 
tion, but every student with whom he came in con- 
tact,— and scores saw him at one time and another 
in his office,— felt an inspiration in personal contact 
and by the unconscious influence of the manliness 
of their president 

President Walker's address on graduation day. in 
presenting diplomas, was brief, but always heard 
with eager interest. It was a message burdened 
with warm gratulations for the completion of a long 
course of laborious and honorable study and achieve- 
ments. The student who heard it felt anew that he 
had been a worker, had lived with workers, and with 
earnest endeavor would go on through life a worker. 
It was honest and manly toil that counted. 

A MANY SIDED CAREER. 

President Walker's life touched the public at 
coimtless points. No reference has been made in 
the above brief estimate to his administrative abili- 
ties displayed in the Department of Indian Affairs,, 
or as chief of the Bureau of Awards at the Centen- 
nial, or as chairman of- the Massachusetts State 
Board of Managers at the World's Pair, or as mem- 
ber of the Boston Park Commission, where his 
influence left a very definite impress upon the 
municipal life of the people. Nothing has been said 
in regard to the numerous distinctions which he 
won in honorary degrees and membership in learned 
societies, nor has anything been said of the indirect 
influence which he has had in endless ways as a 
willing and helpful adviser to committees and indi- 
viduals who have been engaged in educational, 
charitable and sociological work His connection 
with public office was never a perfunctory one. He 
always contributed something to the development 
of the work with which he was associated. The 
seed has been sown ; the fruit is being harvested. 




A 




RUDYARD KIPLING. 

From a portrait by tbo Hon. John Collier, exhibited in the Royal Academy, 1891. 



A SKETCH OF RUDYARD KIPLING. 



BY CHARLES D. LANIER. 



IT is a decidedly new sensation to find a volume 
of verse from the pen of a man who has not yet 
reached his thirty-second year which the critics of 
five continents hasten to compare with the author's 
"early " work. But Rudyard Kipling was already 
voluminous at twenty-five, and by this time he and 
his art seem, with all their distinguishing freshness. 
as old as that Oldest Land which has come to life 
again in these ravishing tales. Kipling was bom in 
Christmas week, 1865, in Calcutta. The world does 
Dot know much more of his earlier youth than it 
does of the Death Bull and those other things that 
only Hindu priests and Strickland Sahib know. 
Kipling is int<^)lerant of gush, and is sensitive con- 
cerning the private affairs of his own life to a degree 
which should insure some protection, and which 
(ioe«— when reinforced by a determined refusal to 
prying eyes. His schoolboy days were spent in 
England; after that he went back to India and to 
active newspaper work, as sub- editor and war corre- 
spondent It was in this period that he began to 
write verse and stories, a great deal of both. He 
was twenty one years old when his first volume, 
** Departmental Ditties. '' appeared, and twenty- three 
when the first collection of prose stories was taken 
from the Lahore journal, of which he was sub- editor, 
and incorporated in the volume, ** Plain Tales from 
the HiUs," published in Calcutta. Then the yams 
began to spin out thick and fast; '* Soldiers Three," 
**The Gadsbys." ** In Black and White," ** Under 
the Deodars," '* The Phantom 'Rickshaw," '' Wee 
Willie Winkie,"— all appeared within a year after 
"Plain Tales from the Hills." Some chance ray 
of light brought London's eager eye to a glint of 
this precious material, and when the young journal- 
ist returned to England in 1889 he awoke from the 
P. and 0. liner to find himself famous. But he had 
already been famous in India for years, and there 
were scores of cultured people there whp knew him 
to be a genius. 

London was as interesting as India for Mr. Kip- 
Knj;. which, fortunately, means for everybody who 
reads anj-thing. ** The Record of Badalia Herods- 
foot,"and his first novel, ** The Light that Failed," 
appeared in 1890-91 ; then afresh collection of verse, 
published in America under the title, ** Mine Own 
People,'* and more verses, and so on through a round 
which will be seen in better perspective in the bibli- 
<>Kraphy attached to this sketch. It was in London 
in 1891 that Mr. Kipling met and loved young Wol- 
cott Balestier, with whom he wrote "The Naul- 



ahka," and it was Mr. Balestier's sister whom, io^ 
1892, Mr. Kipling married and brought to America. 
The succeeding three years he spent in Vermont, 
near Brattleboro, and last fall he returned to London. 

This is about what the world knows of Mr. Kip- 
ling's itinerary through life, so far as the external 
man is concerned. In the Vermont hills, which had 
been the home of his bride's family for many genei- 
ations, he built the long, low house that is shown in 
one of the accompanying illustrations, and christened 
it " The Naulahka." For a young man of a daily 
newspaper training in an East Indian setting of 
manly and barrack room ease, with the temptations 
of his precocious success, he is an exceedingly regu- 
lar and industrious worker. At ** The Naulahka " 
he devoted himself to writing from nine o'clock in 
the morning until one, and during those hours he 
was as inaccessible as Gibbon makes any of the 
Roman Emperors. After lunch he tramped abroad 
over the noble hills that surrounded his home, in 
winter indulged in the exhilaration of a snowshoe 
expedition, rode on his bicycle or worked in his 
garden, of which he is very fond. These constitu- 
tionals were followed by casual social duties and the 
English papers, which he read with avidity. 

As his readers will suspect, Kipling is intensely 
fond of out-of-door life. In figure he is rather under 
the average stature, of a compact figure, which is, 
of late, filling out comfortably. His quick eyes 
always gleam out from behind spectacles. His com- 
plexion hints of Indian suns, and the slight stoop in 
the shoulder of the arduous newspaper work that 
made his early manhood training. He is no great 
hunter himself, but is very fond of fishing. He 
tried the salmon fishing of our northern streams 
during his stay, and one of his acquaintances told 
me that in earlier days, when Kipling was in Eng- 
land, where decent waters are almost uniformly 
preserved, he wrote for a sporting journal and took 
his remuneration in certain fishing privileges con- 
trolled by the proprietor. When ** Captains Coura- 
geous," the story of New England fishermen's life, 
was before him, Kipling spent some weeks among 
the Gloucester salts with an acquaintance who had 
access to the hoasehold gods of the cod- folks. He 
had already made a study of the Yankee dialect and 
character for ** The Walking Delegate ** 

He is apt to be shy on first acquaintance, but if 
the ice is broken he makes friends quickly and 
readily with all kinds of people. His ardent attach- 
ment to Wolcott Balestier was begun at the very 



178 



THE REyiElV OF REVIEWS. 



contrived ? The mood and the man behind the story 
are always wanting for the inextinguishable 
laughter, and the thing simply cannot be done by 
ordinary mortals. Mr. Kipling not ouly does do it, 
but, adding a poet's imagination and observation, 
he reels off yarn after yam, never spun before, com- 
pelling the mood and ever maintaining, by mere 
literary art, the hypnotic power that the bom sayer 
of good things uses with his eyes, or his gestures, 
or his 8ang froid, or, rather, with his whole char- 
acter as a man, to exact one's willing tribute of in- 
tense interest. 

Kipling is a man enamored of the artistic tri- 
umph of saying dramatic things in the most effect- 
ive way, with a marvelgus memory for and sen- 
sitiveness to forceful words and well turned phrases, 
with an incomparable training for a story teller, a 
varied experience, a **new field,*' an indomitable 
energy and a clear head concerning the value of in 
dustry as an adjunct to genius. But far greater 
than these are his poet's soul and the alert interest 
in everything that meets his eyes. It is in this in- 
tense vitality of mind, this •* sensitive aliveness,'- 
as one of his friends puts it in describing her strong- 
est impression of the man. that he most surpasses 
other writers. Few things are so common or un- 
clean but that he can see the better essence of them, 
and nothing is unworthy of study. And since there 
is little in this world that is wholly unclean to a 
poet, when Kipling takes a particularly hard case 
and applies his inimitable art to bring out the un- 
common part of it, there is a contrast of magnifi- 
cently dramatic or humorous proportions, and the 
world gets Mulvanoy. Very naturally, the world is 
divided into a few ladies who cannot read him at 
all. and all the men and the rest of the women, who 
must read him wherever they see him. There is no 
middle ground, and this comes about because, as a 
masterful and plain speaking sort of a fellow, Kip- 
ling insists on looking at things exactly as they are ; 
he finds a good many impolite things, and he 
promptly clears his way by letting us have the worst 
of it. The ** few ladies '' never get over the clear- 
ing ; the rest of us. both those who are too careless. 



and those who are too wise, to mind the oaths that 
burnt the way, never want to come back from wait- 
ing for the * • other stories. ' ' Kipling is always called 
a man's man, which he certainly is. — and cynical 
It seems to me that if one wants to fling adjectives 
at him he might be reproached with fatalism ; but 
a man cannot be cynical and write '* Without Bene- 
fit of Clergy " or ** Wee Willie Winkie. " In fact it 
is a foolish word and means something smaller than 
any essential part of any great artist. 
y This is Kipling's mannish idea of a right phi 
losophy of education for the young, as opposed to the 
Sheltered Life System. ** Let a puppy eat the soap 
in the bathroom or chew a newly blacked boot. He 
chews and chuckles until, by and by. he finds out 
that blacking and Old Brown Windsor make him 
very sick; so he argues that soap and boots are not 
wholesome. Any old dog about the house will soon 
show him the unwisdom of biting big dogs' ears. 
Being young he remembers and goes abroad, at si^ 
months, a well mannered little beast with a chastened 
appetite. If he had been kept away from boots, and 
soap and big dogs till he came to the trinity full grown 
and with developed teeth, consider how fearfully 
sick and thrashed he would be. Apply that notion 
to the * sheltered life. ' and see how it works. It 
does not sound pretty, but it is the better of two 
evils." 

As to Kipling's women folks, they are just the 
sort that one would expect from the imagination of 
a man's man, that is. women —creatures of the oppo 
site sex to Mulvaney. In a rougher but healthier 
way there is the same instinctive difference of sex 
that belongs to Thomas Hardy's people. So when 
you meet one of Kipling's girls it is like coming out 
of a week's hunt in the wind and the weather, or 
from marching among the Paythans and their cold, 
mountainious parts, — from a life that was different 
from theirs and well calculated to whet one's ap 
preciation of their world. Kipling personally is 
generally au inieux with the ladies, and has scarce- 
ly ever failed to make warm friends with the 
women of unusual wit and soul whom he has met. 
One of them told me that he read very little, though 



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^>*-**^'^ ^ /\^^f^i.^A^lk^ UA^ Ujk£ m^^ <y Sf^^a A^jxf^, A/C«^ «7v«rv O JUm, «*<W X«4^ -<S5^ *»»^ 4Ji«-^ 



^^t^ ^•f^ «w..>-C^ iu2^ c*.*ii^ 



KIPLIN(i*S HANDWRITING IN THE OPENING PARAGRAPH OF HIS INTRODUCTION TO THE NEW EDITION. 



A SKETCH OF RUDYARD KIPLING, 



179 



he was Tery fond of Stevenson, and the remark left 
me wondering whether the man's vocabulary and 
style had jost ** grcwed " in those newspaper offices. 
Not that they are ever particularly resounding or 
elaborate; his style can be biblical in its direct sim- 
plicity, and one can find an entire half page here and 
there of Saxon words of one syllable ; but this is 
just the sort of style that comes after much reading 
and vast writing and vaster self restraint. This is 
a half page of Kipling, cut out almost at random : 

*' And, bMrause this sudden and new light of love 
was npon him, he turned those dry bones of history 
and dirty recprds of misdeeds into things to weep or 
to laugh over as he pleased. His heart and soul 
were at the end of his pen, and they got into the 
ink. He was dowered with sympathy, insight, 
humoar. and style for two hundred and thirty days 
and nights : and his book was a Book. He had his 
vast special knowledge with him. so to speak ; but 
the spirit, the woven-in human Touch, the poetry 
and tiie power of the output, were beyond all spe- 
cial knowledge. But I doubt whether he knew the 
gift that was in him then, and thus he may have 
lost some happiness. He was toiling for Tillie Ven- 
ner. not for himself. Men often do their best work 
blind, for some one else's sake. 

*• Also, though this has nothing to do with the 
story, in India, where every one knows every one 
else, you can watch men being driven, by the women 
who goTem them, out of the rank and file, and 
sent to take up points alone. A good man, once 
started, goes forward ; but an average man, so soon 
as the woman loses interest in his success as a tribute 
to her power, comes back to thd battalion and is no 
more heard of. 

" Wressley bore the first copy of his book to Simla, 
and, blushing and stammering presented it to Miss 
Venner. She read a little of it. I give her review 
Verbatim — * Oh your book ? It's all about those 
howwid Wajahs. I didn't undei stand it. * " 

Bat it has come to be a joke, these attempts to 
** explain " Mr. Kipling ; though an idle shy more 
or len will not matter. After all is said of his 
mrthodn, we know as much as before— viz. , that we 
want to read those stories as long as there are any 
to p»d, regardless of the clock, or the dinner bell, 
and thf>ii read them over once in a while and say to 
<nir«lTes again that the.se are the only stories that 
can be read twice, much less a dozen times ; we 
wast to laugh loud and make hot war by the side 
of the great grizzled Irislmian and be in the scrapes 
with the httle fox terrier man Ortheris and the six 
feet of Yorkshireman ; it is low company, to be sure, 
and so were Falstaff and Bardolph and Pistol. We 
want to know the secrets of the jungle not as men, 
bnt as Mowgli and Bagheera knew them. We want 
t<^» be left in blank tantalizing horror by Bimi , and 
Whold the sea serpent through eyes that made it 
r^aler. more elemental in its hugeness and niuski- 
ne»« and blindness than ever it appeared corporeally 
tA prehistoric man. We want to hunt Dacoits and 
<taiid under the fire of Paythans and seek out with 




PHOTOGRAPH OF A BAS-RBLIEF, BY J. L. KIPLING, C.I B.« 

Reduced from one of 96 illostration? for the new edition of 
Rndyard Kiplinf^'s works to be published by Charles 
Scribner*8 Sons. 

Strickland big painted, murderous, world old mys- 
teries that never white face before ours beheld. 
We want to get behind the silk curtains stealthily 
rustling in the palace of the Naulahka; to hear 
more of Mrs. Hauksbee's wiles and the Venus An- 
nodomini ; to listen to the real talk of horses, and 
learn entire the thousand traits we had but half 
seen in beasts and men, until we peered through 
Mr. Kipling's eye-glasses. 

Mr. Kipling's first claim to immortality is certainly 
based on these short stories, though it now looks as if 
that precedence may only be chronological. The two 
novels, " The Light that Failed." and ** The Naulah- 
ka," are immensely good stories, judi?ed by other 
standards than those already set by Kipling himself. 
The world is a child that never tires of being amused 
with thrilling tales, and it honors and loves greatly 
any one who will tell it good stories. This artist 
with the thoroughbred dash, the naivety, the know- 
ingness, the audacity, the easy conscience, the im- 
patience of sham that we love in a high spirited col- 
lege boy, has captured the world, horse, foot and 
drairoons. His point of \iew gives such sublir'- 
of being strictly " in it." whatever '* 



180 



THE REl^lEiV OF REVIEWS. 



may be. that his reader is proud and anxions to 
share it and feel a partnership in the good things to be 
said and seen. This point of view is that of the gen- 
tlemen subalterns who '* are as good as good can be ; 
because their training begins early, and GK)d has ar- 
ranged that a clean run youth of the British middle 
classes shall, in the matter of backbone, brains and 
bowels, surpass all other youths." 

Perhaps there was some quality of this adolescent 
freshness that we must not exi)ect in Mr. Kipling 
again. The things he is doing and will do may be 
greater, but they may also be a trifle less fetching 
and contagious. Mr. S. R. Crockett tells us that he 
was one of a party, including many of the English- 
men who know best how to read and write, when a 
ballot vote was taken for the six best stories that 
Kipling 'JuBA written. " The Man Who Woald Be 
King '* stood at the head of the list That was made 
before Kipling was twenty-one years of age. and he 
was scarcely older when the best of the other stories 
came out,—* *The Strange Ride of Morrowbie Jukes, ' ' 
** Without Benefit of Clergy.'' •* Bimi." * Namgay 
Doola," **The Courting of Dinah Shadd." and the 
other Mxdvaney stories, ** The Drums of the Fore 
and Aft," and "Wee Willie Winkie." The last 
two are the best of the child series; in the first, two 
blackguard little drummer boys of thirteen, and in 
the second, a tot of six and three-quarters, fig^ure in 
heroic attitudes that would be absurdly impossible if 
another than Mr. Kipling drew the strings. Chil- 
dren are rather a hobby with him,— in a category of 
hobbies extending from fat fox terriers to Anglo- 
Saxon unity. His reverence for these appears in the 
paragraph of preface to the three juvenile heroes. 
** Only women understand children thoroughly; 
but if a mere man keei>s very quiet, and humbles 
himself properly, and refrains from talking down 
to his superiors, the children will sometimes be good 
to him and let him see what they think about the 
world.'' 

IV. THE POET OF THE SEVEN SEAS. 

Kipling is a poet of a highly magnetized metal, 
which attracts or repels alike very strongly. His 
newest book, ** The Seven Seas," has shown such a 
high preponderance of attraction that it is easy to 
neglect the repulsed element in speaking of his 
achievements in verse and the world's appreciation 
of them. He has a remarkable facility in versifying 
which he cultivated and developed in India, in 
spite of oflQce work and the proprietor. Eight years 
ago, when we were first startled by Mr. Kipling's 
invasion of the western world with these hundred 
stories that he brought as literary baggage, his 
readers xmused before each tale with wonder in their 
hearts over some haunting scrap of verses beneath 
the title. No one knew what they meant exactly, 
or whether they were free translations from stray 
Indian epics, or something of immortal song that 
one ought to have recognized. , But their quality 
was deeply felt, especially after the chapter had 
been read. When the Mowgli stories came to us we 



knew that it was K'pling who must have been 
responsible for them first and last, and that he was 
quite as great a poet as we had half suspected. This 
belief was aided by the exhilarating lyrics of 
•* Departmental Ditties " and ** Barrack Room Bal- 
lads," and quickened into certainty as the greater 
poems appeared which have been incorporated in 
the volume of " The Seven Seas." 

The range of this poetical work is magnificent 
It is inspired by what he has seen in Afghan battle- 
fields and Vermont hillsides, in Indian mess rooms 
and London streets, on the road to Mandalay, and 
off the coast of Gloucester, Mass. 

Each for the joy of the working, and each in his sepa- 
rate star, 

Shall draw the Thing as he sees it, for the God of 
Things as They Are. 

Thus he explains, in L'Envoi of " The Seven Seas." 
his own idea of his poetic efforts, and he has seen 
Things as They Are in many lands and on many 
seas. Yet. though Mr. Kipling's muse be too un- 
trameled to be dominated by any one theme, cer- 
tainly there is the dominantly recurring note in his 
verse, as in a less degree there is in his prose, to the 
British soldier and the British flag. Mr. Stead calls 
him the *' laureate of the Empire. " Already in his 
earliest ditties Mr. Kipling has struck this note, 
with a lighter touch in some of the most inimitable 
verses, like " Fuzzy- Wuzzy," of which we give a 
couple of verses. 

" Fuzzy- Wuzzy." 
(Sondan Expeditionary Force.) 
We've fonght with man> men acrost the seas, 

An' some of 'em was brave an' some was not : 
The Paythan an' the Zoln an' Burmese ; 

Bnt the Fuzzy was the finest o' the lot. 
We never got a ha'porth's change of 'im : 

'E squatted in the scrab an' 'ocked our 'orses, 
'E cut our sentries up at SuaAcim, 

An' 'e played the cat an' banjo with our forces. 

So 'ere'g to you. Fuzzy- Wuzzy, at your *ome in the 
Sowdan ; 

You're a pore benighted 'eathen bnt a first-class fiirht- 
In' man ; 

We gives you your certifikit. an' if you want it signed 

We'll come an' 'ave a romp with you whenever you're 
inclined. 

'E rushes at the smoke when we let drive. 

An', before we know, 'e's 'ackin' at our 'ead ; 
'E's all 'ot sand an' ginger when alive 

An' 'e's generally shammin' when 'e's dead. 
'E's a daisy, 'e's a ducky, 'e's a lamb ! 

'E's a injia-rubber idiot on the spree, 
'E's the on'y thing that doesn't care a damn 
For the Regiment o' British Infantree. 
So 'ere's to you. Fuzzy- Wuzzy, at your 'ome in the 

Sowdan ; 
You're a pore benighted 'eathen but a first-class fi^^t- 

in' man ; 
An' 'ere's to you. Fuzzy Wuzzy, with your 'ayrlck 

'ead of 'air— 
You big black boundin' beggar— for you bruk a Britisli 
square. 



A SKETCH OF RUDYARD KIPLING. 



181 



The delicious lyrical quality which Mr. Kipling 
has joined with his fetching talent for hamorons 
rhymes has no more exquisite example than ** Man- 
dalay.*' , 

By the old Moolmein Pagoda, lookin' eastward to the 

8ea, 
Tliere'6 a Banna girl a-settin*, an* I know she thinks o* 

me; 
For the wind is in the palm-trees, an* the temple-hells 

they say : 
•• Come you hack, yon British soldier ; come yon back to 
lUndalay!'* 
Oome yon back to Mandalay, 
Where the old Flotilla hiy: 
Can't yon 'ear their paddles chnnkin* from Rangoon 

to Mandalay ? 
O, the road to Mandalay, 
Where the flyin'-fishes play, 

An' the dawn comes np like thnnder outer China 'crost 
the Bay. 

Ship me somewheres east of Suez where the best is like 

the worst. 
Where there ain't no Ten Commandments, an' a man can 

raise a thirst ; 
For the temple-bells are callin', an' it's there that I 

would be-- 
By the old Moulmein Pagoda lookin' lazy at the sea— 
On the road to Mandalay, 
Where the old Flotilla lay, 
With our sick beneath the awnings when we went to 

Mandalay I 
Oh, the road to Mandalay, 
Where the flyin'-fishes play. 

An' the dawn comes up like thunder outer China 
'crost the Bay. 

One of the charms of this, and of all Kipling's 
work, is. of coarse, the fact that we do not and 
cannot understand the secret of it, or why we should 
thrill as we have not thrilled since we were reading 
Domas at twelva The little mystery helps hiuL 

One is tempted to go on quoting Kipling things 
regardless of columns and pages, but the last vol- 
nme, "The Seven Seas." will naturally have most 
interast and freshness for readers of the Review of 
RiviKWB. Professor Charles Eliot Norton finds 
most to admire in '' Mc Andrew's Hymn," the 
soffloquy of an old Scotch Caivinist steamship 
engineer, — surely a unique piece of work. 

Lord, Thou hast made this world below the shadow of a 

dream. 
An' tanght by time, I tak' it so — exceptin' always Steam. 
From ronpler-flange to spindle-guide I see Thy Hand, O 

God- 
Predestination in the stride o' yon connectin'-rod. 
John Calvin might ha' forged the same— enorrmous, cer- 
tain, slow- 
Ay, wTOTight it in the furnace-flame— mj/ " Institutio." 
I cannot get my sleep to-night ; old bones are hard to 

please; 
ni stand the middle watch up here — alone wi' God an' 

thece 
My engines, after ninety days o' race an' rack an' strain 
Through an the seas of all Thy world, slam-bangin' home 



Slam-bang too much— they knock a wee — the crosshead* 

gibs are loose ; 
But thirty thousand mile o' sea has gied them fair 

excuse. . . . 
Fine, clear an' dark— a full-draught breeze, wi' Ushant 

out o' sight. 
An' Ferguson relievin' Hay. Old girl, ye'U walk to- 
night ! 
His wife's at Plymouth. . . . Seventy— One— Tw^o— 

Three since he began— 
Three turns for Mistress Ferguson ... an' who's to 

blame the man ? 
There's none at any port for me, by drivln' fast; or slow, 
Since Elsie Campbell went to Thee, Lord, thirty years 
ago. 
It is difficult indeed to see how a reader can find 
anything but joy in the methods by which Mr. Kip- 
ling has brought him before the God and the world 
of McAndrews. but there are not wanting cavillers. 
The Saturday Review gibes fiercely at the ** abuse " 
of technical terminology, which it considers a 
growing fault, and suggests a Hospital Hynm 
'* The inspissated alkaloids with eczema contend. 
But Heaven pursues the comatose, no bismuth can be- 
friend ; 
Spasmodic hydrocarbonates with tetanus combine 
To whing thy cardiac meroblast, oh, molecule of 
mine I " 

which there is no particular ol^ect in quoting ex- 
cept to show how much irrelevancy and hard logic 
must be swallowed to raise any seriously qualifying 
objection to "The Seven Seas." Elipling's quick 
ear and retentive, memory for techincal terms has 
been one of his most characteristic endowments 
since his boyhood. Though no sporting man him- 
self, he wrote in India, with no apparent effort, 
verses full of hunting lore and allusions that set the 
horsey people wild with delight all over the Em- 
pire. They were on every clubman's lips, and the 
riding set generally voted the author the greatest 
poet living. Nothing is easier than to trip up a 
poet or a story teller who enters a special field as- 
suming some knowledge of it ; but nothing is more 
difficult than to trip up Kipling, though he tacitly 
assumes about all there is to know. The naval ex- 
perts say that he is all right on the men of war. I 
have played detective on his arrogance in the mat- 
ter of marine insurance, and was as satisfied that 
he had mastered the principles he needed as thor- 
oughly as he knew how cod were caught on the 
Grand Banks or what horses and dogs thought and 
did. 

Of the lighter motifs in " The Seven Seas." there 
is a delicious taste in** The Old Three-Decker," a 
playful tribute— though not without some strong 
backhanded strokes of satire — to that noble old Brit- 
ish institution, the three volumed novel 

THB THREE-DECKER. 

" The three- volume novel is extinct." 
Full thirty toot she towered from water-line to rail. 
It cost a watch to steer her, and a week to shorten sail ; 
But, spite all modem notions, I found her first and best — 
The only certain i>acket for the Islands of the Blest. 



182 



THE REy/ElV OFREyiEiVS. 



Fair held our breeze behind us— ^twas warm with lovers* 

prayers : 
We'd stolen wills for ballast and a crew of missiuK heirs ; 
They shipped as Able Bastards till the Wicked Nurse 

confessed, 
And they worked the old three>decker to the Island of 

the Blest. 

Carambas and serapis we waved to every wind. 

We smoked good Corpo Bacco when our sweethearts 

proved unkind ; 
With maids of matchless beauty and parentage un- 

guessed, 
We also took our manners to the Islands of the Blest. 

We asked no social questions— we pumped no hidden 

shame — 
We never talked obstetrics when the little stranger 

came : 
We left the Lord in Heaven, we left the fiends in Hell, 
We weren't exactly Yussufs, but— Zuleika didn't tell 1 

No mortal doubt assailed us, so when the port we neared 
The villain got> his flogging at the gangway, and we 

cheered. 
'Twas fiddles in the foc'sle — 'twas garlands on the mast, 
For every one got married, and I went ashore at last. 

I left 'em all in couples Sr-kissing on the decks. 
I left the lovers loving and the parents signing checks, 
In endless English comfort by county-folk caressed, 
I left the old three-decker at the Islands of the Blest ! 

That route is barred to steamers : you'll never lift again 
Our purple-painted headlands of the lordly keeps of 

Spain. « 

They're just beyond the skyline, howe'er so far you 

cruise 
In a ram-you-damn-you liner with a brace of bucking 

screws. 

In a more reverent mood there is a hymn " To the 
Tme Romance," that gives a side of Rndyard Kip- 
ling he does not often show for the benefit of stupid 
people who cannot argue it of him ; but which is 
good for stupid and witty people, too, to read. It 
begins : 

Thy face is far from this our war^ 

Our call and counter-cry^ 
I shall not find Thee quick and kind. 

Nor know Thee till I die : 
Enough for me in dreams to see 

And touch Thy garmenVs hem : 
Thy feet have trod so near to Qod 
I may not follow them. 

Through wantonness if men profess 

They weary of Thy parts, 
E'en let them die at blasphemy 

And perish with their arts ; 
But we that love, but we that prove 

Thine excellence august, 
While we adore discover more 

Thee perfect, wise and just. 

The " Rhyme of the Three Sealers " and ** The 
Song of the Banjo " are, too. perfect in their way. 
The first is the magic story of three sailors befogged 



in the Northern seas ; in the second Kipling glori- 
fies the banjo as giving the music of civilization in 
the outer wilds, and setting the step of the march ot 
progress : 

YovL couldn't pack a Broadwood half a mile— 

You mustn't leave a fiddle in the damp — 
You couldn't raft an organ up the Nile, 

And play it in an Equatorial swamp. 
/ travel with the cooking-pots and pails— 

rm sandwiched 'tween the coffee and the pork— 
And when the dusty column checks and tails, 

You should hear me spur the rear guard to a walk ! 

With my *^ pilly-wUly-unnky-unnky p^pp ! " 
[Oh, it's any tune that comea into my head !] 

So I keep 'em moving forward till they drop ; 
So I play 'em up to water and to bed. 

As its name indicates, this volume is given largely 
to verses inspired by the smell of the salt water, the 
heroism and hardships of sailor life, and all the 
tragedy of Old Ocean. The imperial strain is heard 
in such pieces as ** The Widow at Windsor : " 

'Ave you 'eard o' the Widow at Windsor 

With a hairy gold crown on 'er 'ead ? 
She 'as shii>6 on the foam— she 'as millions at 'ome, 

An' she pays us poor be^rgars in red ; 
(Ow, poor beggars in red !) 

Walk wide o' the Widow at Windsor, 

For 'alf o' Creation she owns ; 
We 'ave bought 'er the same with the sword an' the 
fiame. 
An' we've salted it down with our bones. 
(Poor beggars !— it's blue with our bones !) 



Take 'old o' the Wings o' the Momin', 
An' flop round the earth till you're dead ; 

But you won't get away from the tune that they play; 
To the bloomin' old rag over'ead. 

Mr. Stedman calls attention to Kipling's pre- 
eminent success in the ballad poem, and his remark- 
ably clear discernment of bis own distinctive talent 
in that field. ** At this stage, and as a poet, he is a 
balladist through and through, though one likely 
enough to be eminent in any effort which ho may 
seriously undertake. " Of the ballads in ** The Seven 
Seas " Mr. Stedman is particularly impressed by 
"The Last Chantey," which he calls *'one of the 
purest examples since Coleridge's wondrous 
* Rime ' of the imaginatively grotesque." 

Mr. Kipling captured an empire before he donned 
the toga virilia, and was trailing the rest of the 
reading world behind his chariot before he was 
twenty -five. He is now a strong, sane man of 
thirty-two. We should listen to him for more than 
a generation to come, and it would be impertinent 
to hint at the great things he should, by all laws of 
comparison, achieve. 



183 



A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF FIRST EDITIONS OF RUDYARD KIPLING. 



L 1885 I QUARTETTE I THE CBRI8TMAS ANNUAL I OF THE 
I CIVIL AND MIUTARY GAZETTE | BY | FOUR ANGLO-INDIAN 
WRITKRS. 

Gontento : " The Mirror of Two Worlds," " Divided Allegi- 
ftDce," " An Anglo Indian Episode," *' At This Distance," 
"The Unlimited 'Draw' of 'Tick' Boileau," "A Tragedy 
of Teeth," ** The Hannted Cabin," " The Second Wooing/* 
"The Strange Ride of Morrowbie Jokes, C. B.," " Two Son- 
nets" "My Christmas at the Aflraigaom Exhibition," "Biv- 
•Is." "The Phantom 'Rickshaw,^' "Prom the Hills," * Mopn- 
suel's Jorisdiction," "Parted," This Christmas annual was 
entirely written by members of the Kipling family. Two of 
Bodyard Kipling's stories appeared here for the first time. 

IL SO. 1 OF 1886 ON HER MAJESTY'S SERVICE ONLY | 
DEPARTMENTAL | DITTIES | AND OTHER | VERSES | TO | ALL 
HEADS OF DEPARTMENTS | AND ALL ANGLO-INDIANS | RUD- 
YARD KIPLING ASSISTANT. | DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC JOUR- 
5AUSM I LAHORE DISTRICT. | 1886. 

Printed on one side only, on brown paper like a pnblic 
docoment, at Lahore, by the Civil and Military Gazette Press. 

m. PLAIN TALES FROM THE HILLS. 

UOcntta : Thacker, Spink & Co. London : W. Thacker A 
Co. 1888. 

Twenty-eight of the forty Tales api>eared originally in the 
CtvUanaMuitary Oazette ; the others were new. 

IT. SOLDIERS THREE. 

A Collection of Stories setting forth Certain Passages in 
the Lives and Adventures of Private Terence Mulvaney, 
Stonlev OrtheriA and John Learoyd. Done into type and 
edited by Budyard Kipling. 

Allahabad : Printed at the Pioneer Press. 1888. 

V. THE STORY OF THE OADSBYS. 

A tale without a plot by Radyard Kipling. 

Published by Mebsrs. A. H. Wheeler A Co. Allahabad. 1888. 

Contents: Prefikce, "Poor Dear Mama," *'The World 
Withont," ** The Tents of Kedar " " With any Amaze- 
ment," *• The Garden of Eden," " Fatima," " The Valley of 
the Shadow," '* The Swelling of Jordan." 

VI. m BLACK A WHITE. 

PnbUahed by Messrs. A. H. Wheeler A Co. Allahabad, 
to*. 

Contents: Introduction, "Dray Wara Yow Dee." "The 
Jndfnnent of Dungara," " At Howli Thana," " Gemini," " At 
Twenty Two," "In Flood Time," "The Sending of Dana 
Da." " On the City Wall." 

VIL UNDER THE DEODARS. 

PabUabed by Messrs. A. H. Wheeler A Co. Allahabad 1888. 

Contents: ''The Education of OtisYeere," "At the Pit's 
Month,'' " A Wayside Comedy," " The Hills of Illusion, " " A 
Serond-Bate Woman," " Only a Subaltern." 

VTU, THE PHANTOM 'RICKSHAW, AND OTHER TALES. 

PoblishedbyMe88rs.A.H Wheeler A Co Allahabad. 1888. 

Omtents: '^The Phantom 'Bickshaw." "My Own True 
Obost Story," "The Strange Bide of Morrowbie Jukes," 
•* The Man who would be King." 

n. WEE WILLIE WINKIE, AND OTHER STORIES. 

PttbUahed by Messrs. A. H Wheeler & Co. Allahabad. 

Contents : " Wee Willie Winkie," " Baa. Baa. Black Sheep," 
" Hit Majesty the King," " The Drums of the Fore and Aft." 

X. THE COURTING OF DINAH SHADD, AND OTHER STORIES. 

ContainlDg a biographical and critical sketch of Kipling by 
Andrew Lang. 

New York : Harper ft Bros. Franklin Square. 1890. 

Ountenta • Biographical Sketch of B.K., '^ The Courting of 
Dmah Shadd," " A Man who Was," " A Conference of the 
Poweri," •* Without Benefit of Clergy," " On Grenhow Hill," 
** The Incarnation of Krishna Mulvaney." 

Xt DEPARTMENTAL DITTIES AND OTHER VERSES 

Calnitta : Thacker, Spink & Co. London : W. Thacker ft 
Co. Bombay : Thacker ft Co., Limited. 1891. 



XII. THE CITY OF DREADFUL NIGHT AND OTHER PLACES 
DEPICTED BY RUDYARD KIPLING. 

Published by Messrs. A. H. Wheeler ft Co. Allahabad. 
1801. 

Contents : " A Beal Live City," " The Reflections of a Sav- 
age," "The Council of the Gods," "On the Banks of the 
Hugli," " With the Calcutta Police," " The City of the Dread- 
ful Night," " Deeper and Deeper Still," " Concerning Lucia," 
" A Bailway Settlement," " The Mighty Shops," '^At Vul- 
can's Forge," "On the Surface," "In the Depths." "The 
Perils of the Pits," " In an Opium Factory." 

XIII. DEPARTMENTAL DITTIES AND OTHER VERSES. 

Calcutta : Thacker, Spink ft Co. London : W. Thacker ft 
Co. Bombay : Thacker ft Co., Limited. 1801. 

XIV. THE LIGHT THAT FAILED. 

London : Macmillan ft Co. 1801. Mr. Kipling's first noveL 

XV. LIFERS HANDICAP, BEING STORIES OF MINE OWN PEO- 
PLE BY RUDYARD KIPLING. 

London : Macmillan ft Co., and New York. 1801. 

XVI. LETTERS OF MARQUE. 

A. H. Wheeler ft Co. Allahabad. 180L 

XVII. BARRACK-ROOM BALLADS AND OTHER VERSES. 

Methuen ft Co., 18 Bury Street, W. C. London. 1802. 

Many of these appeared originally in the National Observer^ 
four in MacmiUan^s McuKizine^ three in 8t. Jamee Gazette^ 
one in The AthenoBum. The others are new. This was also 
i»ued on large paper (225 printed) and Japan paper (80 
printed). 

XVIII. THE NAULAHKA : 

A story of West and East, by Budyard Kipling and Wol- 
cott Balestier. 

William Heinemann, Bedford Street, W. C. London. 1802. 

A new edition with rhymed chapter headings was copy- 
righted the same year by Macmillan ft Ck>. 

XIX. BALLADS AND BARRACK-ROOM BALLADS. 
New York : Macmillan ft Co., and London. 1802. 

XX. DETROIT FREE PRESS CHRISTMAS NUMBER. 

Price sixpence. " The Becord of Badalia Herodsfoot,^* by 
Budyard Kipling. " One Day's Court«hip." by Luke Sharp, 
illustrated by msB G. M. Hammond and Miss C. D. Ham- 
mond. 1808. 

Detroit Free Prea9, 810 Strand, London, W. C. 

Kipling's contribution occupies pp. It was afterward in- 
cluded in ** Many Inventions.'^ 

XXI. MANY INVENTIONS. 

London : Macmillan ft 0>., and New York. 



1898. 



XXIL BALLADS AND BARRACK-ROOM BALLADS. 

Abridged from the bibliography prepared for the Book- 
buyer by Ernest Dressel North. New edition with addi- 
tional Poems. 

New York : Macmillan ft Co., and London. 1898. 

This edition contains the following poems not in the edi- 
tion of 1802 : " The Lost Lcwgion," " The Dove of Ducca," 
** An Answer," " In the Neolithic Age." 

XXm. MY FIRST BOOK. 

The experiences of various contemporary authors. 
London : C^iatto ft Windus, Piccacully. 1804. 
Kipling's Contribution, 91-97. 

XXIV. THE JUNGLE BOOK. 

With illustrations by J. L. Kipling, W. H. Drake and P. 
Frenzeny. 

Loudon : Macmillan ft Co., and New York. 1894. New 
York : The Century Company. 

XXV. THE SECOND JUNGLE BOOK 

With illustrations by J. Lock wood Kipling. C.I.E. 
London : BCacmillan ft Co. 1805. New York : The (Century 
Company. 

XXVI. THE SEVEN SEAS. 

London : Methuen ft Co. 
ft Co. 



1896. New York : D. Appleton 



Abridged from the complete bibliography prepared for the Bookbuyer by Emett Dressel Xorth, 



I 



BROWNING AND THE LARGER PUBLIC 



ON the 12th of December a 
frowning commemo- 
ration service was held in the 
parish church of St. Maryle- 
bone in London. Robert 
Browning died on the 12th day 
of December. 1889, and his 
surviving personal friends, to- 
gether with those who honor 
his memory through devotion 
to his work, aie accustomed to 
bear in mind the date of his 
death. It was in the St. Mary- 
lebone parish church that Rob-, 
ert Browning and Elizabeth 
Barrett were married in Sep- 
tember, 1846— fifty years ago. 
Robert Browning was three 
years younger than Elizabeth 
Barrett, who was thirty- five 
and in the full enjoyment of 
her great reputation at the 
time of their wedding. Her 
death occurred in 1861, her hus- 
band surviving her twenty- 
eight years. At the recent 
commemoration service the 
Rev. Dr. Farrar, Dean of Can- 
terbury, made a most sym- 
pathetic address on Robert 
Browning and his message, 
which we are permitted to pre- 
sent to our readers. It is a 
striking paragraph with which 
Dean Farrar concludes his 
paper and sums up the practi- 
cal lessons which he derives 
from Robert Browning's life 
and poetry. We reproduce, in 
fac simile from Dean Farrar's 
manuscript, this concluding 
paragraph. Mrs. Browning's 
views, especially touching mat- 
ters of theological and religious 
discussion, have been freshly brought to mind by 
the appearance of a hitherto unpublished series of 
her letters. These are to be found in the second 
volume of the ** Literary Anecdotes of the Nine- 
teenth Century," edited by Dr. Robertson NicoU and 
Mr. T. J. Wise, which is among the new books of 
last month. 

The steady growth of a wholesome popular de- 
mand for the poems of Robert Browning on our 
American side of the ocean is well indicated by the 
fact that two publishers have this season given us 




(Reproduced from the signature in the marriage register.) 



exceedingly satisfactory two- volume editions at very 
reasonable prices. The Messrs. Macmillan. whose 
admirable edition comprised in nine volumes ap- 
peared two years ago, at $20 for the set, have now 
reprinted on thinner but most excellent paper the 
entire unabridged collection in two volumes, at the 
extremely low price of $2.50. Messrs. T. Y. CrowoU 
& Company also have published the standard selec- 
tion made by Browning: himself in 1872, with addi- 
tions from the x>oet's best subsequent work, and the 
two volumes of this edition are enriched with vala- 



BROWNING AND THE LARGER PUBLIC, 



185 



able critical notes contributed by the accomplished 
editors of PoeULore, Charlotte Porter and Helen A. 
Clarke. A monumental work of its sort— also most 
plainly indicative of the growth of serious and in- 
telligwit study of the works of the poet — ^is the 
Bobert Browning "Phrase Book/* published by 
Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. this season, and 
prepared with great skill and industry by Marie 
Ada Molineux. In other ways, moreover, the 
American publishers and the American public have 
of late given evidence that Browning is not always 
to be treated as the poet of the superior few, but 
that he is to be adopted as one of the great teachers 
and inspirers of a wide circle of intelligent 
readers. 

Upon Browning's right and title to a place in the 
great popular heart, another contributor to the 
pages which follow herewith comments in a manner 
both eloquent and convincing. This contributor is 
the Rev. F. Herbert Stead, M.A., who founded at 
Walworth in the South of London a few years ago 
a social settlement, where he continues to reside as 
warden, and which, in testimony of his reverence 
for the spirit and work of the great poet, has from 
the first been known as ** Browning Hall.** Mr. 
Stead's tribute comes witli the gi'eater force and 
significance when we remember that it is written 
from the very heart of that vast " Philistine " sec- 



tion of the great metropolis known as South Lon- 
don. Warden Stead and Dean Farrar are not idle 
dreamers, nor members of any sect of literary 
Pharisees, but men whose lives are full of practicid 
tasks and whose social sympathies are as broad and 
democratic as those of any intelligent man in the 
British empire or the American republic. Their 
tributes to the virility and power of Browning's 
message might well seem to us, therefore, as worth 
the attention of the great company of busy and 
practical American workers who compose the ma- 
jority of the readers of the Review of Reviews. 
As Warden Stead well declares, there has been al- 
together too much stress laid upon certain obsciun- 
ties in the style of Browning. A few unwise wor- 
shipers at the shrine of the great poet have been 
foolish enough in their pursuit of the Browning 
cult to frighten away many sensible people who 
have concluded that whether there was much or 
little in Browning's poetry, that much or little 
could not be for them. If the words of our two 
contributors. Dean Farrar and Warden Stead, can 
Avail to induce some of these people who have thus 
far stood aloof to make a trial of Browning for 
themselves, we shall have done them a service, and 
shall have vindicated the usefulness and timeliness 
of this appropriation of space to their earnest 
tributes. —Editor. 



I. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF BROWNING'S MESSAGE. 

BY THE DEAN OF CANTERBURY. 



OUR gathering to-day has a twofold significanca 
It celebrates the anniversary of the death of 
one of the greatest poets of this age, in a reign 
which has been prolific of noble literature; and it 
reminds us that, in this church, fifty year8 u^e>, uihI 
poet was united in the bonds of holy wedlock to one 
of the truest and sweetest of our poetesiie^. If this 
commemoration helps to bring home to ub th^^ les- 
eoM which we may learn from the example of two 
worthy lives, and from the inspiration of two gifted 
intellects, it will not be idle nor in vain. For it liaa 
always seemed to me that the poets are the ^siz^eet, 
as they are the most delightful, of moral iiij^tmctora. 
l^one teach us as they do — 

"The great in conduct, and the pure in thou*cht." 
Their thoughts "enrich the blood 
of the world." To vulgar and 
woridly souls their life may seem to 
he madness and their end to be with- 
out honor, but while they go up and 
down, often in jwverty and neglect, 
they are deeply influencing the 
mand tone of the age in which they 
Htc: and by 

'* Doing the king's work all the dim 
day long," 
they are earning their quiet immor- 
tality on earth, and securing the 



eternal blessedness of the great for ever. In the 

eyes of the foolish they seem to have died, and 

their departure was counted to be their hurt. 

But they are in peace. And 

haviuj^ borue a littk* chits ten- 
inif, they sbaLl re<:eive great 
gix>d, because Qod made 
trial of them tuid found 
theiti worthy of Himselt 
* Now are they numbertid 
among the children of Gcni 
and their lot i& among the 
Siiiuta. *' 

1 scarcely know of another 
instance so striking, if in- 




PARISH CHURCH OP ST. MARYLEBONE. 

The church where the Browningrs were married and where the commemoration 

service was held. 



186 



THE REl^lEli^ OF REVIEWS. 



deed there be any other at all in human history, 
of two who have thus both enriched their century 
by songs which cannot die, owing their best of long 
continued earthly happiness to their union in holy 
matrimony. In an age which has had so many poets 



the holy pureness and classic simplicity of his 
"Angel in the House." The intense devotion of 
Mrs. Barrett Browning to her great husband was 
but slightly veiled in the so-called ** Sonnets from 
the Portuguese. ' ' Let one suffice : 



( .3g »-«*^-^ ^-^ 



' When our two souls stand up 
erect and strong, 

Pace to face, silent, drawing 
nigh and nigher, 

Until the lengthening wings 
break into fire 

At either curving point,— what 
bitter wrong 

Can the earth do to us, that we 
should not long 

Be here contented 1* Think ! In 
mounting higher, 

The angels would press on us 
and aspire 

To drop some golden orb of per- 
fect song 

Into our deep, dear silence. Let 
us stay 

Bather on earth, Belovgd,— 
where the unfit 

Contrarious modes of men recoil 
away 

And isolate pure spirits, and 
I>ermit 

A place to stand and love in for 
a day. 

With darkness and the death- 
hour rounding it." 

Her husband is, perhaps more 
than any other bard, the poet 
of Love ; of love regarded with 
a Southern intensity of emo- 
tion; of love declared and un- 
declared; requited or unre- 
quited: wise and unwise; of 
love alike in its fusing confla- 
gration and in its whitened 
embers; of love in every one 
of its titanic complications, 
whether of passionate jealousy^ 
passing into insanity and mar- 

,Z- ^ ^ ., . , ! " der; or of passionate idolatry, 

(Signature reproduced from the marnage register.) !, -..^x 'ui 

maddened mto terrible scorn. 

or shrinking down into cynical indifference. He 

sings: 




jSi4^S>Mf^^'l^mJi!nC^ac-m^^^ 



and writers, not indeed ungifted, but of the baser 
sort, who have polluted the world with the realism 
of moral mud. who have sneered at marriage, have 
endeavored to paint the gates of Hell with Paradise, 
who have eulogized the bondage of vagrant pas- 
sions and the weight of chance desires as though 
freedom consisted in the negro slavery of our lower 
nature — among so many who have sung unworthily 
— it is a precious boon and antidote that these two 
poets of the supreme class thought it as little shame 
as did the ancient poet of the Canticles to glorify a 
pure and holy love. We may be glad, too, that an- 
other true poet, whom death has just taken from 
us, Mr. Coventry Patmore— a true i>oet, even if his 
range was limited — has glorified the same theme in 



" Of the little more— and how much it is ; 
And the little less— and what worlds away I " 

But he is most of all the poet of that pure wedded 
love where earth fades, for Heaven is there. How 
does he illustrate it in the tender devotion of ** A 
Woman's Last Word, " where a loving wife is willing 
to give up her own opinion, yes, and even truth itself, 
rather than introduce dissension into the harmony of 
" two hearts boimd fast in one with golden ease: " 

'* Let's contend no more, Love ; 
Strive nor weep ; 
All be as before, Love, 
— Only sleep I 



BROIVN/NG AND THE LARGER PUBLIC. 



187 



Teach me, only teach. Love ; 

As I ought 
I will speak thy speech, Love, 

Think thy thought.*' 

Take again the marveloosly fine painting of *' A 
Lovers' Quarrel: ** 

" Love, if you knew the light 
That your soul casts in my sight, 

How I look to you 

For the pure and true, 
And the beauteous and the right — 
Bear with a moment's spite, 
When a mere mote threats the white ! " 

And when he directly addresses his wife, to what a 
noble level he rises ! How tenderly and musically 
beautiful is the ** One Word More," in which he ded- 
icated to her his fifty men and women— 

** Naming me the fifty poems finished 1 
Take them. Love, the book and me together : 
Where the heart lies, let the brain lie also. 

What of Rafael's sonnets, Dante's picture ? 
This : no artist lives and loves, that longs not. 
Once, and only once, and for one only, 
(Ah, the prize I) to find his love a language 
Fit and fair and simple and sufficient. 
Does he x>aint ? he fain would write a poem- 
Does he write ? he fain would paint a picture. 
Put to proof art alien to the artist's, 
Once, and only once, and for one only, 
80 to be the man, and leave the artist, 
Gain the man*s joy, lose the artist's sorrow." 

Bat he is forced to stand on his attainment : 

" This, of verse alone, one life allows me ; 
Veme, and nothing else, have I to give you. 
Other heights in other lives, Gk>d willing : 
AH the gifts from all the heights, your own. Love." 

Then follows the passage abont the moon, with that 
fide of it which the world sees, and that side nn- 
rerealed save to angels, *' full of silver lights and 
flhades imdreamed of; '' and so he says: 

" God be thanked, the meanest of His creatures 
Boasts two soul-sides, one to face the world with, 
One to show a woman when he loves her." 

Take, again, the dedication to his dead wife of his 
greatest poem, a poem unique in the world's liter- 
atare— " The Ring and the Book," amid the music 
of which we still seem to catch the passionate sob 
which broke his voice when he read it: 

" Lyric Love, half angel and half bird. 
And all a wonder, and a wild desire ; 
Boldest of hearts that ever braved the sun 
Took sanctuary within the holier blue, 
And iang a kindred soul out to his face, 
Tet human at the red ripe of the heart. 
Nrrer may I commence my song,— my due 
To God, who best taught song by gift of thee, n 
Except with bent head and beseeching hand. 
That fitill, despite the distance and the dark. 
What was, again may be ; some interchange 
Of grace, ftome splendor once thy very thought, 
Some benediction, anciently thy smile. 
Kerer conclude, but raising hand and head 



Thither, where eyes, that cannot reach, yet yearn 

For all hope, all sustainment, all reward. 

Their utmost up and on — so, blessing back, 

In those thy realms of help, that heaven thy home. 

Some whiteness, which I judge thy face makes proud. 

Some wanness where, I think, thy foot may fall." 

We are recalling the weaded happiness of two 
who now are dead; but again and again Robert 
Browning shows that he does not regard death as 
the end either of life or of wedded love. Take the 
lines— 

" Never the time and the place. 
And the loved one all together I " 

They are snpposed to be written as a husband 
dreams of his loved lost one, lying in her grave, and 
death and doubt seem to mock him. Yet he ends 
by saying: 

" O enemy, sly and serpentine. 
Uncoil thee from the waking man ! 

Do 1 hold the Past 

Thus firm and fast, 
Yet doubt if the Future hold I can ? 
This path, so soft to pace, shall lead 
Through the magic of May to herself indeed I 
Or narrow, if needs the house must be, 
Outside are the storms and strangers ; we— 
Oh, close, safe, warm, sleep— I and she, 
I and she." 

This is the tender conception which dominates the 
lines which begin, "Beautiful Evelyn Hope is 
dead. " Even where there have been grievous faults 
he still looks to reonitement, as in the epilogue to 
**Fifine at the Fair." so quaint and rotigh, yet so 
full of meaning: 

'* Savage, I was sitting in my house, late, love, 
Dreary, weary with the long day's work, 
Head of me, heart of me, stupid as a stone . . . 
When, in a moment, just a knock, call, cry, 
Half a pang, and all a rapture, there again were we t 

* What ! and is it really you again ? ' quoth I. 

* I again I what else did you expect ? ' quoth she. 
♦ ♦ » » » 

Help to get it over I Reunited to his wife 

(How draw up the paper lets the parish people know !) , 
Lies M. or N., departed from this life. 

Day the this or that, month and year the so and so. 
What i* the way of final flourish ? Prose ? Versa ? Try ! 

* Affliction sore long time he bore,' or what is it to be r 

* " Till God did please to grant him ease." Do end I ' 
quoth I. 

* I end with Love is all, and death is nought,' quoth she." 

But it must not be for a moment supposed that 
what Mr. Browning urged was a love like that of 
Q^raint for Enid— a love which quenched effort, 
and became 

** A drowning life besotted in sweet self." 

Against this he gave his lovely warning in ** Ferish 
tab's Fancies. " He rejects the ideal of a life under 
the forest boughs or in the lonely splendors of 8f)me 
selfish palace of art. He claims, as the proper 
sphere for true love's action and development, the 
common life of men in the crowded city: 



188 



THE REI^IEIV OF RE^IEIVS. 



*' Bound us the wild creatures, overhead the trees, 
Under foot the moss-tracks, life and love with these. 
I to wear a fawn-skin, thou to dress in flowers, 
All the long lone summer day— that greenwood fife of 
ours. 

Rich-pavilion'd, rather !— still, the world without ; 
Inside, gold-roofed, silk-walled, silence round about. 
Queen it thou in purple , I, at watch and ward, 
Couched beneath the columns, gaze, thy slave, love's 
guard. 

So for us no world. Let throngs press thee to me ! 
Up and down amid men, heart by heart fare we. 
Welcome, squalid vesture, harsh voice, hateful face ! 
Qod is soul ; souls I and thou ; with souls should souls 
have place." 

•Thus to him the love of hoBband and wife was the 
embroidery, the illmnination, the inspiring force of 
a life devoted to noble effort for the good of man. 

** O world as God has made it I All is beauty ; 
And knowing this is love ; and love is Duty.'* 

This is the meaning of the lovely little lyric- 

*' Such a starved bank of moss, 
Till, that May mom. 
Blue ran the flash across— 
Violets were bom I 

" Sky— what a scowl of cloud I 
Till, near and far, 
Ray on ray split the shroud- 
Splendid— a star 1 " 

" World— how it walled about 
Life with disgrace I 
Till God's own smile came out :— 
That was thy face." 

When we consider how madly minoos the unions 
of not a few poets and men of genius have been, I 
say that to contemplate this marriage is a delight 
and an example. We think of Shakespeare living 
for years in London, with his wife left at Stratford- 
on- Avon. We think of Dante never once mention- 
ing, or even alluding to, his wife during those long 
years of bitter exile. We think of Milton, and how 
the commonplace daughter of the ruined and roy- 
stering cavalier lit the fires of hell upon bis dese- 
crated hearth. We think of Coleridge, separated 
from his wife for so many years; of Shelley buC the 
frightful tragedy in which his hasty youthful mar- 
riage ended; of Byron, and the repellent spectc^cle 
presented by his artificial misanthropy, and the 
paraded pageant of his bleeding heart. I have 
spoken of that holy lesson for wedded lives fur- 
nished by a wedding which so moved the heart of 
the poet to thankfulness that when he visited this 
church he kissed the very stones on which he had 
stood with the bride, whose delicate life he shelt- 
ered for so many simple yet supremely happy years. 
It is most true of marriage, that it is what men and 
women make it. 

"■ It locally contains a hell, a heaven, 
There is no third place in it." 

To base, unworthy, impure, selfish souls, a noble 
marriage is impossible. We may well thank GK)d, 



then, for instances which illustrate Gk>d'8 law ex- 
pressed in the words of Christ: '* For this cause 
shall a man leave father and mother, and cleave 
unto his wife, and they twain shall be one flesh." 

Indeed, pure earthly love, at its highest, was, with 
Browning, the type of that heavenly love which the 
soul feels for God, and with which the Spirit of 
Qod yearns over the soul even to jealousy: 

" For life and all it holds of joy and love (believe the 
aged friend). 
Is just our chance of the prize of learning love, 
How love may be, hath been, indeed, and is." 

Some poets there have been who, indeed,^ did 
learn before they died, but almost too late, that 
earth furnishes no blessing like that of a pure and 
happy wedded love. 

And in the jwithetic little poem ** In a Year," 
where a woman wails for the love of a husband 
which has sunk into coldness, bow valuable a 
warning Browning gives of the need for watchful- 
ness even in little things: 

" Was it something said. 
Something done. 
Vexed him f was it touch of hand, 

Turn of head ? 
Strange I that very way 

Love began. 
I as little understand 
Love's decay." 

But as we and celebrating the anniversary of this 
great poet's death, I must detain you for a few mo- 
ments more. I will select but one glorious charac- 
teristic of his many-sided i>oetry — a characteristic 
precious more than all others to a doubting and de- 
sponding age. It is Mr. Browning's magnificent 
optimism. It is no mere rose-pink, Delia Cmscan 
optimism, no mere predetermined artificial Mark 
Tapleyism of boisetrous good humor. It is large- 
sighted and nobly masculine. It is based on his 
view of man, and of the life of man, its unity, its 
immortality, its progress even through failures and 
defects. It is an optimism which had been nobly 
fought for through years of neglect, disappointment, 
poverty and trial, till it had become the supreme 
conviction of his reason. By virtue of it he in the 
end gained his reward, and his mighty works were 
not merely a sign that 

" Some poet there 
Had sat, regardless of neglect and scorn, 
Till his long task completed, he hath risen 
And left ub, never to return, and all 
Rush in to peer and praise when all is vain." 

It is the optimism of a man who ** saw life steadily 
and saw it whole." With him " the sacred air cities 
of Hope " never shrank (as Carlyle says) " into the 
mean clay-hamlets of Reality." *' It is quite won- 
derful," said the stormy pessimistic Carlyle, ** to 
find a man, in this age. so happy and so serenely con- 
fident as he is. but he is very different from me.*' 
If he did not vanquish the problem of life, at least 
he was not vanquisued by it into the mere shriek- 



BROIVNING AND THE LARGER PUBLIC. 



189 



ing and sobbing in which so many poets have in- 
dnlged. He would never have asked the faithless 
morbid qnastion, ** Is life worth living ? " Byron, 
at the age of thirty- three, wrote the frightfully 
cynical and shameful lines: 

" Throngh life's drear road, so dim and dirty, 

I have dragged on to three and thirty. 

What have those years left to me ? 

Nothing— except thirty-three." 

Bnt Browning, not wealthy, not nobly bom, not 
surrounded by a blaze of instant popularity as 
Byron was, wrote, at seventy. 

" Have yon found your life distasteful ? 
My life did, and does, smell sweet. 
Was your youth of pleasure wasteful ? 
Mine I saved, and hold complete. 

Do your joys with age diminish ? 

When mine fail me T\\ complain. 
Must in death your daylight finish f 

My sun sets to rise again ! 

I find earth not gray but rosy; 

Heaven not grim but fair of hue. 
Do I stoop ? I pluck a posy ; 

Do I stand and stare ? All's blue." 

He never for a moment disguised or made light of 
life's trials, but he faced them, and bated no jot of 
heart or hope. Life has its severe temptations. Yes, 
bat 
** Why comes temptation but for man to meet 
And master, and make crouch beneath his foot 
And to stand pedestalled in triumph ? Pray 
Lead us into no such temptation. Lord. 
Tea ! but oh, Thou, whose servants are the bold, 
Drag such temptations by the head and hair. 
Reluctant dragons, up to who dares fight ; 
That so he may do battle and have praise." 

You know how nobly he speaks of old age, and of 
the struggle and strain and trials of life in " Ben 
tea." All the beauty and manliness of the poet's 
hfe is expressed in two lines which may well serve 
08 as mottoes ; one is: 

** Look one step onward, and secure that step." 
The other is: 

" God, Thou art Love : I build my faith on that." 
That was the secret of his inextinguishable glad- 
ness. Because he hopes, and above all, because he 
loves, even death does not in the slightest degree 
tppsl him: 
** For sudden the worst turns the best to the brave ; 

The bhick minute's at end. 
And the elements rage, the fiend voices that rave, 

ShaB dwindle, shall blend, 
ShaB change, shall become, first, a i)eace out of pain. 

Then a light, then thy breast. 
0, thou soul of my soul ! I shaU clasp thee again, 

And irith God be the rest." 
He repeatedly expresses his belief in the life be 
yund. Thus his Paracelsus says: 
'* If I stoop 

Into a dark tremendous sea of cloud. 

It is but for a time. I press God's lamp 



Close to my breast ; its splendor soon or late 
WiB pierce the gloom. I shaU emerge some day." 

And when Sordello lies dead, after the long failure 
and final recovery of his life, they see 

" A triumph, lingering in the wide eyes, 
Wider than some si>ent swimmer's if he spies 
Help from above in his extreme despair." 

And again: 

** The roof is reached 1 
Break through, and there is aB the sky above." 

And in ** Pisgah Lights: " 

** Waft of souls wing— 
What lies above ? 
Sunshine and love 
Sky blue and spring." 
And once more: 

*♦ Wet, this clay-cold clod 
Was man's heart. 
Crumble it, and what comes next f 
Is it God?" 

Even as he gazes at the corpses of three hapless 
wretches who have just ended their misspent days 
by suicide in the muddy Seine, as they lie before 
him in the morgue, he can still say: 

** My own hope is a sun shall pierce 
The thickest cloud earth ever stretch'd ; 
That, after last, returns the first. 
Though a wide compass round be stretch'd : 
That what Gk)d made best, can't end worst. 
Nor what God blessed once prove accurst." 

The many and various phases of this magnificent 
optimism — which is so needful a lesson to an age so 
sick as ours is with despondency and doubt— are too 
numerous to quote now; but one passage, compara- 
tively little known, from ** Aristophanes* Apology,*' 
may sum them all up : 

" Why should despair be, since, distinct above 
Man*H wickedness and folly, flies the wind, 
And floats the cloud, free transport for the soul 
Out of its fleshy durance dim and vile ? 

Since disembodied soul anticipates, 
(Thought-borue as now in rapturous unrestraint) 
Above all crowing cTystal silentness ; 
Above all noise a silver solitude. 

O, nothing doubt, Philemon ! Greed, and strife. 
Hatred, and cark, and care — what place have these 
In yon blue liberality of heaven ? 
Heaven, earth, and sea my warrant, in their name 
Believe— o'er falsehood truth is surely sphered. 
O'er ugliness beams beauty." 

But what was the secret of this invincible trustful, 
ness? Why does he make the sweet little girl, 
Pippa, sing repeatedly : 

** God's in His heaven 
All's right with the world ? " 

Is it not expressed in the last line of ** La Saisiaz : " 

*' He at least believed in soul, and was very sure of 
God?" 



190 THE REyiEH^ OF REyiElVS. 



2f 



a. W.«u, W<. -.I'M" a^ di t/ty(jyK<>feMX tL^ 
Ha V^ <IM « I^» 4u * U^ Maa M/fJ ; I lui- dUt 
^ - ^i^^M,^ f ^ f^ y^ ,^ A h^dx^ ^ U). 

lA*" «^ «^ ^^'^ ^^^ 'i^i**.^ ^ 

vi4>an "jfc t^^tu i**"^ r >*■ ^'^ A-yU"^ ^Ua(a hfljL 

DEAN FABRAR*s SUMMARY OF BROWNiNG*s MESSAGE. (See condudlng paragraph of text.) 



BROWNING AND THE LARGER PUBLIC 



191 



b it not expressed in the lines : 

*• The belief of Gk)d in Christ, 
Accepted by thy reason, solves for thee 
All problems in the world, and out of it ? '* 

Is it not enshrined in the magnificent lines which 
conclude the ** Epistle of Karshish: " 

*' The very God ! think, Abib ; canst thon think ? 
So, the All-Great, were the All-Loving too ; 
So, through the thunder comes a hnman voice 
Saying, * O, heart I made, a heart beats here ! 
Face, My handM fashioned, see it in myself. 
Thon haJut no power nor mayst conceive of mine ; 
But love I give thee, with myself to love. 
And thou must love me, who have died for thee ! ' ? " 

If, then, I might venture to try to sum up in a 
sentence the main lessons of Robert Browning's 
life and poetry, it would be somewhat thus: Live 
out truly, nobly, bravely, wisely, happily, your 



human life as a human life: not as a supernatural 
life, for you are a man. and not an angel; not as a 
sensual life, for you are a man. and not a brute ; not 
as a wicked life, for you are a man. and not a demon : 
not as a frivolous life, for you are a man, and not 
an insect. Live, each day. the true life of a man 
to-day ; not yesterday's life only, lest you should be 
come a murmurer; not to morrow's life only, lest 
you become a visionary; but the life of happy yes- 
terdays and confident to-morrows —the life of to day 
un wounded by the Parthian arrows of yesterday, 
and undarkened by the possible cloudland of to-mor- 
row. Life is indeed a mystery; but it was God 
Who gave it, in a world ** wrapped round with 
sweet air. and bathed in sunshine, and abounding 
with knowledge: " and a ray of eternal light faUs 
upon it even here, and that light shall wholly trans- 
figure it buyond the grave. 

F. W. Farrar. 



11. BROWNING AS A POET OF THE PLAIN PEOPLE. 

BY THE WARDEN OF BROWNING HALL. 



ROBERT BROWNING has long been the prey 
of the ** superior person." His* poetry has 
been seised upon as the private preserve of the eso 
teric few. The total originality of his style, his swift 
transitioiM of thought, the unfamiliar scenes and 
persons of many of his pieces, and above all his pro 
foandand subtle analysis of soul, hare been thrust 
forward as a fence to waid off the uninitiated multi- 
tude. Most unnecessary emphasis has been laid on 
what is abstruse and recondite in his writings ; and 
the Pharisees of culture have all but publicly 
thanked Gk)d that they were not as other men. or 
eren as this poor Philistine who ** could not under- 
stand Browning." The Philistine retaliated by de- 
claring that he had no desire to understand a poet 
•0 occult, and it became tbe fashion to vent small 
witticisms at Browning's ** obscurity." Happily 
there have from the first been those who found in 
liifl writings the very light of life. Here, they felt, 
^we too many ** accents of the Holy Ghost " to re 
ttain long unheard or unprized by ** the heedlef,s 
world'' Out of a personal gn^titude deeper than 
any literary sympathy they have done what they 
wnld to claim this sacred heritage for the human 
commonalty. And to-day Browning is being recog- 
nixed more and more as a people's poet. Working 
men and working women in widely different parts 
of the land are showing an appreciation of his 
works, which puts to shame the attitude of indiffer- 
«nce or even disdain often assumed by members of 
the middle classes. These working folk are finding 
'wt the heart of love the poet h id for the common 
people. 

They see how many of his best characters are 
drtwn from the lower social grades. They feel the 
■ynipathy which lingered over toilers liko Theocrite 



the craftsman, Riel the pilot, Ivan ihe peasant, and 
the poor wrecks of humanity that crowd into the 
chapel in "Christmas Eve." The heroine of 
** Pippa Passes " is but a lone mill girl; and Brown- 
ing's most perfect creation is no *' blameless king " 
or sceptred prig, but Pompilia, child of a parentage 
too low to name. His passion for popular freedom 
touches the popular heart in short poems like " The 
Italian in England," "The Confessional." and 
" The Patriot," besides coloring the atmosphere of 
his larger works. It is possible th^t the masses may 
yet find in " Pippa's Morning Hymn " their plea for 
a juster distribution of wealth. ** All service ranks 
the same with Gk)d . . . there is no last nor 
first." That is a principle which, when translated 
into economic terms, may be regarded as fairly 
drastic. Works like " Sordello " or " Bishop Blough- 
ram's Apology " will probably never attract more 
than a few to study and enjoy them. But there is 
range enough in Browning to supply .ample food 
and fire for the new democracy. 

These are but aspects of a more central truth. 
Robert Browning embodies more than any other 
poet the genius of the English people in the Vic 
torian era. He expresses the spirit of our race m its 
most expansive and triumphant period. The age of 
steam and electricity and countless other scientific 
marvels, it has seen the British folk opening out new 
continents, peopling waste re]?ion8, subduing the 
wilderness, building up new empires, making the 
material environment of man more and more sub- 
servient to his imperious will. Tlie virile, dauntless, 
world-conquering enersry which has achieved these 
marvels finds its voice in Browning. Not that he 
was insular in sympathy. No man was further from 
such narrowness. But insularitv is not a feature of 



194 



THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



voluntary and nnremunerated services against their 
own judgment and real preference. It should 
always be sufficient to be told just once by such a 
man that he needs his time for his own work, — which 
is always directly or indirectly public work,— or 
that he needs time to devote in his own way to rest 
and recreation. 

The sort of importunity of which General Walker 
complains in the letters cited above, no matter how 
well meant, is a species of assassination. It may be 
inspired by no feeling except that of admiration and 
kindness; but there is such a thing as killing one's 
friends with too much kindness. We could name a 
list of men in the United States, most of them past 
the age of fifty, but a few of them younger, who 
are worth so much to the country that they ought to 
be protected at all hazards. Since there is such a 
passion for forming organizations and societies, be- 
fore which distinguished men are expected to appear 
and make speeches, why should we not have a few 
societies formed for the special purpose of protecting 
certain of our fellow citizens ? For example, Dr. 
Edward Everett Hale, who has served innumerable 
causes with sucl\ unstinted generosity, ought hence- 
forth to be protected with the utmost care. The 
educational world might wisely form a little society 
for the protection of a few such men as President 
Eliot of Harvard and President Oilman of the Johns 
Hopkins, whose usefulness both in their specific 
places and in general ways is so great that their loss 
would be a serious public calamity. Dr. Nicholas 
Murray Butler is still a very young man, but if some 
adequate protection is not found for him, the count- 
less demands made upon his strength will endanger 
a career the value of which to the cause of education 
in the United States could hardly be measured. 
President Seth Low is another citizen of New York 
whose value in many directions is beyond estimation, 
and who certainly deserves, in the interest of the 
whole metropolis, to be carefully guarded against 
needless invasions of his time. 

We already have one splendid association which 
deserves the country's thanks for its effective labors 
in protecting the higher officials of the nation against 
intrusions which interfere with their legitimate 
public work. We refer to the Civil Service Reform 
Association, to which President-elect McKinley and 
his prospective cabinet will be so deeply indebted. 
The mad rush of place-hunters has been the death 
of more than one American statesman whose talents 
were needed for high public service. As matters 
stand, Mr. McKinley and his heads of departments 
will find it no easy matter to pacify the clamorous 
horde who demand petty offices; but at l:ast nine- 
tenths of the old-time pressure will have been re- 
moved by the progress of civil service reform. Every 
such movemept that saves the time and strength of 



men in public station for the transaction of the 
serious duties which devolve upon them is to be 
welcomed with enthusiasm. While these reforms 
are proceeding in the domain of political life, we 
must also find ways to amend our manners and in- 
struct our consciences^ with respect to the rights of 
public men and women who are not in politics. All 
that the public should demand from our best authors, 
for example, is the xminterrupted carrying out of 
their plans to give us from time to time their best 
productions ;— this for our enjoyment and edification, 
and also for the glory of our country, which should 
be as great a country in its literature as in any other 
phase of its civilization. 

Collateral demands upon public characters are 
greater by far in this country than elsewhere. The 
scholar in Germany has due opportunity to pursue 
his scholarship unmolested. In England a states- 
man, ax>art from social recreation and sports, is 
accorded his full time and strength for his most im- 
portant duties. In France the artist and the author 
are guarded and protected by common consent. In 
London the editor in office hours is as inaccessible 
to the ordinary caller as the Queen herself; and 
outside of office hours he is altogether a private 
person. As for our own country, one is sometimes 
disposed to take the discouraging view that we are 
80 warmly appreciative of everybody who does any- 
thing creditable enough to gain some little public 
recognition, that henceforth we are all unwittingly 
engaged in a conspiracy to prevent that poor fellow 
from doing anything again that shall embody his 
best concentrated effort 

It would be superfluous to say that we all sincerely 
want our educators, our statesmen, our authors, our 
orators, our artists, our x>olitical and social reform- 
ers, and our men and women capable of initiative 
in every department of life, to live out the full 
measure of their days and to contribute of their very 
beet to the honor and advancement of the nation. 
And yet w§ are all too much prone to act like those 
foolish friends of a runner at the games who might 
line the course and seek to show their good will by 
stopping him at every step to shake his hand and 
congratulate him. Mr. Kipling, it is said, reads no 
letters, sees no callers, and allows nothing to inter- 
rupt him while, sometimes for weeks together, he is 
engaged in the production of a piece of literary 
work. Most people, upon the whole, would prefer 
that Mr. Kipling should use his time in producing 
literature; although he might, if his power of re- 
sistance were not well developed, readily exhaust 
all his time and energy in answering letters and 
seeing callers through the working hours of the day, 
and in entertaining small audiences under charming 
and select auspices in Boston, New York, or else- 
where, every evening. 



GOVERNMENT AND BANKING IN AUSTRALASIA. 

[In Australasia, as in the United States, questions of banking and currency have of late demanded 
consideration. Our colleague, Mr. W. H. Fitchett of Melbourne, presents the following timely notes upon 
wcent phases of discussion in the Australian Colonial Parliaments, having written them as recently as 
NoTember 20, 1896.— Editob.] 



THE Victorian State Bank bill, after a somewhat 
stormy history, has suddenly shed all its con- 
troversial parts, and subsided into a modest scheme 
for the amisdgamation of the two varieties of savings 
binks now in existence in the colony. The bill was 
"coQtrired a double debt to pay ; " it was to serve 
the fanners by supplying them with cheap money 
on the Credit Foncier scheme ; it was to satisfy 
the aspirationB of the Labor party for a state bank, 
which would render other banks unnecessary, coin 
that somewhat vaporous thing, public credit, into 
solid cash, and be, in brief, an ever running spring 
of money for semi- socialistic purposes. 

The idea of a state bank has a strange chiuin for 
Labor members generally. They regard it almost as 
a bit of miracle working machinery. The wiser 
numbers of the party do not, of course, imagine 
that, with the help of a printing press and a little 
ink, the state can produce money at will ; but they 
tiiink there are as yet unexplored uses in a state 
bank, and they do not realize how peremptory and 
final are the laws which regulate the currency. 
Why, indeed, they think, should there be any 
" laws " on such a subject at all which cannot— in a 
democratic country at least— be changed by the 
Tote of a sufficient majority ? 

On the whole the debate in the Victorian Parlia- 
ment on this subject has been of a high order, and 
has contributed to the political education of the 
ooontry. It has sharpened the conviction that state 
notes, like the notes of ordinary banks, must ulti- 
mately depend on a gold basis, for that abstraction, 
*' public credit,'* cannot be coined into cash at wilL 
It may even prove least available when it is most 
wanted. A state bank, too, empowered to act as a 
•ort of financial providence to ordinary banks in 
time of crisis, has very huge risks. When political 
inflnence can affect overdrafts atid advances, it Ib 
itadf in inmiinent peril of becoming corrupt. If a 
«ite bank, moreover, received private accounts 
«nd then employed its floating balances for public 
nsis this might, to a dangerous extent, fill the pub- 
lic treamiry ; but it would be with cash that did not 
Ijrfong to it. and that might be suddenly withdrawn 
exactly when the withdrawal would be most incon- 
venient The scheme, if it gave the public treasury 
the advantages of a bank, would expose it also to the 
nsksof abank. 

THS YICrrORIA BILL AS MODIFIBD. 

The bin, with all its dangerous parts jettisoned, 
Wimes a measure about which all parties are 



agreed ; but the debate, on the wkole. has damaged 
the reputation of the Ministry. Mr. Turner re- 
mains convinced that the device of a state bank is 
the only way of providing the farmers with really 
cheap money, and while he thought the measure 
had the faintest chance of passing he clung to it 
Even when the chances of the bill were visibly hope- 
less, he still insisted that the debate should proceed 
as an educational experience for the public at large. 
But one or two powerful speeches from among his 
own supporters — notably one by Mr. Shiels— showed 
that the process of education was likely to take a 
course the very opposite of what Mr. Turner de- 
sired, and he abruptly abandoned all the state bank 
clauses. 

While dropping the state bank, however, minis- 
ters declare that they heartily believe in it, and will 
fight the next general election under its standard. 
But on banking matters the average Victorian 
elector is somewhat of an expert, if only on the 
principle upon which a child who has just had its 
fingers burned is an authority on the qualities of 
flame ; and the attempt to convince Victorian con- 
stituencies thap notes issued on any other than a 
gold basis are safe, is somewhat desperate. The 
whole discussion has strengthened the general im- 
pression that ministers lack conviction, or have no 
convictions which they are not ready to postpone 
when a defeat seems probable. This impression is 
partly owing to Mr. Turner's very virtues. He is 
not a statesman in the sense of a man who has large 
visions of policy which he is resolute to translate 
into concrete form. He is like a family lawyer, 
anxious only to know what his client — ^the public — 
wants, and to get that done. And if the public 
wants to-day exactly the opposite of what it wanted 
yesterday, Mr. Turner knows no reason why its 
wishes should not be respected. This is amiable, no 
doubt, but it is not quite statesmanship. 

DANE TROUBLES IN QUEENSLAND. 

Queensland is indulging in the luxury of a bank- 
ing crisis. A commission has been making inquir 
ies into the history and position of the Queensland 
National Bank for s6me time, and its report is of an 
unpleasant character. The total losses, it seems, 
amount to £3.000,000. and the liabilities exceed the 
assets by £2,485,428. The paid-up* capital, the 
amoimt at credit of profit and loss, the contingency 
account, the interest suspense account— all have 
vanished. The bank has paid magnificent divi- 
dends, their aggregate amounting to £10 15s. 4<L 



196 



THE REI^IEU^ OF REf/IElVS. 



per share on £8 paid np ; but the commiBsion 
reports that no dividends ought to have been paid 
since reconstruction, nor for some time previous to 
reconstruction. 

The commission recommends that the deferred 
depositors, who, apart from the government, are 
creditors for about £4,000,000, should consent to 
convert the whole of this amount into share capitaL 
Of this £4,000,000 about £2,800,000 is held by Brit- 
ish investors, and only about £1,200,000 in the colo- 
nies, and the fate of the bank, therefore, seems to 
lie with the British depositors. There is a liability 
of £2 on the existing shares ; the commission pro- 
poses that shareholders be relieved of this liability 
in consideration of their surrendering all rights in 
the bank. 

There will thus be, practically, a new bank cre- 
ated, the position of which would be, roughly, as 
follows : Assets, £7,670,558 ; liabilities, after deduct- 
ing £4,000,000 due to depositors, £1,250,000 ; share 
capital and reserves, £4,905,718 ; leaving surplus 
assets, £2,764,840. If the depositors refuse to accept 
this scheme, the government, it is hinted, will 
stand upon tiie prerogative of the Crown to obtain 
its deferred deposits (£2,000,000) in full Under the 
proposed arrangement the commission reports that 
depositors stand a good chance of ultimately realiz- 
ing 20s. in the pound, while in the meantime they 
will be able to pay themselves and the government 
^H P^i* cent., and show a good annual surplus 
besides. 

AX EtCERQENCT BILL. 

Botli the history of the bank and the proposed 
new policy will be exposed to microscopic criticism ; 
meanwhile, to prevent a run upon the bank, and to 
safeguard all the interests concerned, an Emergency 
bill was brought in and passed through all its 
stages. The bill, ** inter alia,'' guarantees current 
deposits for twelve months. Sir Hugh Nelson, with 
great judgment, took the leaders of all the parties in 
the Assembly into his confidence at all stages of the 
inquiry, and, as a result, the second reading of the 
Emergency bill was carried by 55 votes to 6. 

The members of the Labor party naturally take a 
grim sort of satisfaction in the report of the com- 
mission. Its appointment, they claim, was mainly 
their work, its findings justify all their criticisms. 
But when the Emergency bill came before the 
House, the Labor members, with genuine patriot- 
ism, joined frankly in passing the measure. The 
force of events, it is plain, will thrust upon Queens- 
land — the colony least disx>osed to extend state func- 
tions --a state bank, with all its unknown risk. 

THE NEW ZEALAND BANK. 

The committee appointed by the New Zealand 
House of Representatives to inquire into the affairs 
of the Bank of New Zealand had a stormy history, 
and its report proved to be of great severity. The 
losses of the bank, actual and estimated, since 1888, 



amount to over £4,000,000 ; and of this sum £160,000 
formed direct advances to some of the directors. 
Yet during the period that the capital of the bank 
was vanishing at this rate the sum of £265, 688 was 
paid in dividends. The crisis of 1888, the commit- 
tee holds, was directly owing to errors of judgment 
and gross mismanagement in the conduct of the 
bank, and criminal proceedings against those re- 
sponsible ought, at the time, to have been insti- 
tuted. It is advised that the services of the officers 
responsible for those losses should be now dispensed 
with. 

The balance sheet of the Colonial Bank, issued 
just before its purchase by the Bank of New Zea- 
land, did not disclose the true state of its affairs ; 
the conmiittee, however, thinks the purchase was, 
for the Bank of New Zealand, a safe and profitable 
transaction, and the action of the government in 
1894, in coming to the assistance of the Bank of 
New Zealand, is declared to have been prudent, and 
to have averted a national disaster. The report of 
the committee, in a word, is a severe indictment of 
the past management of the bank, and is in marked 
contrast with the report of the conmiittee appointed 
by the Legislative Council Public opinion will, no 
doubt, be somewhat perplexed by the circumstance 
that two Parliamentary committees, independently 
inquiring into the same set of facts, should arrive 
at conclusions so unlike each other ; but, on the 
whole, the report of the conmiittee of the House of 
Representatives will most influence public judg- 
ment 

BANKINQ AND POLITICS. 

The committee made a series of recommendations ^ 
as to the future administration of tae bank. These 
included the abolition of the office of president, the 
appointment of a new general manager, the increase 
of the^ diroctofs to eight— three representing the 
shareholders, three to be appointed by the Gtovemor- 
in Council^ and one each by the two Houses of Par- 
liament. No overdraft to any director or officer of 
the bank, or to any company of which any director 
of the bank was also a director, to be allowed. A 
bill embodying these recommendations was passed, 
with some amendments, by the Lower House, and, 
with still further amendments, by the Council The 
House of Representatives refused to accept the 
Council's amendments, however ; and after re- 
X>eatedand fruitless conferences' betwixt the man- 
agers of the two Chambers, the bill was abandoned. 

The net result is that the management of the 
bank has been condemned by Parliament, but 
remains unchanged, and some of the fiercest fight- 
ing in the general election will eddy round the un- 
fortunate bank. The committees of both Houses 
report that, with careful administration, the bank 
will easily meet all its liabilities ; but capital is a 
very shy element, and it remains to be seen how the 
application of political methods and passions to 
baking will work out. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH 



M' 



THE UNITED STATES AND CUBA. 
f B. W. HALLETT PHILIPS writes in the Na- 
tional Review on "The United States and 
Cnba— a New Armenia." The United StatQs, says 
this writer, is as determined at this time to adhere 
to its traditional policy of non interference with 
European affairs as it has always been heretofore. 
No power, he says, has been more tolerant and 
more averse to hostile measures or aggressions, and 
better proof of this, he thinks, could not be afforded 
than is found in the relations of the United States 
with Spain and Cuba, though the chronic condition 
of turbulence in Cuba has long been a sore in our 
side. Reviewing our national policy in regard to 
Cuba in the past, he says : 

"On account of its proximity to the United 
States, the intimate relations between the two coun- 
tries, their commercial and social connections, the 
Federal government has from the beginning pur- 
sued toward Cuba a policy which has been tena- 
cioosly upheld. The like authority declared at an 
early date that the possession of the island by Spain 
would be respected as long as its allegiance was 
preeerved. but no interference in its affairs on the 
part of any other foreign power would be tolerated. 
It farther annotmced that the Cuban question was 
essentially an American one. In pursuance of these 
declarations, in 1825 the United States prevented 
the Spanish- American States, then at war with 
^nin, from attacking Cuba. For the same reason 
in 1853, the United States declined to enter into the 
Tripartite Convention with England and France 
guaranteeing Cuba to Spain, because unwilling in 
adTance to suppress the free exercise of the future 
choice of the inhabitants of the island. On many 
occasions during the past wars the United States 
exercised a right of intervention in the affairs of 
the island whenever they thought proper to do so. 
This right of intervention resulted from the assump- 
tk>n of a peculiar interest in Cuba, only second to 
that of Spain herself. " 

CAN CX7BA OOVEihN HERSELF? 

Hr. Philix>8 is not an annexationist, but he insists 
that Cuba, like the South American republics, 
durald have a fair field and no favor. 

" The United States, by recognizing the independ- 
ence of Cuba, will only follow the policy it pursued 
as to South America on the occasion of its separation 
from Spain. Such action was not then regarded as 
cause of war by Spain ; no more should she now 
regard similar action as to Cuba. The sole motive 
of tte United States is peace with order. If higher 
considerations were ncJt paramount the government 
might justly intervene to protect its own interests 
•nd wdfare ; to arrest the destruction of its com- 
XDesoe with Cuba and outrages upon its citizens ; 



to relieve the burden of policing its entire coast in 
order to prevent a. friendly and neighboring popula- 
tion from aiding the" Cubans ; to avoid the inevitable 
straining of neutral obligations in the effort to exe- 
cute the demands of Spain, while at the same time 
Spain contends that there is no war ; and, finally, 
to preclude the danger that all these and other 
vexations shall become chronic. But these issues, 
while sufficiently grave to justify intervention, are 
subordinate in their character. It is sufficient that 
the Cubans have successfully maintained the inde- 
pendence which they have declared, and that their 
success claims recognition. A provisional govern- 
ment is in existence under a Constitution, and only 
needs the cessation of hostilities to be in full opera- 
tion. The question of what is best to be done is not 
to be affected by any doubt Spain may raise as ta 
the capacity of the Cubans for maintaining self-gov- 
ernment which they have won. Sjmin has always 
interposed the same objection whenever one of her 
colonies has revolted. It can safely be asserted by 
the Cubans that their government will at least be 
as good as that of Spain. It is but a moderate ex- 
pectation that it will be better. The liberal and 
well-educated men now prominently connected with 
Cuban affairs will be identified with the new republic. 
A further factor in favor of good government is 
the absence of Indian blood intermingled with that 
of the whites. This mixture of races has been the 
bane of many of the Spanish- American countries. 
The negroes of Cuba are much in the minority and 
are a docile and hard-working class. It will be the 
object of the United States, when the independence 
of Cuba is attained, to sustain the new nation, with- 
out any x>olitical connection or interference with its 
local concerns. There is no party in the United 
States in favor of annexation. The Cubans must 
work out their own salvation, but all Americans 
believe they should be given the opportunity to do 

80." 



THE ARMENIAN QUESTION. 

MR. G. W. E. RUSSELL contributes to the Con- 
temporary Review an account of the Forward 
Movement in relation to Armenia. He says : 

** The Forward Movement in relation to Armenia 
is an attempt to do by the moral force of the Liberal 
party that which the 'nonparty* movement, so 
grandly auspicated a year and a half ago, has signally 
failed to do.*' 

Mr. Russell says that b a yields to no one in his 
admiration of the ideal of considering the Armenian 
question independently of party, but in practice 
this involved giving carte blanche to Lord Salis- 
bury, and this he declares he could not do, "as 
at Berlin, so at Constantinople, our heaeen sent 



198 



THE REI/IEIV OF REI^IEIVS. 



Minister was still the lath painted to look like iron 
—the lath which crumbles into match wood when 
a strong grasp grips it and pierces the confiding 
hand which leaned upon it for support." 

Various dissatisfied Englishmen, he says, arranged 
for a small "private conference in London at the 
beginning of last October. To this conference I was 
invited. Just before we assembled came Lord Rose- 
bery's resignation, and then his' speech at Edin- 
burgh. The eflfect of that speech on the * non party ' 
agitation may be illustrated by the prayer with 
which an American preacher concluded his Sun- 
day services : * And, if any spark has been kindled by 
the exercises of this day, oh, water that spark. ' The 
' non* party ' agitation was most effectually watered 
by Lord Rosebery's speech, and not merely watered, 
but drenched and drowned. As far as I am con- 
cerned, it i)erished unwept. Vitiated from its birth 
by a fundamental unreality, it has passed away into 
the ignominious limbo of lost causes and forgotten 
ideals. '* 

Still, the malcontents waited until Lord Salisbury 
had spoken at the Mansion House, and then seeing 
that nothing more could be done they launched 
their resolutions : 

•* Their reception was exactly what we expected. 
Good men sympathized, brave men were glad, timid 
men were frightened, and the smug philistinism of 
the comfortable classes found it incredible that 
sensible men should take an unpopular side for the 
sake of a moral cause. *' 

Mr. Russell thus describes his view of the part 
which should be played by Russia in this question : 

" My own view is that Russia is the Power to 
whom naturally belongs the duty of coercing the 
Turk. She is pre-eminently fitted for it by her 
oriental character ; by her religious sympathy vnth 
the Christian subjects of the Porte ; by her geo- 
graphical position ; by her military strength. But 
she has no reason to trust us. She has not forgot- 
ten the Crimean War or the Congress of Berlin. It 
is for us to make the first move. We must ask ob- 
livion of the past We must give to Russia public 
and binding assurances that we are not seeking our 
own aggrandizement. We must pledge ourselves 
that even if it become necessary for her to seize 
Constantinople we, at any rate, should not oppose 
her. Have these things been done ? Has Russia 
received these assurances ? Has she refused the 
task assigned to her by humanity ? We have a right 
to know.'' 

Turning from Russia to his own colleagues at 
home, he asks : 

** Whom does the Liberal party follow just now t 
It follows no one absolutely ; the leadership is in 
commission, and the party picks and chooses, and 
follows one man on one subject and another on an- 
other. Lord Rosebery g^ves us the right lead on 
Home R^le, Sir WilJiam Harcourt on finance, Mr. 
Asquith on social reform. But as no one seems in- 
clined to g^ive the faintest indication of a lead on 



the moral aspects of the Armenian question, we 
must perforce lead ourselv^ 

" Will not the clergy of the Established Church 
help us ? Or will the authorized and endowed 
teachers of national religion be content yet once 
more to pass by on the other side, while the work 
of guiding the national conscience in a great issue 
between right and wrong is performed by the 
ministers of the non- conformist communion ?" 

In the same review Dr. William Wright tells the 
story of the massacres of the Christians in Lebanon, 
and the part played by Lord Dufferin in securing 
the pacification of the country. He says : 

" The chief result of the Conference was the per- 
manent settlement of the Lebanon, now the most 
peaceful and prosperous district in the Turkish em- 
pire, and it is due to Lord Dufferin that throughout 
the length and breadth of that goodly mountain the 
Christians can sit, every man under his vine and 
under his fig tree, and none to make them afraid. " 



THE CZAR'S CORONATION. 

MR. RICHARD HARDING DAVIS, one of the 
eight Americans present at the actual crown- 
ing of the Czar, has a graphic description of that 
event in the February Harper^ a. 

AN IDEA OF THE CROWD. 

*' Imagine a city with its every street as densely 
crowded as was the Midway Plaisance at the Chicago 
Fair, and with as different races of people, and then 
add to that a presidential convention, with its brass 
bands, banners and delegates, and send into that at 
a gallop not one Princess Ealalie^who succeeded 
in upsetting the entire United States during the 
short time she was in it — ^bot several hundred Prin- 
cesses Eulalie and crown princesses and kings and 
governors and aides-de-camp, all of whom together 
fail to make any impression whatsoever on the city 
of Moscow, and then march seventy thousand 
soldiers, fully armed, into that mob, and light it 
with a million colored lamps, and place it under 
strict martial law, and you have an idea of what 
Moscow was like at the time of the coronation.** 

THE CONTEST FOR PLACES. 

The contest for places in the Cathedral made the 
lives of the functionaries in charge a grievous 
burden. 

** An ambassador who happened to be unmarried 
was a man among men to * the ceremonies,' and a 
prince who did not insist on having the commander- 
in-chief of his army standing at his side filled their 
eyes with tears of joy. It was their duty to decide 
between an aide-de-camp from Bulgaria and a Rus- 
sian ambassador at home on leave, a Japanese prince 
and an English general, a German duchess and the 
correspondent of the Paris Figaro. It was a matter 
of so many square inches chiefly, and one man or 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



199 



who got in kept a aozen applicants for the 
«^»ace oat; and the preesore that was brought to 
Imur in order to gain a footing ^and a footing was 
actpaUy all one obtained — ^threatened the peace of 
Enrope, and caused tears of disappointment and 
woands that will rankle in the breasts of noble 
Russian families for years to come/' 

" The most interesting part of the ceremony, to 
my mind, was when the Czar changed from a bare- 
headed young officer in a colonel's uniform, with 
his trousers stuck in his boots, to an emperor in the 
most magnificent robes an emperor could assume; 
and when the Czarina followed him, and from the 
.peasant girl became a qaeen, with the majesty of a 
queen, and with the personal beauty which the 
queens of our day seem to have lost. When the 
moment had arrived for this traosformation to take 
place, the Czar's uncle, the Grand Duke Vladimir, 
and his younger brother, Alexander, lifted the 
collars of Uie different orders from the Czar's shoul- 
ders, but in doing this the Grand Duke Vladimir let 
one of the stars fall, which seemed to hold a super- 
stitious interest for both of them. They then fastened 
upon his shoulders the imperial mantle of gold cloth, 
which is some fifteen feet in length, with a cape of 
ermine and covered with the double eagle of Russia 
in black enamel and precious stones. Over this they 
placed the broad diamond collar of St. Andrew, 
which sank into the bed of snowy white fur, and lay 
glimmering and flashing as the Emperor moved for- 
ward to take the imperial diadem from the hands of 
the Metropolitan of St. Petersburg. 

**The crown was a marvelous thing, fashioued 
in two halves to typify the eastern and western 
kuxgdomis, formed entirely of white diamonds and 
surmounted by a great glowing ruby, above which 
was a diamond cross. The Czar lifted this flashing 
^lobe of flame and light high above him, and then 
lowered it to his head, and took the scepter in his 
ri^t hand and the globe in the left. 

*' From where I stood I could see their faces only 
in profile, but when the Czar seated himself upon 
the throne the Czarina turned and raised her eyes 
queetioningly; and then, in answer to some sign he 
made her, she stood up and walked to a place in 
front of him, and sank down upon her knees at his 
feet, with her bare hands clasped before her. He 
rested his crown for an instant on her brow, and 
then, replacing it upon his own head, lowered a 
smaller crown of diamonds upon hers. Three ladies- 
in-waiting fastened it to her hair with long gold 
hairpins, the Czar watching them as they did so 
with the deepest interest; and then, as they retired, 
two of the grand- dukes placed a mantle similar to 
the Czar*s upon her shoulders, and hung another 
diamond collar upon the ermine of her cape, and she 
stepped back to her throne of ivory and he to his 
throne of turquoise. The supreme moment had 
come and gone, and Nicholas II. and Alexandra 
Feodoroma sat crowned before the nations of the 
world.'' 



FEATURES OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS. 

THE British public seems never to grow tired of 
hearing about its favorite assembly. Daily 
and weekly newspapers are full of sketches of the 
House and its characteristics, and the monthlies are 
finding more room for less hasty pictures. In Com- 
hill this month the x>opular theme has for writer the 
brilliant Mr. Birrell. He remarks near the begin- 
ning on the popularity of politicians, and recognizes 
that the heroes of the House of Commons, the gladi- 
ators of politics, are popular as famous jockeys are 
or prize-fighters were. 

NOTHINQ NOBLB OR EXALTED. 

Mr. Birrell is not too merciful in his strictures: 
*' There is nothing noble or exalted in the history 
of the House of Commons. Indeed, a Devil*s Advo- 
cate, had he the requisite talent, could easily deliver 
an oration as long and as eloquent as any of Burke*s 
or Sheridan's, taking as his subject the stupidity, 
cowardice, and, until quite recent times, the corrup- 
tion of the House of Commons. I confess I cannot 
call to mind a single occasion in its long and remark- 
able history when the House of Commons, as a 
whole, played a part either obviously heroic or con- 
spicuously wise, but we all of us can recall hundreds 
of occasions when, heroism and wisdom being 
greatly needed, the House of Commons exhibited 
either selfish indifference, crass ignorance, or the 
vulgarest passion. Nor can it honestly be said that 
our Parliamentary heroes have been the noblest of 
our race." 

" FREE FROM ALL TAINT OF MERCENARINBSS. " 

Its charm and strength and utility spring from its 
representing truthfully, and forcefully not the best 
sense of the wisest people, not the loftiest aspirations 
of the noblest people, but the primary instincts and 
the rooted habits of the mixed race which make up 
the nation. After emphasizing the fact that the 
HoQse of Commons is before everything a delibera- 
tive and consultative assembly, Mr. Birrell remarks: 

** Another marked characteristic of the House of 
Commons is its total indifference to outside reputa- 
tions or great fortunes. . . . Never was an as- 
sembly so free from all taint of mercenariness as the 
Houfie of Commons. It doesn't care a snap of its finger 
whether the income of a new member is £100,000 a 
year or £3 a week — whether his father was a duke 
or a blacksmith; its only concern with him is that, 
if he has anything to say, he may say it, and that if 
he has nothing to say, he will say nothing. 

" I know no place where the great truth that no 
man is necessary is brought home to the mind so re- 
morselessly, and yet so refreshingly, as the House 
of Commons. Over even the greatest reputations it 
closes with barely a bubble. And yet the vanity of 
politicians is enormous.'' 

ITS GENEROSITT. 

A more pleasing feature is this: 

*' A marked characteristic of the House of Com- 



200 



THE REyiElV OF REI^IEIVS. 



mons is its generosity. We have heard far too much 
lately of contending jealousies. The only thing the 
House is really jealous of is its own reputation. If 
a member, no matter who he is, or where he sits, or 
what he says, makes a good speech and creates a 
powerful impression, nobody is more delighted, 
more expansively and effusively delighted, than 
Sir William Harcourt. On such occasions he glows 
with generosity. And this is equally true of Mr. 
Balfour, and indeed of the whole House, which in- 
variably welcomes talent and rejoices over growing 
reputations/' 

After all his heavy criticism, Mr. Birrell still 
admits the charm of the Lower Chamber. 

" But when all is said and done the House of 
Commons is a fascinating place. It has one great 
passion, one genuine feeling, and that is to represent 
and give practical eicpression to the mind of the 
whole nation.'* 



WHAT IRELAND EXPECTS AT THIS SESSION 
OF PARLIAMENT. 

IN the Nineteenth Century for January Mr. Red- 
mond sets forth the whole difficulty of the 
British government from the point of view of the 
Pamellites. He states the question as follows : 

** Another session is now at hand, and once more 
the question arises, What is the present government 
going to do for Ireland in redemption of its pledge 
to leg^ate for Ireland as Ireland would legislate 
for itself, if it had the power, and what ought to be 
the policy of Irish representatives, and especially of 
Irish Nationalist representatives, toward such bene- 
ficial measures as it may decide to propose ? " 

He answers it for himself and his friends deci- 
sively as follows : 

*' Ought Irish Nationalists at Westminster, under 
these circumstances, to * block the way ' and to ex- 
pect all those minor benefits? To do so would, 
in my opinion, be utter childishness and folly.*' 

He maintains that the result of the adoption of a 
different i)olicy last session was thoroughly justi- 
fied by results : 

** The session which ensued was not wholly un- 
fruitful in beneficial measures. A Land bill was 
passed into law, the actual working of which so far 
has unquestionably proved it to be a very useful 
measure which it would have been absolutely folly 
from the Irish tenants' point of view to reject A 
Light Railway bill became law, under which half 
a million of Imperial money-— or, as I would prefer 
to put it, Irish money in the Imperial Treasury- 
was made available for the further improvements 
of the means of internal communication in Ireland, 
and which is not unlikely to lead to the expenditure 
of twice that sum from local sources on the same 
object. A Laborers* bill and a bill for rendering 
workable the Housing of the Working Classes 
act also passed, the effect of which will be to hasten 
to a considerable degree the provision of dwellings 



for the working community in town and cotmtry. 
Such a record of work done is not, on the whole, a 
bad one, and at any rate it is a better one than that 
left behind it by the last Liberal government after 
its three years of power." 

There is, therefore, to be no instruction this ses- 
sion, only Ireland expects that in return for the per- 
mission to legislate government will carry out a 
very extensive programme of Irish reforms. Mr. 
Redmond says : 

** Next session the government are expected ta 
deal with at least two Irish questions of first-class 
importance. I refer to the financial grievance of 
Ireland and the question, or rather group of ques- 
tions, raised in the report of what has been known 
as the Recess Committee. Let me say a few words 
on each. 

'* On the first of these two subjects Ireland is ab- 
solutely unanimous. It has long been so, but the 
light recently thrown on the financial treatment of 
Ireland at the time of the union and since by the 
report of the Financial Relations Committee, and 
the supplemental reports of various members of 
that body, has had an immense effect in quickening- 
popular interest in the matter and directing it to 
practical ends. The latest public movement in Ire- 
land indeed, is that arising out of the publication 
of the documents referred to, and among the wann- 
est supporters of this movement are the special 
friends in Ireland of the present administration. 

** On the question, or group of questions, raised 
by report of the * Recess Committee,' the same una- 
nimity of opinion does not appear to exist among- 
Irish political parties. But the great majority of 
Irishmen, I believe, thoroughly approve of the main 
recommendations of the committee, and do so on 
the grounds that they are just what an Irish Parlia- 
ment would enact for Ireland, if such an institution 
were in existence, that something like what the 
Recess Committee suggests is most urgently needed, 
and that the present is a peculiarly favorable time 
for obtaining it, if the government really mean to 
act on their avowed policy of 'killing Home Rule by 
kindness. ' The old discredited methods and objects 
of British administration in Ireland must be aban- 
doned ; the new department must be a popular and 
representative body, and it must have ample funds 
at its disposal The effort to restore the ruined in- 
dustries of Ireland and to save from extinction those 
which still survive must, in other words, be a seri- 
ous one, or it would be much better if it were not 
undertaken at all." 

These two measures, which amount to, first of all,, 
a reduction on Irish taxation by two and a half mil- 
lions per annum, and, secondly, the establishment of 
homestead home rule for Ireland, are not sufficient 
to satisfy Mr. Redmond He says : 

**I have so far alluded to but two questions of 
urgent importance to Ireland, but others are press- 
ing also, such as the further amendment of the 
Land acts (the necessity for which cannot be a sur^ 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



201 



prise to the government), the satisfaction of the 
too long denied claims of the Catholics of Ireland 
in the matter of university education, and the reform 
of the system of Irish Private bill legislation." 

There most be also a measure remedying the griev- 
ance of the evicted tenants. If all this is done Mr. 
Bedmond will be contented pro tern. , but only pro 
tern, for, as he is careful to declare, not all these 
measures put together will for a moment impair 
his determination to get Home Rule as soon as he 
can get it 

ROOT DIFFICULTIES OF IRISH GOVERNMENT. 

THE Hon. T. W. Russell, M.P., Secretary of the 
British Local Government Board, who is him- 
self an Irish Unionist, describes in the North Amer- 
ican Review some of the more vexatious problems 
enconntered by Great Britain in the government 
of Ireland. In view of the recent exhaustive re- 
port of the Royal Commission on Irish Taxation, 
Mr. Russell's article has a peculiar interest at this 
time. It is generally believed, too, that the ques- 
tion of Ireland*s financial relations to Great Britain 
will be much in evidence for some time to come. 

Mr. Russell admits at the outset the seriousness 
of the Commission's findings regarding the enor- 
mous excess of Ireland's taxes over her fair share 
of the Imperial burdens, but he does not neglect the 
argument of Sir David Barbour that Imperial ex- 
penditure as well as Imperial taxation must be 
taken into account, and that the excess of this ex- 
penditure, calculated on the same basis as the reve 
nne. over what it should be, is even greater than 
the excess of taxation. ** We are quits." says the 
Times. ** Ireland pays too much into the Treasury. 
The Treasury pays out too much to Ireland, and the 
one balances the other. " 

Mr. Russell declines to argue this point, saying 
that he prefers to wait and hear both sides, but he 
proceeds to point out the extravagant expenditure 
of the government of Ireland. 

"As things stand, nobody in this pobr country 
has any interest in economy of government. We 
are virtually charged with our share of the expense 
of 20.000 soldiers— and to remove a single man from 
a garrison town is to inflame the whole popula- 
tion ; we have a police force which partakes of a 
wmi-military character, and which costs something 
hke one and a half millions per annum. We have 
» viceregal court, a judiciary — Superior and County 
--which in quality cannot be surpassed, but which 
in quantity is admittedly excessive. We have 
Awards for everything -boards to educate our chil- 
dren, boards to fix rents, boards to dispense 
oar charities, boards to lend money, boards to • 
^d bridges, boards to instruct people who 
*re counted able to govern themselves, and other 
people as well, in the elementary principles of that 
science which teachee them how to earn their 
^ily bread. But all this cpets money, and a great 



deal of it. The taxation of this country is mainly 
paid by the people who drink whiskey and tea and 
who smoke tobacco. Here are the figures for the 
year 1898 94 : 

Total tax revenue of Ireland £6,393,94^ 

Proceeds from spirits, wine, beer, tea and to- 
bacco 4,848,48^ 

** And what I desire to emphasize is that the people 
at large pay ; but that with the exception of the 
sums voted for education, the police and the army, 
the expenditure goes largely among a narrow class. 
So far as I can see, we are bonnd to accept the ar- 
gument that Imperial expenditure in Ireland is local 
expenditure. I know this is not the view of the 
Irish Nationalists. I know it will be fiercely re- 
sented. We shall be told to remove our soldiers, to ' 
disband our police, to pension our judges — ^that they 
are mainly kept going for Imperial and not for Irish 
purposes. But all the same the charge for these 
services is paid out of the common purse. It is 
spent in Ireland, and is, therefore, in my opinion, 
local expenditure, or money expended in this coun- 
try in connection with the government of the coun- 
try. But, as I have said, it is not the argument pro 
or con that I care about at present. What I desire 
to draw attention to is the fact that a country 
admittedly poor and backward, has to keep up an 
expenditure practically on the basis of the expendi- 
ture of a rich and prosperous country, and the still 
more ominous fact that nobody on this side of St» 
G^eorge*s Channel cares one straw, or has any in- 
ducement to care, about any plans of economy." 

EFFECT OP FREE TRADE ON IRELAND. 

What Mr. Russell calls the bottom principle of 
free trade— that so long as the imports into a coun* 
try are in excess of the eicports from it. the country 
must be prosperous and trade profitable — ** will not 
work out," Mr. Russell says, in Ireland. When 
applied to Great Britain as a whole, or to England 
as a whole, Mr. Russell concedes the soundness at 
the principle, but in Ireland, he says, the exports 
exceed the imports. In England, if people do not 
succeed in one industry they can try another, but in 
Ireland there are no new occupations to turn to. In 
other words, a system that has succeeded in a mixed 
agricultural and industrial conmiunity has failed in 
a purely agricultural community. 

** Ireland once produced wheat in large quantities. 
She produces next to none now. And why ? Be- 
cause, with the ports of the United Kingdom open 
to all the world, she cannot compete with Califor- 
nia, Manitoba, India and the Argentine. The in- 
dustry is dead— has been killed off. So with other 
crops. The foreigner, with his superior climate, 
with his boundless tracts of practically free land, 
with freights that bring com and cattle almost as 
cheap from the ends of the earth as our railways 
will take the same commodities from Galway to 



202 



THE REI^IEW OF REl/IEU^S. 



Liverpool — a thing that Cobden never dreamt of— 
has it all his own way. And so it comes about that 
the Irish figures will not work out on free trade 
principles in favor of free trade. But, of course, 
we cannot have two fiscal policies in the two coun- 
tries. I agree it is quite impossible. And what is 
called * Home Rule ' would not cure this eviL But 
it does not follow that England ought to calmly 
conclude that because a thing is good for her it 
must, therefore, be good for a people wholly and 
entirely different in conditions and in circumstances. 

" To sum up, then, on this hjad, we have here an 
undoubtedly backward and poor country in close 
union with a rich and prosperous country. The poor 
country pays in taxation just what the rich pays — 
not, of course, in amount, but on the same principle. 
There is no compulsion. Let this be clearly under- 
stood. We do it out of our poverty and in the exer 
cise of our blessed free will. But it is done. In 
addition to this we have an extravagant expendi- 
ture on the government of the country. And,, 
finally, we have a fiscal policy which, benefiting the 
rich country, has grievously handicapped the main 
industry of Ireland. It has no doubt given the peo- 
ple cheap food— a priceless boon. It has enabled 
people to get luxuries who but for the change would 
have had to be content with bare necessaries. But 
free trade, as the figures show, has not worked out 
in Ireland as it has done in the industrial and richer 
sister country. This poverty, accentuated by the 
means I have described, is at the very root of the 
Irish diflBculty. A people living as thousands of 
Irishmen live can never be and never ought to be 
content. There must be a way out, and it ought to 
be the business of statesmen to find that way.'' 

Mr. Russell also discusses the Irish agrarian sys- 
tem, the differences in race and religion among the 
people, and the absence of industrial enterprise. 
He calls ui)on the ** English in Ireland " to recog- 
nize that the country is not entirely theirs, that they 
are a minority, possessing rights indeed, but rights 
to be shared by all. " Every vestige of privilege or 
inequality ought to go." From England he de- 
mands a ** rigid policy of nnd ing the wrongs of the 
past" 

THE POSITION OF MR. RHODES. 

IN the Fortnightly Review a writer signing him- 
self *• Imperialist " draws a parallel between 
the Jameson raid and the Garibaldi expedition to 
the Sicilies 

" To overthrow the Bourbon despotism Garibaldi 
in 1860 invaded a friendly state, the two Sicilies, 
preparing his expedition in the dominions of Victor 
Emmanuel with the ill* concealed and afterward 
admitted connivance and approval of Cavour. The 
government of the two Sicilies, like that of the 
Transvaal to-day, was a despotism, and it may be 
well here to remind Mr. Chamberlain of the dis- 
tinction drawn by a former Foreign Minister, Lord 



John Russell, between justifiable and unjustifiable 
invasion : *A movement such as that Walker at- 
tempted in South America . . . with no higher 
object in view than his own selfish interests is one 
case; but a patriot fighting for the independence of 
his country is quite another case. ' The patriot re- 
ferred to is Garibaldi advancing into Sicily, whose 
raid, not Walker's, Jameson's raid resembles. 

" A Secretary of State must, of course, observe 
the decencies, and, like Cavour iu Italy, must not 
compromise the fiag ; but Mr. Chamberlain would 
win credit, not condenmation, in England, by openly 
avowing his sympathy with the struggle for free- 
dom at Johannesburg and the attempt to establish 
representative government there, for a Secretary of 
State should be ashamed to sit unmoved when Brit- 
ish subjects are suffering from a legislation which 
is intolerable to free men, and would be impossible 
if England insisted upon her rights as suzerain 
power, and intimated firmly that the spirit as well 
as the letter of the London Convention must be ob- 
served. 

" The outcry of the Powers of Europe at the time 
of Garibaldi's raid was loud and general ; but the 
verdict of history supports the judgment of Lord 
John Russell, the responsible representatiire of 
England, that, though Garibaldi's raid was. of 
course, technically, an outrageous breach of the 
peace an act of savage piracy perpetrated on a 
friendly state ' the Neapolitan Minister called it), 
and the connivance of Cavour and Victor Em- 
manuel was. legally speaking, indefensible; yet, see 
ing that there was adequate cause for the discontent 
in Sicily, the action both of Garibaldi and of Cavour 
was justifiable, and, few Englishmen or other lovers 
of freedom would hesitate to add. praiseworthy." 

As a specimen of the vexed question of Mr. Cham- 
berlain in the matter. *' Imperialist " says : 

*' It is quite possible that the cables which passed 
between Dr. Harris and his chief, inaccessible to 
the Cape Committee, may, if produced at the in- 
quiry, establish the important fact that Mr. Rhodes 
had been ied to believe that while he was behind 
Jameson in the preparations on the frontier, the 
Colonial Office — that is, the Imperial authority — 
was, as far as symjmthy went, behind Mr. Rhodes 
himself. This is quite possible even without pre- 
supposing the connivance of Mr. Chamberlain, who 
may easily have misunderstood Dr. Harris or been 
misunderstood by him ; for in negotiations of such 
delicacy the correct understanding on both sides 
depends less on what is actually said than on the 
impression conveyed. Legitimate and authorized 
intervention by Jameson's force is the only inter- 
vention with which Mr. Chamberlain seems likely 
to have been really connected, and his cx)nnection 
with this intervention, had it taken place, would 
be, if established, in no way outside his power or to 
his discredit What are called the preparations for 
the raid were really the preparations for an inter- 
vention which might have been justifiable and legiti* 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



203 



mate, bat which never took place. With these 
preparations Mr. Rhodes also must be identified.'' 

Speaking of Mr. Rhodes' position, '* Imperialist " 
says : 

** In simple tmth this annus mirabilis, while it 
began by showing us Mr. Rhodes in the depths of 
dejection and adversity, ends by proving him to all 
that have eyes to see to be a greater man and a bet- 
ter man than but a few persistent hero worshipers 
had supposed. This. then, is the position of Mr. 
Rhodes today. He has risen through great trials 
to a higher position than he occupied before his 
fall ; he has made himself known in his real char- 
acter to the English and Dutch in Rhodesia by 
aharing their difficulties and dangers, and the trust 
and devotion of the Rhodesians is hin reward. His 
faith in the future of Rhodesia has inspired the set- 
tlers, while he has become the trusted father and 
friend of the rebel Indunas, to whom they come for 
council and help in their troubles ; and this plain 
Cecil Rhodes, the humane and heroic pacificator of 
Bhodesia, stripped of all his official titles, will re- 
torn to Englnad a more commanding personality, 
one that better deserves the admiration and confi- 
dence of his countrymen, than the successful Pre- 
mier who ruled over South Africa from Cax>e Town 
this time last year." 

ENGUSH REVIEWS ON THE PRESIDENTIAL 
ELECTION. 

THE November election is still an attractive sub- 
ject, it seems, for the editors of the great 
British reviews. One of them, Mr. Maxse of the 
National, who has only recently returned to London 
from America, provoked by Republican denuncia- 
tions of the Chicago platform, ventures on a some- 
what unusual proceeding in the shai>e of a challenge 
backed by a bet 

"There was no socialism in the Chicago plat- 
form, which was the mildest political programme 
ever enunciated by an * advanced ' party, and apart 
from its declaration in favor of national bimetallism 
(against which no one who regards Mr. McEinley 
u Mb prophet can murmur), it contains no proposid 
which the average, steady going English Conserva- 
tive need shy at, while the modem Tory democrat 
wonld be highly disgusted at so meagre a bill of 
fire. The editor of the National Review begs to 
offer the Times* correspondent the sum of £100 
sterling ($500) if he will point out to the satisfaction 
of two out of three English Conservative peers or 
members of the House of Commons — one selected by 
the correspondent, one by the editor, and the third 
by those so selected — any socialist plank in the 
Qiicago platform. The correspondent on his side 
to forfeit £100 in case of failure. The editor of the 
Standard, the Morning Post, the St. James' Gazette, 
or the Olobe to be invited to act as stakeholder, so 
^ttt the transaction remain in unimpeachable Con- 
aorative hands." 



Dr. Conway's Views. 

Dr. Moncure D. Conway discusses the same sub- 
ject in the first number of the New Century Review. 
He describes the presidential election as a quadren- 
nial revolution, revolution being the chronic heritage 
of nations bom of revolution. Of the American 
type of Presidency, with its enormous powers, he 
takes Mr. Cleveland's year-old manifesto as a strik- 
ing illustration. He puts the paradox very neatly: 

** That, as in a recent case, any individual citizen 
in a soi-disant republic should be placed in a i)08i- 
tion where he is competent, without consultation 
with Minister or Legislature, to hurl the gauntlet 
of war at a friendly nation, throw the finances of 
his country into confusion, damage its credit 
throughout the world, commit its people helplessly 
to the ordeal of battle if accepted, fills the foreign 
publicist with blank amazement ; and that the irre- 
sponsible citizen should do all this as a fulmination 
against monarchy must, but for its serious effects, 
suggest to limited monarchs the comic opera. 
Even so reactionary a monarch as the one against 
whom America rebelled in 1776 would never in his 
wildest dream have aspired to half the monarchical 
authority repeatedly exercised by the President who 
had led in that revolution and his successors.*' 

He finds the reason of these extraordinary powers 
in military considerations, the makers of the Amer- 
ican Constitution fearing that Great Britain would 
shortly attempt to recover her lost colonies, and 
therefore arming the President with the authority of 
a commander-in-chief. 

As ** an old advocate of Free Trade," the writer 
sees no tremendous contrast in morals between the 
policies of the rival candidates in the recent elec- 
tion. ** Free silver " is to him only a further appli- 
cation of the protective principles to which the 
United States have given their adhesion. ** Dis- 
honest money is no worse than dishonest iron. 
Bryan is thus the * child of McKinley. ' " 

Dr. Conway has his doubts whether Mr. McEinley, 
** with protectivism on the brain," will be above a 
** deal " with the Silverites in order to advance his 
pet crotchet. In the writer's judgment the United 
States have by no means passed through the crisis, 
which will affect much more than the currency ; 
and he reflects that the eyes of the people have been 
opened as never before to the dangerous weakness 
of parts of their organic law. 

Mr. Courtney's Attitude. 

Mr. Leonard Courtney, who is himself a bimetal- 
list, is moved to say a word or two in the Nineteenth 
Century over the exaggerated importance that has 
been attached to Mr. McEinley's election. Both as 
a bimetallist and as a free trader, Mr Courtney 
sympathizes with Mr. Bryan. He admits that the 
Republican party has done good work in the past, 
but at this election ** its platform was an iq;>peal 
to some of the worst tendencies of the American 
democracy, and a defense of one of the most un- 



204 



THE RE^IEIV OF REl^/EPVS. 



equal and unjust systems of taxation. Protection 
and jingoism were rampant all along the line. The 
best characteristics of American citizenship seem 
to have disappeared. In a former generation the 
Republican North was content with peaceful* 
colonization of the untraveled West, while the 
Democratic South advocated aggression as a means 
of adding to the slave peopled states. Now the Re- 
publican party cast their eyes about the world and 
demand the protectorate of Hawaii, the acquisition 
of Danish islands in the West Indies, intervention in 
CJuba, and for these and similar purposes would ex- 
tend the naval power of the Federation. To meet 
the cost of such a policy protective duties would be 
increased, and the burdens to be borne by the masses 
would be aggravated by the exclusion of foreign 
supplies extending to some of the necessaries of life* 
This formidable tariff would not only shut out the 
manufactures of Europe, it would restrict every 
citizen to the use of sugar which was home grown. 
The Democratic party, on the other hand, was seen 
in their platform to be occupying much the same 
position as Sir Robert Peel filled among ourselves 
half a century ago. 

*' The Republican party has triumphed, but, apart 
from the consideration of the currency question, it 
will have been seen that the issues involved are de- 
velopments of that social struggle which requires at 
tention in America no less than in Europe, which, 
unless treated in a more serious, intelligent, and 
sympathetic spirit than has lately been shown, may 
reappear in an uglier form in a future contest.'* 



DEMOCRATIC TENDENCIES. 

MR. R L. GKDDKIN. the able and militant editor 
of the Evening Post, has a telling article in 
the Atlantic Monthly on " Democratic Tendencies,*' 
which, as might be expected, he does not find over 
hopeful. He finds, after reviewing the conditions 
of the ancient democracies, that our own version 
differs chiefly from those in the character of the 
men which it elected to office. Until recent times 
all the high or important places were filled at least 
by men who had succeeded in life— if not always 
the best men they were at least the most prominent 
men. ** Our democracies, on the other hand, are 
composed of vast bodies of men who have but small 
acquaintance with the machinery of public affairs 
or with the capacity of individuals for managing 
it." 

Mr. Gk)dkin finds the greatest danger of modern 
democracy in its failure to adjust itself to the mod- 
em complexities of life and government. " Its 
chief fimction, like the chief function of the mon- 
arch whom it has succeeded, is to fill offices. This 
is the chief function of the sovereign power every- 
where, no matter by what name it is called. To 
find the right men for the public places is almost 
the only work which falls, or has ever fallen, to the 



ruler. It is by the manner in which this is done^ 
more than by the laws which are passed, that the 
goodness or badness of a government is tested. If 
the functionaries are honest and faithful, almost 
any Idnd of political constitution is endurable. If 
they are ignorant or tyrannical or corrupt, the best 
constitution is worthless." But the democracy of 
to-day is notorious for its preference for, or at least 
its sufferance of. not only incapable but actually 
dishonest officials. 

** This disregard of special fitness, combined with 
unwillingness to acknowledge that there can be 
anything special about any man. which is bom of 
equality, consitutes the great defect of modem 
democracy." 

POPE LEO XIII. 

THE distinguished French littSrateur, Vicomte 
de Vogti6, has accepted the invitation of the 
Forum **to speak to Americans of that European 
whose thoughts are most engrossed by America " — 
His Holiness Leo Xin. 

From interviews with the Pope M. de Vogfl6 says 
that he has always carried away the impression that 
the New World, and particularly that part of it 
populated by the Anglo-Saxon race, ** was the pole 
toward which the meditations, calculations and 
hopes of this intuitive genius were in preference 
directed." 

AMERICAN INFLUENCE AT THE VATICAN. 

To an American cardinal and an American arch- 
bishop M. de Vogfi6 ascribes a remarkable x>art» 
ten years ago, in bringing about a change in Pon- 
tifical policy. The time to which he refers was the 
winter of 1887. 

'' The American prelates. Cardinal Gibbons and 
Archbishop Ireland, arrived in Rome to defend the 
rights of the Knights of Labor. The ideas they 
brought astonished and scandalized the venerable 
dignitaries of the Sacred College ; it might be said 
that the all too bracing air of the Atlantic still 
clinging to the garments of the travelers made those 
aged Italians gasp. The Pope alone was unamazed ; 
he understood this adaptation of Catholicism to a 
society free and democratic. Perhaps he was al- 
ready meditating on the vanity of those diplomatic 
successes which had aroused the extravagant ex- 
pectations of his entourage. A study of the trans- 
formations in Europe, and his own natural bent» 
inclined him toward the popular cause. The power- 
ful doctrine of his master, St. Thomas Aquinas, was 
fermenting in his soul ; suggesting that in the an- 
cient Christian wisdom might be found solutions of 
the social problems of the present day. 

** There is every reason to suppose that the words 
of the American prelates supplied the spark which 
rekindled the flame in this smouldering genius. 
This, however, is but a psychological induction, — a 
rash one perhaps, — and I alone am responsible for 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



205 



it To penetrate the secrets of his private medita- 
tionB, or to pierce the organic development of his 
thonght, is a privilege Leo XIII. has accorded to 
none. Bnt the facts allow one to say that from this 
period the characteristics of his pontificate become 
determined, enlarged and complete. The able poli 
tician becomes above all a great social physician : 
the crafty diplomatist, who formerly appeared to 
work for immediate benefits, rises to the masterly 
conceptions of the historian ; his vision embraces 
centaries, and henceforward he labors for the long 
future. The claims for temporal power are pre- 
sented but rarely, and then in such prudent and gen- 
eral t&raiB as to apx)ear meiely concessions to habit 
and to the exigencies of the situation. Leo XIII. 
soon removes the counsellors too deeply engaged in 
aggressive i)olitics and court intrigues : he desires 
no other assistant or confidant than Cardinal Bam- 
polla, the faithful servant of his master's mind.'' 

THE POPE AS HE APPEARS TO-DAY. . 

One of the most effective passages in the ai'ticle 
by M. de Vogil^ is his description of a personal in- 
terview with the aged Pontiff. 

'* The visitor is admitted in his turn into a small 
aalon draped with yellow silk ; a crucifix hangs 
upon the wall ; several chairs are ranged along the 
two sides of the room ; at the back, beneath a canopy 
of crimson damask, a pale, white form is seated on 
a gilded chair. It is the embodiment of the spirit 
which animates all the spiritual governors spread 
over the planet ; which unceasingly follows them 
to each inquietude, to all the sufferings v^o^^ ^' 
tant plaint reaches his ear. So slight, so frail ; 
like a soul draped in a white shroud I And yet, as 
one approaches him. this incorporeal being, who ap- 
peared so feeble when seen standing at the services 
in the Sistine Chapel, assumes an extraordinary in- 
tensity of existence. All the life has centred in 
the hands grasping the arms of the chair, in the 
piercing eyes, in the warmth and strength of the 
Toice. Seated and animated in conversation, Leo 
XHT, seems twenty years younger. He talks freely, 
easily ; he questions the speaker by word and look ; 
eager for details of the country under discussion, of 
its prominent men, of public opinion. The Pope 
does not linger over the puerilities of piety ; he in- 
truduces at once the serious problems of human ex- 
istence, real and vital interests. Soon he grows 
animated in developing his favorite topics ; present- 
ing them with a few sweeping sentences, clear, con- 
cise, acceptable to alL * We must go to the people, 
conquer the hearts of the people. . . . We must 
Beekthe alliiAnce of all honest folk, whatsoever their 
origin or opinion. . . . We must not lose heart. 
. . . We will triumph over prejudice, injustice 
»nd error.' 

"It would seem that the mind of the Pope is 
haunted by several all-absorbing projects. One is the 
reunion of the Eastern churches, to recall whom to 
tbe fold he has made so many paternal advances. 



Another is the reconciliation of parties in France, 
and the return of my country, with new political 
and social form, to its former position of Christian 
vanguard. Yet another is the future of the United 
States, where European civilization assumes new 
aspects, opens out new paths to humanity and to the 
Church. A lengthy conversation with Leo XHL 
leaves the impression of a very broad and clear in- 
telligence, truly Roman in the former sense of the 
word ; of a gently inflexible will persistent in the 
way it has outlined for itself ; of a sincere liberalism 
which covers no clerical hyprocrisy ; of a hardy 
though enlightened faith, respectful of the faith of 
others ; of a heart still warm, free from hatred 
toward his adversaries, without meannesses, very 
affectionate toward friendly persons, paternally 
divided between the nations in his charge beyond 
his Italy. It is impossible to forget the look, the 
gesture, the ring of the voice, with which he fol- 
lows you, as you retire backward, your fingers 
already grasping the door knob ; the hand extended 
with a, sudden propelling of the whole body from 
the chair ; the inflection of those last words which 
linger in the ear of the visitor returning to his own 
land : * Courage I Work I Come back to see me 
again I ' Never a melancholy word ; never one of 
those allusions, so customary in the aged, to the 
lessening chances of meeting a friend once more. 
On leaving this man of eighty- eight one carries 
away a singular impression : it is, that he does not 
wish to die, so long as there is a battle to fight ; 
that he does not think of death ; that he will not 
die I" 

HIS THOUGHTS ABOUT FRANCE AND AMERICA. 

It is M. de Vogil6's profound conviction, re- 
peatedly expressed, that the two nations of the 
earth in which Leo XIII. is peculiarly interested 
are France in the Old World and the United States 
in the New. 

** An unbiased Frenchman cannot leave the VopQ 
without taking with him an affectionate remem- 
brance ; and I believe that every American, what- 
ever his opinions or his religion may be, will carry 
away from the Vatican a like sentiment. I repeat : 
Since a prejudice and an instinctive inclination 
have drawn him into the ranks of democracy, Leo 
XIII., in the depths of his heart, cherishes a special 
solicitude for France and the United States. A 
steadfast conviction shows him France as the field 
where the harvest for the coming summer will 
ripen ; the United States as that in which he is sow- 
ing seed for harvests in years to come. He looks 
ux>on mysterious America as Noah must have gazed 
at the peak of Mount Ararat when the waters of 
the deluge were rising ; seeking there the place of 
refuge in which the divine promises shall be ful- 
filled and whence the preserved races will start 
afresh and begin a new cycle of life. The ultimate 
course of the United States, and to what extent it 
will justify the expectations of Leo XIIL, is the 



206 



THE REI^IEIV OF REWIEIVS. 



secret which history will divulge. But, happen 
what may, the historian will pay due homage to the 
Pope, who, like a new Christopher CJolumbus, was 
the first to reach out to the transatlantic world." 



THE MAKING OF THE BIBLE. 

IN McClure'8 for February Mr. H. J. W. Dam re- 
counts his experience in visits to the Oxford 
University Press and the Bible House of the British 
and Foreign Bible Society while endeavoring to get 
some data as to the construction of the Book of 
Books. This society disposed of a million Oxford 
Bibles in 1895 and issued nearly four million 
** Bibles, Testaments and bound portions of the 
Bible" in 1896. They have samples of all the 
famous and historic editions : the ** Wicked Bible." 
issued in 1682, which said, ** Thou shalt commit 
adultery," and brought a fine of 1,000 marks to its 
unhappy publisher for leading the weak world 
astray in so authoritative and magnificent a fashion. 
Here is the ** Breeches Bible " (the Geneva Bible of 
1560), which says that Adam and Eve ** sewed fig 
leaves together and mayde themselves breeches." 
Here is the Geneva Bible of 1557, the first one in 
which the teict was printed in verses, and you 
wonder how ministers managed to properly an- 
nounce the texts of their sermons before that happy 
day. Here is the Tyndale Bible of 1525, the first 
printed in English ; the Ooverdale of 1535, and the 
Matthew's of 1537. 

** * Wyclif.' says the doctor, * who first translated 
the Bible into English, about 1382, escaped torture, 
but his bones were dug up by the frenzied Roman 
priests and burned. Tyndale was strangled and 
burned near Brussels. Matthew whose real name 
was Rogers, was burned at Smithfield." 

'* Everybody, in fact, who translated this strange 
book, which came from beyond the earth to men, 
seems to have met with a violent death." 

When the Revised Version of the New Testament 
was about to be issued in May, 1881, the event 
caused no little excitement throughout l^e world. 

** Early in April Mr. Frowde, who is the pub- 
lisher and the London representative of the Oxford 
Press, had received orders for over a million copies, 
and would undertake the delivery of no more 
than these upon the day of publication. The pres- 
sure to obtain an advance copy was enormous. 
One American publisher had offered $25,000. 
Enterprising American journalists hung about 
in the shadows of Oxford like Russian diplo- 
matic agents at Sofia. Bribes up to $10,000 were 
offered where it was hoped they would do the most 
good, or the most bad, according to the point of 
view. All tricks were tried, even the forgery of 
Mr. Frowde's name on an order. They did not suc- 
ceed at Oxford because the thirty press sheets, each 
carrying thirty-two pages of the Testament, were, 
in bundles of a million, in the hands of thirty dif- 



ferent employees. Moreover, the employees were 
incorruptible. At the last moment the bundles 
were brought together and the volumes collated and 
bound. Mr. Frowde teUs us later that thousands of 
copies were in the hands of nearly every bookbinder 
in Loudon. There was no betrayal, no mishap, and 
no opening for journalistic enterprise, beyond that 
of the Chicago Times, which telegraphed the wnole 
book from New York to Chicago." 



PROGRESS OF THE CHURCHES. - 

IN its first issue for 1897 the New York Independ- 
ent, according to its time-honored custom, gives 
a suggestive symposium, by competent writers, on 
the progress of the American churches for the year 
1896. which is supplemented with interesting tables 
of statistics by Dr. H. K. Carroll, religious editor of 
that journal. According to this showing the gen- 
eral religious outlook in the United States is full of 
encouragement ; the facts and figures, therefore, 
should be generally known. A synopsis of the re- 
ports shows that there are in this country 25,424,388 
church members, 188,761 churches and 186,960 min- 
isters of religion. The net gain of Christians last 
year was about three-quarters of a million, while 
there were about 8,700 churches and 5,000 ministers 
added over and above all losses. About one-^ird 
of the communicants are in the Catholic Churches— 
tne six branches— the Roman, the Russian, the 
Greek, the Armenian, the Reformed and the Old 
Catholic Churches reporting a total membership of 
8.287,048. They also claim 16.247 churches and 10.- 
878 ministers, which is a gain of 272.187 commui- 
cants. 1,810 churches and 496 ministers within the 
last twelve months. The remaining two-thirds of 
the church forces belong; to Protestantism, which, in 
point of numbers, the Methodist bodies (of which 
there are over seventeen in this country) still lead 
with a membership of 5.658.289. 50,258 churches and 
85,287 ministers. Their gains for 1896 were 168.776 
members, 619 churches. 1.062 preachers. The Bap- 
tists (thirteen bodies) hold second rank, presenting 
a vast army of 4.158,857 church memjers, 47,807 
churches and 88,993 preachers of the (jK)6peL Their 
net increase is given as 85,818, while they have added 
986 churches and 702 ministers to their rolL The 
third place belongs to the aggregate of the 12 Pres< 
byterian bodies, which claim in communicants 
1,460.846, in churches 14,559 and in ministers 11,154. 
At first glance the Presbyterian gains are disap. 
pointing, indicating that they increased by only 
1,847 members, 29 churches and 57 ministers, the 
meagreness of which if explained, however, by the 
apparent decrease in the U^miberland branch, which 
on account of more u>rrect methods of tabulating 
reports 27,546 communicants, 17 churches and 87 
ministers less than in 1895. Next in the column are 
the 19 branches of the Lutheran Church, with mem- 
bers numbered at 1,420,905, churches at 10.022 and 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



207 



miniBters at 5,008. Their net gains are : Members, 
80,190 ; cbnrches, 620, and ministers, 808. The last 
belonging in the million colonm are the Disciples 
of Christ, whose total statistics give them a mem- 
bership of 1,008,672, churches 0,607 and ministers 
5,8W. Their vigorous growth is shown by the net 
gain of 80,000 members, 186 churches and 100 minis- 
ters. There are two important denominations which 
stand between the one-half and the million mark. 
They are, first, the Protestant Episcopal bodies (two 
in nomber), with communicants numbering 645,566, 
churches 6.100. and ministers 4.705, which are a gain 
of 19,276 memDers, 211 churches and 125 ministers. 
The second are the Congregationalists, who report 
822, 557 communicants, 5,600 churches and 5,475 
preachers of the word. A net increase of 20,000 
members, 118 churches and 128 ministers indicate 
their vital energy. The next eight denominations 
range from 500.000 to 100,000 members, as follows : 
Beformed (three bodies), 848,471 ; United Brethren 
(two bodies), 271,085 ; Latter Day Saints, 234,000 ; 
Gferman Evad|:elical Synod, 186,000 ; Evangelical 
(two bodies), 148,788 ; Jews (two bodies), 180,500 ; 
Christians (two bodies), 120,000, and Friends (four 
bodies), 116,080. Most of these, together with many 
of the smaller denominations, have experienced a 
degree of growth quite satisfactory on the whole. 



U' 



PROBRESS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL CHURCH. 
[NDER the editorship of the Rev. E..B. San- 
ford, D.D., and a group of able associates, 
the Open Church, an illustrated quarterly magazine, 
appeals to people of all religious denominations who 
are interested in the adoption of progressive methods 
in chnrch work and particularly in what is known 
as the institutional church, the church whose ac- 
tivities continue seven days in the week and which, 
as Dr. Joeiah Strong puts it, undertakes certain 
functions of the home when the home itself fails to 
perform them. 

By way of giving a concrete illustration of this 
central idea which the Open Church is intended to 
pronmlgate, the Rev. Dr. Frank M. North con- 
tributes a valuable illustrated article on ** The New 
Era of Church Work in the City of New York.'* 
This article makes a remarkable showing of the 
educational and other *' institutional '* activities of 
the various Protestant churches in the metropolis. 

In the Reformed Church, the oldest religious or- 
ganization in New York, the most notable establish- 
ment for institutional work is the new Bethany 
Memorial Chapel of the Madison Avenue Church. 
The present structure is the gift of Mr. Isaac V. 
Bftkaw as a memorial to his son, who lost his life 
in an heroic effort to save another from drowning. 
'* Plain in exterior and free from unnecessary in- 
terior decoration, the btiilding contains ample as- 
nmbly halls, airy rooms for clubs, classes, reading 
>ad social gatherings, a fine g3mma6ium with baths 
■ad an modem appliances, and provides unusually 



fine apartments for the large day nursery, in which 
an average of nearly seventy-five children are shel- 
tered each day." 

THE WORK OF PROTESTANT EPISCX)PAL CHURCHES. 

For the Episcopal churches in New York City 
this institutional work is by no means a new thing. 
We learn frm Dr. North's article that Trinity Par- 
ish devotes $88,000 a y^ar to parochial, night, in- 
dustrial, cooking and drawing schools, and to the 
care of the poor in hospitals. Of the great work 
carried on by St. George's, known as one of the 
pioneer institutional churches of America, under 
the rectorship of Dr. W. S. Rainsf ord, we are told : 
" For its maintenance the work requires in money 
fully $60,000 annually and in employed workers 
four assistants, four deaconesses, besides the special- 
ists in charge of athletic and industrial departments. 
The Memorial House, erected in 1888 as a memorial 
to Mr. and Mrs. Charles Tracy, is admirably adapted 
for the manifold uses which tax its capacity. A 
complete organization of the parish mission work 
keeps the heart of the church in sympathetic rela- 
tion with the remotest member of tiie church's con- 
stituency. By a recent revision of the parish lists 
it appears that upon the books are the names of 
6,690 persons, 3,683 of whom are communicants. 
The home conditions can be realized by the addi- 
tional statement that of this number, 6,690 persons, 
4,484 live in tenements, 791 in boarding houses, 744 
in flats, apartments and hotels. 487 in private 
houses. 107 out of town, and 77 are unclassified. 
That a free church does not necessarily ignore the 
claims of outside missionary fields finds proof in 
the gifts of over $6,000 to such objects in addition 
to the large amount contributed by the congrega- 
tion for the parish work. St. cfeorge's happily 
illustrates the co- operation of volunteers with the 
regular staff of workers. For example, it may not 
be generally known that the Hon. Seth Low, the 
president of Columbia University, conducts each 
Sunday morning a Bible class for men in the Me- 
morial building. It would be utterly impossible 
but for the x>ersonal activity of many of the church 
members to maintain so various and efficient an 
educational, social and himianitarian ministry. It 
is reassuring for the future to note that the endow- 
ment fund commenced in 1891 is now approaching 
the sum of $200,000." 

Special mention is also made of the work of Grace 
and Calvary churches, of the Gkdilee Mission of the 
latter, of St Bartholomew's Parish House, over 
which the gifted Dr. Greer presides, of St. Michaers, 
on the upper west side, and of other Protestant 
Episcopal churches which are doing like service. 

THE PRESBYTERIANS. 

For some reason the Presbyterians seem to have 
been less active as a denomination in these forms 
of activity, possibly because as individuals they 
have contributed so generously in New York to or- 



208 



THE REI/IEIV OF REl/lEiVS. 



ganized charities and rmdenominational movements 
generally. 

*' Hope Chapel of the Fourth Avenne Presbyterian 
Church, at 341 East Fourth street, is oi)en for a 
variety of clubs, maintains a reading room and 
game room, a branch of the Penny Provident Fund, 
is the centre of the organization known as the East 
Side Federation of the Churches, and through its 
pastor, Rev. John B. Devins, influences the munici- 
pal authorities for the betterment of the condi- 
tions of life in the community of which it is a 
part." 

The Madison Avenue Presbyterian Church, under 
the pastorate of Dr. Charles L. Thompson, president 
of the Open and Institutional Church League, has 
been transformed from an aristocratic to an '' open " 
church. ** Goodwill Chapel, in East Fifty-first 
street, is the centre of the institutional feature of the 
church's work. Here in active operation are the 
clubs for girls and boys, the kindergarten. Penny 
Provident Fund, library and helping hand society, 
conducted by the associate pastors, and by volun- 
teers from the church. The continued success of 
the free church method and the expansion of this 
institutional work cannot fail to impress even upon 
a conservative denomination the significance of the 
principles involved." 

TWO IMPORTANT BAPTIST KNTEBPRISES. 

The Judson Memorial Baptist Church, on Wash- 
ington square, erected largely through the efforts 
of the pastor. Dr. Edward Judson, as a memorial to 
his father. Adoniram Judson. the first American 
missionary to Burmah. is the home of a varied 
work. ** Commodious rooms for kindergarten, 
clubs, gjrmnastic classes, library, dispensary, creche 
and large assembly rooms for Sunday school and 
prayer services are amply provided and conven- 
iently arranged. A temporary home for children 
has its fitting place in the very heart of the build- 
ing, and on the western section of the property 
rises *The Judson.' an apartment house built in 
architectural harmony with the church, and under 
wise management, yielding $10,000 a year, not for 
the ordinary expenses of the church, but as an in- 
come from a permanent endowment for its mani- 
fold educational, missionary and philanthropic 
work. The pews in the church are free and un- 
designated. For thirteen ^ears the people have 
given from 15.000 to $8,000 per annum in voluntary 
offerings." 

Amity Baptist Church, under the pastorship of the 
Rev. Leighton Williams, his father's successor, ** is 
becoming a positive influence for the betterment of 
the life of home and community, as well as for the 
salvation of the individual. Already under its 
au.spices have been held several important confer- 
ences on religious and civic work. It is developing 
a deaconess home and training school, maintains a 
daily dispensary and a clinic for ear and throat 
diseases. An office of the Workingwomen's Society 
is open in the building, and an institute for Chris 



tian workingmen, designed to disseminate a whole- 
some Christian sentiment among wage earners and 
a brotherly sympathy for them among all Chris- 
tians, works to these ends through lectures, classes 
and literature." A buOding has already been par- 
tially erected to house the institutional features of 
Amity's work. 

WHAT THE METHODISTS ARE DOING. 

Institutional work has been developed among the 
Methodist Episcopal churches of New York within 
the past five years. At two points in the city special 
experiments in this direction have been attempted. 
** At the Allen Street Memorial Church, in Riving- 
ton street, a ministry to boys and girls through club 
organizations, to mothers through special meetings, 
to the children through kindergarten and kitchen 
garden, to the homes by systematic visitation, to 
the community by plans of relief and popular lec- 
tures and entertainments, is continuously attempted. 
The building has a fine auditorium and vestry and 
class rooms sufficient for a large work, bat it is 
located where Yiddish has come to oe the vernacu- 
lar, where Saturday is the Sabbath, and the open 
doors of the church, except where temporal relief 
can be expected, are not attractive. In such a i>opa* 
lation, certainly over 95 per cent. Hebrew, a prob- 
lem is presented to the open church, the solution of 
which is desperately difficult. It is the conviction 
of those who conduct the work that only through 
the methods of the institutional church is there any 
hope of success. The other point is in Eleventh 
street, near Avenue B. Here, by enduring patience 
and heroic effort, in a church utterly unsuited to 
these newer methods, a ministry of many sided 
helpfulness has been substituted for the feeble in- 
efficiency of an exhausted mission. An open church 
welcomes to many services on Sunday and on every 
other day of the week extends sympathy, advice. 
relief, where that is x>ossible, and spiritual warning 
or comfort to the multitudes of strangely assorted 
folk who find their way up its well-worn steps. 
Medical aid through the dispensary, legal advice 
through volunteer service of competent lawyers, 
employment secured if possible, letters written, 
friendly help in all practical wajrs -this is deemed 
a function of the church. The daily kindergarten 
for fifty, and, recently established, a day nursery 
for fifteen, a kitchen garden class of twenty- four, a 
girls' club and a boys' club with training in the 
trades are efficiently sustained. The boys' brass 
band, organized a year ago. has become a pronounced 
success. A series of popular lectures is projected. *' 

Dr. North mentions several other Methodist 
churches which are .adopting institutional methods. 
** Calvary Church, at Seventh avenue and One Hun- 
dred and Twenty ninth street, maintains an employ > 
ment bureau, a kindergarten and day nursery and 
a free dispensary. In the latter 2,449 cases w^ere 
treated, of which 928 were new. Six physicians 
volunteer for this service. The number seeking the 
help of the industrial bureau was. employers 1,181, 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



209 



employees 918. a total of 2,049. Situations were 
foond for 488 persons. The parish house at 211 
West One Hundred and Thirtieth street, rented for 
this purpose, accommodates the day nursery and the 
liodergarten. provides apartments for the matron 
and helpers and a few rooms as lodgings for women, 
the price per week being but $1. 50. A reading club 
and a stenographic class are also doing a useful work 
among the young people." 



THE "PASTORES" OF MEXICX). 

EACH year during Christmas week and on the day 
of the Epiphany groups of Mexican ** shep- 
herds " act a semi-sacred play on the border of the 
Bio Granda As described by Cordelia Fisk Brod- 
hent in the Oulf Messenger, this play is suggestive 
of Oberanunergau. No printed copy is known to 
exist, the words having been handed down from one 
generation to another without transcription, but 
copious notes have been taken by the managers and 
actors, and it is on these notes that the Qulf Mes- 
wiger^B account is based. 

Besides Mary and Joseph the chief characters in 
the play are the angels, Michael and Gabriel, and 
Prince Lucifer. Satan is presented as a distinct 
personage from Lucifer, serving as one of that po- 
tentate's three attendant imps. 

THE IMPS OF DARKNESS. 

" There is a commanding form with dress of sable 
hne. He wears knee breeches with large buckles 
At the sides, hunting boots, a round cloak over his 
shonlders. and a black cap with two black plumes. 
A few spots of gilt illumine this sombre attire, and 
at his side a sword hangs in its scabbard. He wears 
a black mask with face of a lion, and two long horns 
protrude from under his cap. This is Prince Luci 
fer, with his imps Satan (Satamui), Sin (Pecador) 
md Leviathan (Leviatan). These imps are in 
sombre black, nothing relieving its intenseness. and 
with the exception of Satan, who is sometimes bur- 
dened with a very long tail made entirely of fire 
crackers, their suits are exactly alike. This tail of 
Satan's is set on fire when Lucifer and his imps are 
banished from earth (a ludicrous imitation of thun- 
der, smoke and sulphur). '* 

Toe story of Lucifer's plots and defeat, of the 
journeying of the shepherds to Bethelehem, g^ded 
by the star in the east, and of their adoration of the 
Christ child in the manger, is all quite in line with 
the traditions common in other lands. The acting, 
it is said, is very crude ; the enunciation of the lines 
is in chant or monologue ; the singing is harmoni- 
ous. 

One of the prominent characters of the play is an 
*ged hermit, who joins the shepherds on their jour- 
^y. He becomes the clown of the company, and 
there are many wordy disputations between Lucifer 
*nd this hermit. 



THIRTY YEARS OF THE PEABODY EDUCATION 
FUND. 

PRESIDENT DANIEL C. OILMAN of the Johns 
Hopkins University contributes to the Atlan- 
tic a review of the workings of the Peabody Educa- 
tion Fund since its establishment in 1867. He finds 
its greatest influence for good not so much in the 
amounts actually expended as in the ** stimulus given 
to local efforts for the promotion of public instruc- 
tion. " The trustees to whom the administration of 
this fund has been entrusted were "men who had 
been tried in public life and who had been accus- 
tomed to look at the interests of the country in their 
broad aspects, not with provincial or sectional jeal- 
ousy.*' 

*' The published papers of the fund contain in- 
numerable tributes to its value. The United States 
Commissioner of Education says that the wisdom 
displayed in the administration of the fund * could 
not be surpassed in the history of endowments.' 
The State Superintendent in Virginia writes these 
words: * Your work is the inspiration of public edu- 
cation in the South. It has no x>arallel in history. ' 
From Louisiana we have this comprehensive tribute : 
* We can think of no part of our public school system 
which has not been warmed into life, nursed and 
developed by Peabody counsel and financial aid.' " 

President Oilman draws some interesting conclu- 
sions as regards public benefactions from the re- 
sults which have been attained by this work. He 
considers the principal points brought out to be : 

** The value of broad, comprehensive, far reach- 
ing views, as distinguished from temporary, provin- 
cial or personal preferences. 

" The services that may be secured for the ad- 
minstration of a great fund, without compensation, 
from men of the highest character and of great ex- 
perience in the conduct of affairs. 

** The wisdom of concentrating authority in the 
hands of a single, strong, sensible executive officer, 
who is to be held responsible for the application of 
general pinciples to particular cases. 

" The advantage of bestowing gifts in such a way 
as to encourage, and not supersede, outlays and 
efforts on the parts of the recipients. 

" The possibility of securing good will among 
those who have been estranged from one another, 
by enlisting both sides- in the promotion of special 
measures for the public welfare." 

To show what remarkable evidences we have of 
the good that has been accomplished, President Oil- 
man quotes these statistics : ** In 1870 the white 
illiterates of twelve Southern States were 25 per 
cent., now they are 16. The colored illiterates 
diminished in the same period from 87 to 62 per 
cent. Virginia in 1870 did not have 51,000 pupils in 
public schools ; now there are 356,000. In 1870 the 
revenues of public instruction in Georgia were 
$432,283 ; in 1894 they were more than quadrupled. 
Texas reported in 1871 $136,097 as the total fund 
available for public schools ; in 1894-95 almost 
$2,000,000.*' 



210 



THE REI/IEIV OF REI^IEIVS. 



HENRY BARNARD, THE PUBLIC SCHOOL 
PIONEER. 

AMERICAN educators have united during the 
past month to do honor to the venerable 
Henry Barnard of Hartford, on the occasion of his 
eighty-sixth birthday (January 24). Dr. Barnard's 
name is linked with that of Horace Mann in the 
history of the great free-school revival which began 
sixty years ago. and which led to such marked re- 
sults throughout the country and the world. 

The story of Dr. Barnard's life has been told by 
Mr. James L. Hughes in the New England Magazine 
for July, 1896. It seems that Dr. Barnard was 
trained for the bar, but circumstances caused him 
to leave that profession very early and to devote his 
life to education. He first became distinguished as 
an orator, and having been elected to the Connecti- 
cut Legislature he secured by his eloquence the pas- 
sage of a law which revolutionized the school system 
of the state. 

** His wonderful power of impromptu 8i)eaking 
developed rapidly with experience and ripened 
scholarship, until he became one of the most attract- 
ive and convincing orators of America during his 
prime. After a speech of two hours, delivered at 
Barre. Mass., at the request of Horace Mann, to 
arouse popular enthusiasm in favor of a graded sys- 
tem of public schools, Mr. Mann said : * If you will 
deliver that speech in ten places in Massachusetts, I 
will give you a thousand dollars.' This was before 
the era of the lyceum bureau, and shows Mr. Mann's 
estimate of the effect of Mr. Barnard's ability as an 
orator in dealing with what was then considered, as 
it is still too often considered, to be an uninteresting 
subject 

*' His speech in the Connecticut Legislature, when 
he introduced the Education bill of 1888, was such a 
masterly effort that on motion of Roger Minot Sher- 
man, the senior mentber of the House and the most 
eminent lawyer in the state, the rules of the House 
were suspended in order to admit of immediate ac- 
tion on the biU. It passed by the unanimous vote 
of both Houses of the leg^islature, although a similar 
bill drawn and advocated by Mr. Sherman was re- 
jected only a few years before." 

Dr. Barnard was also influential in obtaining im- 
proved school legislation in Rhode Island in 1848, 
and from that time on his services were in demand 
everywhere. 

** His reputation as an orator spread rapidly 
throughout the United States. Before he was 
thirty-three years of age he had lectured on educa- 
tional questions in every state then in the Union 
except Texas, and everywhere his lectures produced 
a deep impression. They usually had a direct influ- 
ence on the organization of state or city school sys- 
jtems. He must always stand alone as the great 
educational missionary of America." 

AN EDUCATIONAL STATESMAN. 

Dr. Barnard for many years held important educa- 
tional positions in various states. From the educa- 



tional orator and missionary was developed the great 
educational organizer. In 1867 he became United 
States Commissioner of Education — ^the first to fill 
that office. 

'* It was fitting that the man who had done most 
to organize the state and city school system of the* 
United States, who had conducted the first County 
Teachers' Institute on lines similar to the present 
summer schools, who had championed the cause of 
woman by demanding for her equal educational 
privileges with man as a student and as a teacher, 
who had established the first state system of libra- 
ries, who was the first to propose a national organi- 
zation of teachers, and who had published moro 
educational literature than any other man in the 
history of the world, should be the first Commis- 
sioner of Education appointed by the government 
of the United States. He remained four years in 
Washington. He organized the Bureau of Educa 
tion, and issued four reports of a very yaluablo 
character. It is a striking fact, revealing the con- 
structive character of Dr. Barnard's mind, that in 
the first report he advocated nearly every educa- 
tional reform that has since been introduced into 
the United States." 

DB. BARNARD'S LTTERABT LABORS. 

But official reports formed a comparatively small 
part of Dr. Barnard's contribution to educational lit- 
erature. As editor of the American Journal of Edu- 
cation and •ther educational periodicals. Dr. Barnard 
performed a service which has never been fully ai>- 
preciated by his contemporaries. 

" The thirty- one volumes of his American Journal 
of Education and the fifty-two volumes of the 
Library of Education form the most complete cydo- 
pesdia of education ever issued. Every phase of 
educational work is treated exhaustively in these 
worka The Westminster Review, in sx>eaking of the 
Journal of Education, said : ' England has as yet 
nothing in the same field worthy of comparison 
with it ; ' and the Encydopasdia Britannica says : 
* The Journal is by far the most valuable work in 
our language on the history of education.* When 
Dr. Harris wrote to R. H. Quick, the great English 
educator, that it was probable the plates of the pub- 
lications would be melted, Mr. Quick replied : * I 
would as soon hear that there was talk of pulling 
down one of our English cathedrals and selling the 
stones for building material* 

" In addition to the Journal and Library of Edu- 
cation, he edited the Connecticut School Journal for 
eight years (1838 42 and 1851-54), three volumes of 
the Journal of Rhode Island Institute of Instruc- 
tion, seven volumes of Papers for Teachers in Wis- 
consin, and over eight hundred tracts on educational 
topics. In doing so he spent out of his private for- 
tune more than $40,000." 

Dr. Barnard and the Kindergarten. 

The Kindergarten Magazine for January has an 
article by Will S. Monroe, showing that in his lon^ 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



211 



and honored career this *' Qrand Old Man '* of 
American edncational progrress has done his part to 
advance the cause of the kindergarten. 

" He was the sole American representative at the 
educational congress and exhibit held in London in 
1854, where Froebers system was for the first time 
broQght to the prominent attention of the English 
world, and he was so favorably impressed with its 
promise that on his return to America he published 
IB his Journal of Education (July. 1856) an article 
entitled * FroebePs System of Infant Ghirdens/ So 
far as I have been able to learn, this is the first ac- 
coont of the kindergarten to appear in any Ameri- 
can journal. 

*'In his Americim Journal of Education, that 
great encyclopflediaof*)iQdagogical lore, not less than 
a score of important articte» on Froebel and the kin- 
dergarten appeared between 1856 and 1881. Among 
these may be mentioned : Wimmer's accotmt of 
Ppoebel*s work, Joseph Payne's lecture on the kin- 
dergarten system, Miss Wheelock's translation of 
Froebers letters to the Duke of Meiningen, Dr! 
Harris' address on the kindergarten in the public 
schools, Mme. Claverie's account of her visits to 
German kindergartens, essays on the mother-play 
and nursery songs by Miss Blow, and frequent arti- 
cles by Miss Peabody and Mrs. Mann. One has but 
to turn over the pages of these thirty one great vol- 
mnes to realize how deep was Dr. Btunard's interest 
in the kindergarten movement. 

** In 1880 he published his great volume of eight 
hmtdred pages on ' Kindergarten and Child Culture, * 
one of the most considerable treatments of the prin- 
ciplee and methods of Froebel to be found in the 
English language. Writing to Miss Peabody and 
soliciting her co-operation in the publication of this 
work, he says : ' I propose to do more than I have 
done as publisher in any one year since 1888 for the 
elucidation of child culture, and particularly of the 
kindergarten as devised by Froebel and developed 
by himeelf and others who have acted in his spirit 
and after his methods.* 

** The contents of this volume are too well known 
to kindergartners to require even mention here. 
The book has long ranked as a classic, and Dr. 
Barnard has earned, if he has not received in the 
foDeet measure, the gratitude of every kindergart- 
ntf. Aside from his literary labors may be men- 
tioned his interest in the efforts to expand kinder 
garten education and his personal friendships with 
the leading kindergartners of the country. The 
writer recalls with pleasure the zeal with which Pr. 
Barnard passed about among the educational exhib- 
its at Chicago four years ago, and his 8i)ecial inter- 
est in Uie kindergarten exhibits. * ' 

Dr. Barnard at eighty-six is an inspiring example 
to American educationists. His birthday was the 
occasion of many public school celebrations through- 
out the country. It is said that Dr. Barnard still 
lisei at five o'clock every morning, and does the 
Kreatsr part of his reading and writing (which is 
considerable) before breakfast. 



INTERCOLLEGIATE DEBATING. 

ONE of the victorious debaters in the Harvard- 
Yale contest of 1895. Mr. Ralph C. Ringwalt, 
tells in the Forum how intercollegiate debating is 
now conducted. The growth of interest in this 
form of contest since 1892, when the first Harvard- 
Yale debate was held, has been marked and continu- 
ous. There is now a triangular intercollegiate de- 
bating league between Yale, Harvard and Prince- 
ton, while dual leagues have been formed between 
the University of Pennsylvania and Cornell, and 
between Leland Stanford, Jr., University and the 
University of California ; debates are held, too. 
between universities and colleges which have not 
entered into league relatioiiships with one an 
other. Thus the University ot Michigan has de- 
bated with the University of Wisconsin, the North- 
western University and the University of Chicago ; 
Williams and Dartmouth last year had their first 
meeting of the kind. 

The rules of procedure, or what Mr. Ringwalt 
calls ** the mechanics of the debates." for the Har- 
. vard- Yale-Princeton league were adopted last May. 
'* It was then decided that, in the future, the de- 
bates should consist of three speeches of twelve min- 
utes on each side and three speeches in rebuttal of 
five minutes on each side. The subject for the de- 
bate must be submitted by the home college at least 
seven weeks before the meeting is to take place, 
and the choice of sides, which is always the privi- 
lege of the visiting college, must be made within 
two weeks after the subject has been received. 
The list of judges, which is to contain the name of 
no graduate of either institution contesting, must 
be submitted by the home college at least six weeks 
before the debate, and must be returned by the visit- 
ing college, with any objection noted, within one 
week. The judges so chosen must decide upon the 
merits of the debate without regard to the merits 
of the question." 

CHOICE OP TOPICS AND SPKAKRR8. 

Under the present system the opposing college 
has the choice of sides ; hence the first concern in 
selecting a question for debate is that it shall have 
two sides as nearly equal as may be. The question 
must also have an interest for the public. 

** Last year, for example, when the currency and 
the Venezuelan boundary dispute were the chief 
subjects of political interest, Harvard and Prince- 
ton debated the retiring of the greenbacks, and Har- 
vard and Yale an international board of arbitration. 
Princeton and Yale discussed a topic of perhaps less 
immediate interest, but by no means an unimportant 
one— referendum of State legislation In preceding 
years, immigration, railroad pooling, protection and 
free trade, the annexation of Canada, party alle- 
giance in politics, the Cabineut in Congress, labor 
organizations, and a property qualification for mu- 
nicipal suffrage have all been debated." 

When thQ question has been selected and the sides 



212 



THE REP^IEIV OF REP^IEIVS. 



chosen, some kind of preliminary debate is held, 
perhaps between disputants already chosen as the 
result of society debates, to determine the final selec- 
tion of debaters to represent the college. In this 
matter capacity for hard work becomes an important 
factor, as Mr. Ringwalt explains. 

THE LABOR OF PKBPABATION. 

** On the day after the final preliminary contest 
the hard work begins. The debaters set about read- 
ing at once. They find little use in talking. From 
his preliminary work each man lias derived a differ- 
ent idea as to how the question should be treated, 
and it is beyond his power to bring the others to his 
position. So the first thing is to get a common 
ground, and this can 1i)e had only by hard reading. 
Usually a bibliography of books, pamphlets and 
articles is prepared and divided among the debaters. 
Each man is instructed to look into everything on 
his list, to read what is pertinent, and to take notes 
and report to the others all that has especial value. 
When this has been done the general outlines of 
the question begin to be discussed. Next comes the 
making of the brief — ^in which each debater, since 
he may have to defend an attack on any part of it, 
must have a share — and the partition of the subject. 
The first part of the debate is usually given to a 
man who has a clear head for exposition and is a 
graceful speaker ; he must get the question before 
the audience clearly and in such a way as to win 
their sympathy. To the second speaker is given 
the brunt of the argumentation ; he presents the 
argument so far as time permits him. The last 
speech always goes to the best man, the most facile 
in rebuttal: he takes up that part of the argument 
which the second speaker has failed to touch upon, 
and in general strengthens the case wherever he 
can. After the divisions have been made each man 
turns to the preparation of his own particular part. 
He determines the points he will bring up, the evi- 
dence he will introduce under each, and the order. 
He may write his speech out and learn portions of 
it, or the brief may be the final form ; this will de- 
pend upon his method as a speaker. When the 
parts have been put into some kind of shape, a 
week or ten days before the contest, by far the 
most exhilarating part of the preparation begins — 
the practice debates. Old debaters, graduate stu- 
dents, all men, in fact, who have any knowledge of 
the topic and who are willing, are called in to speak 
against the contestants. Meetings are held every 
day. different assignments being made, although 
the old debaters are usually on hand each afternoon. 
The contestants speak in the order they are to have 
at the debate, while the outsiders take the place 
of the visiting team, and try to present such argu 
ments as they will offer. There is also constant 
criticism by all present of the most unsparing kind. 
The least misstatement, the slightest tendency to 
be dry or verbose or to miss a point, is caught up, 
and the attention of the speaker called to it. This 



is exasperating at first, almost discouraging ; but it 
is salutary discipline. For, as a result, when the 
men go on to the platform for the debate, their 
knowledge of the question and the best way to state 
it is well nigh perfect. They are masters of them- 
selves and of their whole line of proof." 

So much for the preliminary training. We doubt 
whether the general public has had any idea that 
college students ever work so hard at anything^ 
outside of athletics. As for the merits of the de- 
bate itself, they will never lack recognition in 
America. *' The give and take, the sharpening of 
wits, the demand fur cool heads and keen minds.** 
are all the more indispensable in the intercollegiate 
debate, as Mr. Ringwalt pointa out 



OUR POPULAR SONGS. 

MR. WILLIAM GEORGE JORDAN traces out 
in the Lcuiies' Home Journal the origins of a 
number of our most popular songs, and discloses 
many facts of interest relating to these well known 
melodies. 

*' * Yankee Doodle * is claimed by many nations. 
It was known in England as ' Nankee Doodle ' in 
the time of Charles I. The Hollanders had an old 
song to this air called * Yanker DudeL ' It is said 
to be also an old French vintage song, a native 
Htmgarian air, and the ancient music of the sword 
dance of the Biscayans. In June, 1755, Dr Richard 
Schuckburgh, regimental surgeon under General 
Braddock, thought to play a joke on the ragged, 
tattered Continentals by palming off the * Naiikee 
Doodle * of the time of Cromwell uiK>n the Colonial 
soldiers as the latest martial music. It at once be- 
came popular, but a quarter of a century later the 
joke seemed turned when the Continental bands 
played this same * Yankee Doodle * as Lord Com- 
wallis marched out after surrendering his army, his 
sword and the English colonies in America to the 
Yankees.*' 

** * God Save the King ' (or Queen), the English 
national anthem, has been the subject of endless 
discussion. It is believed to have been originally a 
Jacobite song, referring to James IL, *the King 
over the water.' The words * Send him victorious' 
imply that the King intended was not the one already 
in England, but the one far away, to whom the 
singers were loyal in his evil f orttmes. It is believed 
to have been written originally by Henry Carey, 
author of * Sally in Our Alley,' who lived in six 
reigns." 

* * * La Marseillaise, ' the national anthem of France. 
which seems to be saturated with the frenzy of 
patriotism, was written at white heat, words and 
music, in a single night. Rouget de Lisle, who by 
a single song won literary immortality, was a young 
officer of engineers at Strasburg. In 1792 Dietrich, 
the Mayor of the town, asked him to write a martial 
song to be sung on the departure of six himdi^ed vol- 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



213 



vnteera to the Army of the Rhme. That night, in 
the fervor of patriotic feeling, De Lisle composed 
the song, the words sometimes coming before the 
music, sometimes the mnsic before the words. He 
Bang the words and mnsic as they came to him, bnt 
wrote nothing. On the morning following the chant 
of the night came back like the memory of a dream* 
He then wrote down the words, made the notes of 
the mnsic, carried it to Dietrich, and in an honr the 
listening assemblage knew that the song of the 
nation had come. '* 

'"Marching Throngh Georgia,' the favorite of 
miUtary bands, and sometimes called ' The Ameri- 
can Marseillaise,' was written in Chicago, in 1865, 
by Henry C. Work, a remarkable song writer. He 
was a printer, and often composed the words of a 
song at the * case,' as he set np the tyx>e, and then if 
he had access to mnsic type he wonld also comx>06e 
in his mind and set np the mnsic, these pieces seldom 
requiring more than two or three alterationa 
* Marching Throngh Georgia' was thns composed 
without ever being put in manuscript. Mr. Work 
wrote 'Wake, Nicodemns,' /Father, Dear Father, 
Come Home.' * Loss of the Lady Elgin,' and, among 
two or three hundred others, * My Grandfather's 
Clock,' which brought him a handsome return." 

•* * Oomin' Thro' the Rye ' is an old Scotch song, 
retouched by Robert Bums. It refers to the fording 
of the little River Rye, where it was the custom of the 
lads to demand kisses as toll from the lasses they 
met on the stepping-stones in crossing the stream." 

'**Home, Sweet Home' was written by John 
Howard Payne, an American and a homeless wan- 
derer and exile. He was an actor for a time, and 
then turned playwright, being the author of more 
than sixty dramas. In '1823 Charles Eemble, man- 
ager of Covent Gkirden Theatre, London, bought 
from Payne a number of plays, and among them 
was one entitled * Clari, the Maid of Milan.' In 
extreme jwverty, in an attic in Paris, Payne received 
an order to alter the play into an opera. He did so, 
and wrote this song. It was an instant success. The 
prima donna won a rich man for a husband, the 
paUisher of the song made $10,000 in two years, the 
author received fame— but no money for the song." 

*' * Listen to the Mocking Bird ' was written by 
Septimus Winner, in 1855, under his pen-name, 
'Alice Hawthorne.' It was composed for Dick 
MUbum, a colored man who wandered about Phila- 
delphia whistling like a mocking bird. It at once 
oatight the public ear and, paid its publishers over 
1100.000." 

" * Ben Bolt.' revived by * Trilby,' the late George 
du Maurier's heroine, was written by Dr. Thomas 
Dunn English, in 1843, for the New York * Mirror.' 
at the request of N. P. Willis, who wanted a sea 
wng. Dr. English could think of only one sea line, 
•Ben Bolt of the salt sea gale,' the last line of his 
poem; he made it the foundation and constructed 
the verses on this base. In * The Battle of Buena 
Viata,' performed in Pittsburg in 1848, the song was 



introduced to an air. adapted by Nelson Eneass from 
a German melody." 

" 'Old Folks at Home,' of which over 400,000 
copies have been sold, was written by Stephen C. 
Foster, who wrote nearly three hundred songs, 
words and music. E. P. Christy, of minstrel fame, 
paid $400 for the privilege of having his name put 
forth as its author and composer upon a single 
edition. The song is commonly known as 'The 
Suwanee River,' and is a favorite the world over." 

•* * My Old Kentucky Home ' is said to have been 
suggested to Stephen C. Foster on hearing an old 
negro speak with love and longing of his old home 
in Kentucky. Several of Mr. Foster's best songs 
were composed on pieces of brown wrapping-paper, 
in the back room of a little grocery store in New 
York," 



"BEN BOLT" AND ITS AUTHOR. 

THERE is a too prevalent impression, says Mr. 
Arthur Howard Noll in the Midland Monthly, 
that '* Ben Bolt " is the only, or at least the chief, 
contribution of its distinguished liuthor to litera- 
ture. While Mr. Noll cites abundant evidence to 
correct this impression, he shows at the same time 
that popular interest in the old song has never died- 
out Indeed, Du Maurier's ** Trilby " was not the 
first modem novel in which ** Ben Bolt " had a part. 
In G^eorge W. Cable's ** Dr. Sevier " Mary begins to 
sing the song in her evening walk with John Rich- 
ling, and later she is overheard by Dr. Sevier sing- 
ing the first verse when she is busily engaged at her 
washtub. Before the apx>earance of Mr. Cable's 
story, however, an English novelist had made the 
singing of ** Ben Bolt " the incident which brought 
about the reconcilialjion of lovers. 

Dr. Thomas Dunn English, the author of " Ben 
Bolt." was bom in Philadelphia, June 19, 1819. He 
studied both medicine and law, practiced the for- 
mer, and early entered on a literary career. 

"He had written for Paulson* a Advertiser and 
other Philadelphia journals at the age of sixteen or 
seventeen, and he was already recognized as a writer 
of promise when, in 1843, N. P. Willis —having vnth 
George P. Morris revived the New York Mirror — 
wrote to the young medical practitioner who was 
pursuing literature as a pastime, asking for a sea 
song which he thought would help the new literary 
venture along. In compliance vnth this request. 
Dr. English wrote several lines of the intended * sea 
song,' and then concluded that * the mantle of Dib- 
din had not fallen on him.' Subsequently, falling 
into a reminiscent mood, he produced four stanzas 
and a half, to which he added the first four lines of 
the discarded * sea song.' and * Ben Bolt * was com- 
plete. It was sent to Willis with a note telling him 
to bum it if it did not suit him. and that the writer 
would send him something better when more in 
vein. No title was given to it, and the author 



214 



THE REyiEW OF REyiElVS. 



signed his initials only. It was published with a 
commendatory note in the New York New Mirror ot 
September 25. 1848. 

*• Such is the oft-told story of how * Ben Bolt ' was 
written. Almost immediately it became popular all 
over the United States and Canada, and was copied 
(without credit) in papers in England. 

** It may be urged that the continuous popularity 
of the old song has been due to the exquisite melody 
to which it is now wedded ; yet the words took hold 
of the i>opular heart at once. The tune now in- 
variably suggests to the mind of the hearer the 
words of the old song. Perhaps the melody would 
never have gained a wider hearing had it been adapt- 
ed to any other words. Such matters are hard to 
decide. It was in 1846 that an English bam-stormer, 
having seen the lines in an English newspaper, re- 
cited them to a yoimg actor named Nelson Eneass. 
Kneass was in need of a song, and promptly adapted 
a German air to this song and sung it in Pittsburg, 
in a melodrama called the * Battle of Buena Vista.' 

'* It made a * hit ' at once, and the musical version 
was published by rival publishers, who had a law- 
suit over the copyright." 

Dr. English was subsequently engaged in the edi- 
torship of various neswpapers and magazines in 
New York City and Washington, and wrote many 
novels and poems. It is probably true that his work 
has not received due recognition. 

'' So far from his title to the name of x>oet being 
dependent upon the old song.'* says Mr. Noll, "it 
is probably safe to say that Dr. English's fame as a 
I)oet would have been far greater to-day had he 
never written Ben Bolt ' It is one of the pranks Fame 
occasionally plays upon her wooers, to accord to 
a certain work such a degree of popularity as to 
cause it to overshadow work of far greater merit. 
Thus has it been with Dr. English A score of 
poems might be selected from the immense number 
of his contributions to the poetry o